18-新井.indd

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1 Belligerent Rights Committee of Imperial Defence, Sub-Committee on Belligerent Rights

2 Continental Power

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6 extraneous evidence

7 Allied Powers

8 a general war a limited war

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20 public war private war major wars minor wars

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23 the United States Navy Instruction

24 extraneous evidence Navicert

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27 Compromis

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30 the principles of law or equity a recognised rule of law

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32 vicious circle

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39 rights and immunities

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54 Abbreviations AJIL: American Journal of International Law B.R.: Sub-Committee on Belligerent Rights, Committee of Imperial Defence CAB / C.C.: Cabinet Conclusions available at and% papers C.P.: Cabinet Papers Cabinet Memoranda available at and% papers DB: Documents on British Foreign Policy - A: Series IA : Second Series xxx FRUS: Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States available at

55 See Baxter, J.P., III, The United States and the Freedom of the Seas, The Naval Review, Vol., No., pp. -. Order-in-Council, August reproduced in Diplomatic Correspondence between the United States and Belligerent Governments Relating to Neutral Rights and Commerce Diplomatic Correspondence, AJIL, Vol., No., Supplement, pp. - ; and Order-in- Council, October, ibid. pp. -. Tucker, R.W., The Law of War and Neutrality at Sea Naval War College,, p.. Garner, J.W., International Law and the World War Longmans,, Vol., pp. -. Order-in-Council, March reproduced in Diplomatic Correspondence, AJIL, Vol., No., Supplement, pp. - ; Note of April, ibid., p.. See Garner, op.cit., Vol., pp. -. Order-in-Council, March reproduced in Diplomatic Correspondence, AJIL, Vol., No., Supplement, pp. - ; Note of March, ibid., pp. -. Garner, op.cit., Vol., pp. -.

56 Order-in-Council, July reproduced in Diplomatic Correspondence, AJIL, Vol., No., Supplement, pp. -. Arnold-Forster, W., The New Freedom of the Seas Methuen,, p.. Ibid. See Garner, op.cit., Vol., p.. Hunt, B.D., British Policy on the Issue of Belligerent and Neutral Rights, Department of History, U.S. Naval Academy, ed., New Aspects of Naval History Nautical and Aviation Pub. Co. of America,, p.. an Allied Power an Associated Power Arnold-Forster, op.cit., pp. -. Memorandum of Cobb and Lippmann on the Fourteen Points, FRUS Supplement : The World War v pp. -. Note: Extracts from the Armistice Discussions,, December, B.R. reprinted in Tracy, N., Sea Power and the Control of Trade: Belligerent Rights from the Russian War to the Beira Patrol, Ashgate,, pp. -. Arnold-Forster, op.cit., p.. Hunt, op.cit., p.. Arnold-Forster, op.cit., p..

57 War Claims Settled by Great Britain and the United States, AJIL, Vol., No., pp. - See also Borchard, E.M., The Neutrality Claims against Great Britain, AJIL, Vo., No., pp. -. Note of Pope-Hennessy, R., Colonel, British Military Attaché in the United States, attached to Letter from Howard, E., the British Ambassador to the United States, to Tyrrell, W.G., Permanent Under Secretary of the Foreign Office, September, DB Aiv p.. Churchill s Memorandum, July, T / /S /, Dobson, A.P., Anglo-American Relations in the Twentieth Century: of Friendship, Conflict and the Rise and Decline of Superpowers Routledge,, pp. - Note of Pope-Hennessy, op.cit. Ibid. Belligerent Rights at Sea and the Relations Between the United States and Great Britain, C.P., CAB / ; DB Aiv p.. Maurice Pascal Alers Hankey

58 See Naylor, J. F., Hankey Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Vol., pp. -. Memorandum by Sir M. Hankey on Blockade and the Laws of War, C.P., CAB /. Memorandum by Sir C. Hurst on Sir Maurice Hankey s Paper on Blockade and the Laws of War ibid; DB Aiv pp. -. Procurator-General and Treasury Solicitor Sir A. Chamberlain to Mr. Henderson Paris, DB Av, pp. -. Carlton, D., The Anglo-French Compromise on Arms Limitation,, Journal of British Studies, Vol., pp. - Gibbs, N., The Naval Conferences of the Interwar Years: A Study in Anglo-American Relations, Naval War College Review, Vol., No., p.. McKercher, B.J.C., The Second Baldwin Government and the United States, Cambridge UP,, p.. Letter from Sir E. Howard Washington to Sir A. Chamberlain, January, DB Avi, pp. -. Sir E. Howard Washington to Sir A. Chamberlain, December, DB A iv pp. - ; FRUS v,p..

