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1 Dunning

2 Dunning OLI Dunning OLI OLI

3 FDIForeign Direct Investment Dunning OLI OLI ParadigmDunning OLI Ownership-Specific Advantages

4 Location Specific Advantages Internationalization Incentive Advantages

5 OLI O I L Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Dunnig p. Dunning OLI OLI OLI Narula (Natural assets)

6 (Created assets) Narula Porter

7 Porter Porter Industrial Cluster Rugman Porter

8 Narula Narulap.

9 FDI FDI FDI FDI

10 Dunning OLI OLI

11 Dunning OLI Dunnig FDI FDI FDI FDI FDI FDI FDI FDI FDI FDI FDI M&A FDI FDI Dunning and Lundanpp.- FDI FDI

12 FDI FDI FDI FDI OLI FDI FDI

13

14

15 OLI OLI Kuemmerle Medcof OLI OLI

16 OLI OLI Narula

17 Kuemmerle Kuemmerle

18

19 FDI

20 FDI

21 FDI

22 OLI OLI Dunningpp. Narulap. Porter. Porter. Rugmanpp. Narulap. Dunningp. Dunningpp. Kuemmerle.pp. Medcof.p. Kuemmerlepp. Kuemmerlepp.

23 A. Rugman (2001), The generalized double diamond approach to the global competitiveness of Korea and Singapore, in D. Van Den Bulcke, A. Verbeke Globalization and Small Open Economy the,elgar, Cheltenham. Dunning. J.H. (1981) International Production and Multinational Enterprises. London: Allen and Unwin. Dunning. J.H. and Lundan. S.M, Multinational (2008) Enterprises and the Global Economy (2nd ed.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenham Kuemmerle, W. (1997) Building Effective R&D Capabilities Abroad, Harvard Business Review 75(2) Kuemmerle, W. (1999) Foreign Direct investment in industrial research in the pharmaceutical and electronics industries: results from a survey of multinationals, Research Policy 28(2-3) Medcof, J.W. (1997) A taxonomy of internationally dispersed technology units and its application to management issues R&D Management 27(4) Narula, R. (1996) Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Structure. London: Routledge Porter, M.E. (1998) On Competition, Harvard Business School Press. ) ASEANNIEs Vol. () () FDI

24 The Regional Characteristics of a Foreign Research & Development Center From the Perspective of the Specific Advantages of Location Toshihiro Hatakeyama Abstract This paper considers the causes of the regional characteristics of a foreign R&D center from the perspective of the development of the specific advantages of location. Recently, when many foreign R&D centers were established by MNE, regional characteristics existed. In order to analyze the regional characteristics of FDI, I apply the concept of the specific advantage of location (L-advantages) which Dunning presented. L-advantages influence the determination of FDI. L-advantages are natural assets-e.g., abundant natural resources and a supply of cheap unskilled workers, and creative assets-e.g., high-skilled labour, and the supporting industry and the development of industrial clusters. In the concept of L-advantages, it is important that L-advantages develop through an interaction with ownership specific advantages (O-advantages). L-advantages change through the interactions of the strategy of MNE and the policy of the host country government. In order to analyze the regional characteristics of FDI, it is necessary to pay attention to the relationship between L-advantages and O-advantages. There are four points about the relationship in the establishment of foreign R&D centers and L-advantages. (1) The influence of L-advantages differs depending on the kind of foreign R&D center. (2) The development of L-advantages is important to the development of industrial cluster. (3) The development of L-advantages has an interaction with O-advantages. (4) The training of engineers and the maintenance of a technology-oriented cluster are important as an attraction policy. It is thought that the regional characteristics of a foreign R&D center has occurred as a consequence of the differences in these factors. Keywords R&D, regional characteristics, Own specific advantages, specific advantages of location, industrial cluster Correspondence totoshihiro Hatakeyama Graduate School of Business Administration, Ritsumeikan University Nojihigashi Kusatsu-city, Shiga Japan

平成12年度 対日直接投資増加の理由と日本経済にもたらす影響に関する調査 第2章 対日投資と多国籍企業の戦略について

平成12年度 対日直接投資増加の理由と日本経済にもたらす影響に関する調査 第2章 対日投資と多国籍企業の戦略について OLI 2-1. 2-1-1. 10% 2-1-2. 20 Hymer 1960 1 2 2 1 Vernon 1966 Smith 1987 Jacquemin 1985 21 Buckley & Casson 1976 Teece 1977 arm s-length internalize 2-1-3. OLI 40 OLI Dunning 1979 2 OLI 3 O: Ownership specific

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