Japanese Journal of Applied Psychology

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1 Japanese Journal of Applied Psychology 2018, Vol. 43, No. 3, * ** Factors of Interest in Young Children among University Students: The Influences of Contact Experience with Infants, Internal Working Model, and Other-Consciousness Takashi OUGIHARA* and Kayoko UEMURA** Factors determining university students interest in young children were investigated. It was hypothesizing that experience of contact with infants, internal working models (IWM), and other-consciousness would determine interest. A questionnaire survey was conducted with university students (n 229) to test this hypothesis. Multiple regression analysis indicated that experience of contact with infants during elementary school days and internal-other-consciousness increased interest in young children. On the other hand, an evasive IWM decreased interest. Subsequently, multiple regression analysis was conducted based on gender, which indicated that in men, experience of contact with infants during elementary school days increased interest, whereas in women, such an experience increased interest regardless of the period of con-tact. Moreover, in men, an ambivalent IWM increased sympathy among subscales of interest in young children, whereas in women, a stable IWM increased interest. Furthermore, in men, high imaginal-other-consciousness increased interest, whereas in women, high internal-other-consciousness increased interest. Factors determining interest in young children were discussed from the perspective of gender differences. key words: interest in young children, contact experience with infants, internal working model, other-consciousness, university students Lorenz (1943) Lorenz (1943) baby schema Kindchenschema (Fullard & Reiling, * The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, Nukuikita-machi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo , Japan ** Bunkyo Gakuin University, Faculty of Human Studies, 1196 Kamekubo, Fujimino-shi, Saitama , Japan

2 ; Maestripieri & Pelka, 2002; McArthur & Berry, 1987) Fogel, Melson, & Mistry (1986) nurturance (1989) 2 (1988) (1986) (1988) (2005) , ; 1996 (1988) (2009) 2 2 (2012) 3 6 (2009) ; 1992; 1989 IWM 2010; 2014; 2013 IWM 1982, 1989

3 258 Vol. 43, No Nash & Feldman (1981) 2 (1992) (2000) (1989) Bowlby (1973) IWM (2009) IWM Rholes, Simpson, & Blakely (1995) Rholes, Simpson, Blakely, Lanigan, & Allen (1997) IWM , 2001

4 259 (1993) (2005) (1999) 1 IWM ; 1992; Maestripieri & Pelka, 2002; 2012; (2012) SD (2012) (1992) (1988) (1993) 15

5 260 Vol. 43, No. 3 Table 1 t (df) d M *** 0.55 (α.96) SD (222) M (α.88) SD (222) M ** 0.41 (α.80) SD (222) M (α.86) SD (225) M ** 0.43 (α.91) SD (185.78) M * 0.28 (α.92) SD (226) IWM M (α.86) SD (226) M ** 0.38 (α.82) SD (225) M (α.76) SD (226) M (α.86) SD (226) M (α.68) SD (227) M (α.82) SD (226) *p.05, **p.01, ***p Cronbach α α (Table 1) (Table 1) 3 t IWM 3 IBM SPSS Statistics 21 t

6 261 Table 2 IWM.30***.30***.21** ***.01.24***.26*.25* **.11.49***.27***.30***.25** *** ***.20**.24***.10.17*.30***.02.25*** **.06.30*.23**.21**.33***.03.18*.26***.02.23**.21**.15*.21** ***.03.25*** *.15.35**.22**.18*.30*** ***.06.21** *** ** * *.18* *p.05, **p.01, ***p.001 Table 3 IWM R 2 / adj. R 2.17*.17*.23***.17/.15***.23*.45***.29/.27***.24**.21*.34***.16*.20/.17***.20**.22***.29***.17/.16***.32**.23*.29**.37**.32/.27***.29***.18*.14/.13***.16*.14*.27***.12/.10***.34**.12/.10**.25**.22**.14/.13***.13*.24***.07/.06***.30*.09/.08*.17*.19*.06/.05** *p.05, **p.01, ***p.001 (Table 2) IWM IWM (Table 3) VIF 2 (β.13 20) (β.17)

7 262 Vol. 43, No. 3 IWM β (β.23.29) (β.23,.32) (β.17) (β.24) IWM (β.23)β.29 (β.29,.25) (β.45,.34) (β.34,.22) β.16 IWM 3 IWM β.20 IWM (1992) (1992) Fullard & Reiling (1976)

8 , 2009 (2000) IWM IWM IWM IWM Rholes, Simpson, & Oriña (1999) Rholes et al. (1997) IWM IWM IWM IWM Rholes et al. (1995) IWM (2013) IWM IWM (2003) (1988) IWM IWM IWM Rholes et al. (1995, 1997) (2005) IWM Rholes et al. (1995, 1997) (2005) IWM IWM (1999)

9 264 Vol. 43, No. 3 (1993) Table (2013) 5 IWM IWM 1982, 1989 IWM 5 r.13 (n.s.) r.21 (n.s.) r.27 (p.01) r.17 (p.05)

10 , , Bowlby, J Attachment and Loss: Vol. 2. Separation, Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books. Fogel, A., Melson, G, F., & Mistry, J Conceptualizing the determinants of nurturance: A reassessment of sex differences. In Fogel, A., & Melson, G. F. (Eds.), Origins of Nurturance: Developmental Biological, and Cultural Perspectives on Caregiving. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp Fullard, W., & Reiling, A. M An investigation of Lorenz s babyness. Child Development, 47, , , , pp , , , (2) 50, , , , pp pp , nurturance 15, (nurturance) 57, Lorenz, K. Z Die angeborenen Formen möglicher Erfahrung. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 5, Maestripieri, D., & Pelka, S Sex Differences in interest in infants across the lifespan: A biological adaptation for parenting? Human Nature, 13, McArthur, L., & Berry, D. S Cross-cultural agreement in perceptions of babyfaced adults. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, , (nurturance) 27, , Nash, S. C., & Feldman, S. S Sex-related differences in the relationship between sibling status and responsivity to babies. Sex Roles, 7, , Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Blakely, B. S Adult at-

11 266 Vol. 43, No. 3 tachment styles and mothers relationships with their young children. Personal Relationships, 2, Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., Blakely, B. S., Lanigan, L., & Allen, E. A Adult attachment styles, the desire to have children, and working models of parenthood. Journal of Personality, 65, Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Oriña, M. M Attachment and anger in an anxiety-provoking situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, , , , (working models) , ;

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