59 Kellogg, F.B., The War Prevention Policy of the United States, Foreign Affairs, Vol., No., Special Supplement, p.iv See Lloyd, L., Peace through Law: Britain and the International Court in the 1920 s The Royal Historical Society,, pp. -. C.C., concl., October, CAB /. FRUS v,p.. Letter from Howard to Tyrell, December, B.R. ; DB Aiv, p.. B.R. nd Meeting. A Rejoinder to Sir Esme Howard by the Secretary, Committee of Imperial Defence, January, B.R.. B.R. nd Meeting. B.R., Second Report, dealing with Maritime Belligerent Rights, March hereinafter cited as BR Report II, B.R., also reproduced in C.P., CAB / and DB Avi Appendix III, pp. -. BR Report II. BR Report II. B.R. nd Meeting. Letter from Sir. Lindsay to Mr. Selby Lugano, December, DB Av, pp. - See generally May, A., Kerr, Philip Henry, eleventh marquess of Lothian, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Vol., pp. - ; Bosco, A., Lord Lothian and the Federalist Critique of National Sovereignty, Long, D. & Wilson, P., eds., Thinkers of the Twenty Years Crisis Clarendon,, pp.. Memorandum by the Chairman, December, B.R..

60 B.R. th Meeting. Letter from Hankey to Balfour, December, CAB /, cited in McKercher, op.cit. The Second Baldwin Government, p.. Memorandum by the Secretary Committee of Imperial Defence, December, B.R., reproduced in Tracy, op.cit., pp. -. The Intimate Papers of Colonel House, Ernest Benn Ltd., Vol.IV, p., fn.. B.R. th Meeting. B.R. th Meeting. Report of the Technical Sub-Committee, January, B.R.., reproduced in BR Report II. Ibid., para.. Ibid., para.. Ibid., paras. -. Ibid., paras. -. See BR Report II. Ibid., paras.,. B.R., First Report, dealing with the Renewal of Arbitration Treaties, February hereinafter cited as BR Report I, B.R., also reproduced in C.P., CAB / and DB Avi Appendix II, pp. -, para. Lloyd, op.cit., pp. -. Ibid., p.. Telegram from Sir A. Chamberlain to Sir E. Howard Washington, March, DB Aiv p. ; From Chamberlain to Howard, April, DB Av pp. - ; Telegram from Houghton, the American Ambassador in Great Britain, to the Secretary of State, April

61 , FRUS v, pp. -. From the Secretary of State to Houghton, May, FRUS v, p.. Letter from Mr. Malkin to Sir C. Hurst, March, DB Aiv, pp. -. See Memorandum by Sir C. Hurst, October, C.P., CAB /, para..; B.R., para.. Ibid, para.. C.C., concl., October, CAB /. B.R. th Meeting. Draft Arbitration Treaties, November, B.R.. British Note, May, reproduced in Miller, D.H., The Peace Pact of Paris: A Study of the Briand-Kellogg Treaty G.P. Putnam's Sons,, pp. - B.R. th Meeting B.R. th Meeting. B.R. th Meeting. Draft Arbitration Treaties with the United States of America, reproduced in BR Report I. B.R. th Meeting Id.

62 B.R. th Meeting. B.R. th Meeting. Note by the First Lord of the Admiralty, January, B.R.. B.R. th Meeting. B.R. th Meeting. BR Report I McKercher, op.cit. The Second Baldwin Government, p.. B.R. st Meeting. Letter from Chamberlain to Howard, February, DB Avi pp. -. A New Anglo-American Arbitration Treaty: Mr. Kellogg s Statement, The Times, January, p.. Memorandum by Mr. Malkin, January, B.R. ; DB Avi pp. -. B.R. th Meeting. Lloyd, op.cit., pp. -. C.C., February, CAB /. O Connor, R.G., The Yardstick and Naval Disarmament in the s, The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol., No., pp. - McKercher, B.J.C., Transition of Power: Britain s Loss of Global Pre-eminence to the United States Cambridge UP,, p.. Mr. A.Henderson to Sir E. Howard Washington, January, DB i, pp. -. See generally The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover: Years of Adventure: The MacMillan Company,, pp. -.

