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4 996 Start SK-I Accident Partial Reconstruction SK-II Full reconstruction ( SK-III ( ),46 (40%) 5,8 (9%),9 (40%) 5MeV 7MeV 4MeV(plan) ν ν ν L/E KK

5 PMT signal QTC amp Discri.(CFD) hit timing charge Trigger FPGA multihit-tdc FIFO ATLAS-TDC ATLAS-TDC 3gain x 3ch QTCchip+

6

7

8 = Proton = Neutron

9

10 The neutrino is observed by seeing the product of its interaction with matter. Electron neutrino ν e Electron (e) Muon neutrino ν µ Muon (µ) The products are charged particles.

11 Water Cherenkov Detector Light emission from a charged particle Cherenkov radiation

12 Super-Kamiokande Run 5704 Event :07:4:39 Inner: 3397 hits, 757 pe Outer: 0 hits, 0 pe (in-time) Trigger ID: 0x07 D wall: cm FC e-like, p = 93. MeV/c Charge(pe) > νe N e + N + (X) < 0. Super-Kamiokande Run 396 Sub 5 Ev :5:3:9 Inner: 887 hits, 9607 pe Outer: hits, 0 pe (in-time) Trigger ID: 0x03 D wall: cm FC mu-like, p = 33.6 MeV/c Charge(pe) > Super-Kamiokande Run 87 Sub Ev :0:06:46 Inner: 30 hits, 754 pe Outer: hits, 0 pe (in-time) Trigger ID: 0x03 D wall: 95.5 cm Fully-Contained Mode Charge(pe) > < Times (ns) νµ + N µ + N + (X) νµ + N µ + N + π + (X) < Electron-like ring muon-like ring 0 categolized as categolized as 840 (diffused ring) (sharp edge) -ring e-like event (νe CC enriched sample) -ring 560 µ-like event 80 (νµ CC enriched sample) Times (ns) categolized as 660 multi-ring 440 event 0 (Additional cut for oscillation analyses) Times (ns)

13 Super-Kamiokande SK JPARC

14

15

16 ν ( e ) = ν µ ν τ ( ν α ) = ( ν cosθ β U e U µ ( Uτ U e U µ U τ U e3 U µ3 U τ3) ν ( ) ν ν 3 sinθ ) ν -sinθ cosθ ν P(ν α ν β ) = sin θ sin (.7 m L/E) m = m -m (ev ) L (km): E (GeV): ( )

17 > > = > > cos sin sin cos ν ν θ θ θ θ ν ν µ e (0) (0) (0) ) ( (0) ) ( = > < = > < > >= ν ν ν ν ν ν ie t ie t ie t e e t e t E m p m m m p m p E E = = + + = ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] t E E e e e e e e t P e e t t E E i t E E i t ie ie t t ie ie t e e t ie ie t ) cos( sin cos sin cos sin cos sin (0) sin (0) cos (0) cos (0) sin (0) ) ( ) ( (0) cos (0) sin ) ( ) ( ) ( = = + = > > + < + < = > = < > + > >= θ θ θ θ θ θ θ ν θ ν θ ν θ ν θ ν ν ν ν ν θ ν θ ν µ µ µ

18

19 θ m

20

21 Proton, He π π π π µ e νµ νe νµ Super-Kamiokande

22 Super-K θ Number of Events ν µ ν τ cos Multi-GeV µ-like + PC ντ νµ cosθ

23 L/E Data/Prediction (null oscillation) L/E (km/gev) Best fit expectation w/ systematic errors νµ νµ νµ νµ)

24 νe νµ ντ ν3 νµ~ ντ~ νe~0?

25 ν µ J-PARC 0.75MW 50GeV PS Kamioka Tokai

26 From Linac to 3 GeV 3 GeV Extraction Point From 3 GeV to Materials and Life Middle of Linac Tunnel JPARC Neutrino Tunnel Upstream of Linac Tunnel Tunnel Tour 50 GeV Tunnel

27 TK TK construction SK full rebuild Linac MR April 009 Full power ν commissioning Possible upgrade in future First results 4MW J-PARC + Hyper-K ( Mt water Cherenkov)

28 νµ ντ

29

30 Quark+lepton GeV

31 p u u d X + e d d π 0 Γ=0 35 minimal SU(5) minimal SUSY SU(5) Super-K SUSY SO(0) ( )

32 SK-III p e + π 0 Super-Kamiokande Run Event :00:06:35 Inner: 3849 hits, 889 pe Outer: 4 hits, pe (in-time) Trigger ID: 0x03 D wall: 946. cm FC, mass = MeV/c^ Charge(pe) > < 0. e + γ γ Times (ns)

33 SN987a

34

35 Kamiokande IMB (~3 x 0 53 erg)

36 Neutrino flux and energy spectrum from Livermore simulation (T.Totani, K.Sato, H.E.Dalhed and J.R.Wilson, ApJ.496,6(998)) 5MeV threshold ~7,300 ν e +p events ~300 ν+e events (-) ~00 ν e + 6 O events for 0 kpc supernova

37 Time profile of the explosion SN at 0kpc Expected number of events in parentheses Neutrino oscillations are not taken into account here.

38 events/bin Energy = 5-0 MeV ν+e events/bin Energy = 0-0 MeV ν+e SN at 0kpc events/bin cos(θ SN ) 60 Energy = 0-30 MeV νe+p ν+e νe+p events/bin cos(θ SN ) 40 0 νe+p cos(θ SN ) 5 Energy = MeV.5 0 ν+e νe+p cos(θ SN )

39 Figure from S.Ando

40 Neutrino Flux per sq-cm per second per MeV Reactor ν Solar 8 B Solar hep Population synthesis (Totani et al., 996) Constant SN rate (Totani et al., 996) Cosmic gas infall (Malaney, 997) Cosmic chemical evolution (Hartmann et al., 997) Heavy metal abundance (Kaplinghat et al., 000) LMA ν oscillation (Ando et al., 00) Atmospheric ν Neutrino Energy (MeV) ~0-30MeV)

41

42 Super-K kton Hyper-K 540kton detectors 48m 50m 50m, Total mass = Mton

43 comparison of data and MC in p e p + π 0 search

44

45 tokyo.ac.jp

46 π SK-I (489 SK-II (804 >8.4 x 0 33

47 ? m ν = m quark,lepton m R GeV

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