63 McKercher, op.cit. Transition of Powers p.. Memorandum by Mr. MacDonald respecting his Conversations with President Hoover at Washington October to,, DB i,pp. -. Ibid., Appendix A no.. Ibid., Appendix A no.. Ibid. Appendix A No.. See also ibid., Appendix A nos. -. McKercher, op.cit. Transition of Powers p.. Memorandum of Lord Parmoor, November, C.P., CAB /. Letter from MacDonald to Hoover, November, Presidential Papers Series, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library,, cited in McKercher, op.cit. Transition of Powers p.. Letter from Hoover to MacDonald, December, ibid. McKercher, op.cit. Transition of Powers p.. Ibid., pp. -. Memorandum of the First Lord of the Admiralty, January, C.P., CAB /. Lloyd, op.cit., p.. See Memorandum by Sir C. Hurst, June, Memorandum by Mr. Malkin, May, W / / FO /. Lloyd, op.cit., p.. Record of a meeting at the Foreign Office, April, DB Avi, pp. - ; Note of a meeting at the Foreign Office, April, DB Avi, pp. -.

64 Record of a meeting in the Foreign Office, April, op.cit. Lloyd, op.cit., p.. The Optional Clause and Possible Reserves, July, C.P., CAB / ; DB Avi,pp. -. The Optional Clause: Naval Interest to be Safeguarded, July, C.P., CAB /. Memorandum by Mr. A. Henderson, July, DB Avi, pp. -. Diary entry, July, of Dalton, Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, cited in Lloyd, op.cit., p.. Report of the Committee on the Optional Clause, July, C.P., CAB /. C.C., concl., July, CAB /. See House of Commons Deb., Fifth Series, Vol., col. - January. Reproduced in PCIJ, Collection of Texts Governing the Jurisdiction of the Court, Fourth Edition, Series D.- No., pp. -. Memorandum on the Signature by His Majesty s Government in the United Kingdom of the Optional Clause of the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice, Cmd., reproduced in AJIL Vol., No., Supplement, pp. -. Lauterpacht, H., The British Reservations to the Optional Clause, Economica, No., p.. Memorandum by Mr. A. Henderson, November, DB Avi, pp. -. Memorandum by Admiral Sir C. Madden, the First Sea Lord, October, cited in DB Avi, p., fn.. Memorandum by Mr. A. Henderson, November, DB Avi, pp. -. C.C., concl., November, CAB /. Cited in DB Avi, p., fn. ; C.C., concl., December, CAB /. Letter sent to the Secretary-General of the League, September, reproduced in Sixteenth Report of the Permanent Court of International Justice Series E.-No., pp. -. ibid. p.

65 ibid., pp. ff. ibid., p., fn. War Cabinet, concl., February, CAB / ; Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, February, W.P. G, CAB / Sixteenth Report of the Permanent Court of International Justice, pp. - ibid., pp. ff. International Court of Justice Yearbook ICJ Yearbook -, pp. - ICJ Yearbook -, pp. - ICJ Yearbook -, pp. - ICJ Yearbook -, pp. - ICJ Yearbook -, pp. -

66 ICJ Yearbook -, p. Note by Mr. Malkin, DB Avi pp. -. Memorandum by Mr. A. Henderson, December, C.P. CAB /, DB Avi, pp. - ; C.C., concl., December, CAB /. Note by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, October, C.P. CAB /. Lloyd, op.cit., p. Note by the First Lord of the Admiralty, October, C.P. CAB /. Lloyd op.cit., p.. FRUS v, p.. FRUS v, p.. Roskill, S., Naval Policy between the Wars Naval Institute Press,, Vol., pp. -. Grewe, W.G. Translated and revised by Byers, M., The Epochs of International Law Walter de Gruyter,, pp. -. Lippmann, W., Rough-Hew Them How We Will, Foreign Affairs, Vol., No., pp. -. Oppenheim, L. International Law, First Edition Longmans, Green, & Co.,, Part II, Ch.IV, Section, p.. Grewe, op.cit., p. -. See Neff, S.C., The Prerogatives of Violence In Search of the Conceptual Foundations of Belligerents Rights, German Yearbook of International Law, Vol., pp. -. Medlicott, W.N., The Economic Blockade HMSO,, Vol.I, p. ; Hunt, op.cit., p..

67 Doswald-Beck, L., ed., San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea Cambridge UP,. The Answer by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, January, reproduced in Guttry, A. de & Ronzitti, N., eds., The Iran-Iraq War and the Law of Naval Warfare Cambridge UP,, p..

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