Isotope News 2005年4月号 No.612

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1 X 1896 X Berlin Röntgen X X X X X Julius Scriba X X 5 31 X 1, Röntgen X X Strasbourg August A. E. E. Kundt Röntgen 22 Isotope News

2 Röntgen X Crookes X Crookes 1m Wimshurst X 11 Crookes 7 9 X X X 8 31 Röntgen Nobel München München Nobel 1 Röntgen X J. Scriba X Siemens X X X 1896 X 10 Isotope News

3 P. Curie M. S. Curie Po Ra 1898 P. Curie M. S. Curie Po Ra 1898 Rutherford Pierre Curie Paris Dr. Eugène Curie Jacques SorbonneParis Pierre 1878 Sorbonne Curie 1882 École de physique et de chimie industrielle Curie Curie M me Curie 2 Marie Sklodowska Warszawa Vladiska Sklodowska Sorbonne Paris Pierre Curie Sorbonne Gabriel Lippmann Becquerel U Curie M me Curie 2 Th G. C.Schmidt Curie Bohemia St. Joachimsthal Upitch- 20 Isotope News

4 blende U Bi U 7 18 Académie des Sciences poloniumpo Pierre Curie et M me Curie : Sur une substance nouvelle radioactive, contenue dans la pechblende, Compt. rend., 127, Gustave Bémont U pitchblende Ba M me Curie Ba Eugène Anatole Damargay radiumra Ra G. Bémont Curie Académie des Sciences Pierre Curie, M me Curie et G. Bémont : Sur une nouvelle substance fortement radio-active, contenue dans la pechblende, Compt. rend., 127, radio-active Curie Curie M me Curie Paris Po Ra M me Curie et Pierre Curie : Les nouvelles substances radioactives et les rayons qu elles émettent, Rapports présentés au Congrès international de Physique, t. III, Ra Ra pitchblende pitchblende St. Isotope News

5 Joachimsthal U P. Curie Wien Wien Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften pitchblende Wien Eduard Suess pitchblende Curie kg Paris P. Curie Ed. Suess Paris Académie des Sciences pitchblende 20,000 Fr 1903 Edmond de Rothschild P. Curie 1904 Sorbonne pitchblende M me Curie Ra Ra pitchblende Ra 2 M me Curie P. Curie Paris 42 Rue Lhomond pitchblende g Ra RaCl2 Ba Ra 1903 Sorbonne P. Curie 1g Ra M me Curie P. Curie Ra 1907 André Louis Debirnne Ra P. Curie Po, Ra Ra H. Becquerel Ra M me Curie P. Curie Sorbonne Ra RaCl mg 1912 Académie des Sciences X 1914 Paris Rue PierreCurie Paris Institut du Radium Curie Laboratoire M me Curie Mont Blanc St. Gervars RadioactivitéSorbonne H. Becquerel 1903 Nobel Pierre Curie, Marie S. Curie Henri Bec- 22 Isotope News

6 querel 1903 Nobel Becquerel Becquerel Nobel Lecture P. Curie M me Curie Nobel Lecture M me Curie Ra Po Ra 1911 Nobel Nobel Lecture Nobel 1937 Eve Curie M me Curie 3 1 2M me Curie M me Madame 3MADAME CURIE Isotope News

7 α β γ Ra γ Ernest Rutherford α β γ Röntgen X Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory J. J. Thomson X Becquerel U U Becquerel J. J. Thomson Ernest Rutherford Becquerel Al mm Al U Al 0.02 mm Al 0.06 mm 2 Al α Al 0.1 mm β Rutherford Schmidt Th Th β U Rutherford Uranium Radiation and Electrical Conduction Produced by It, Phil. Mag. v, 47, Rutherford 4 As far, however, as the experiments have gone, the results seem to point to the conclusion that the β radiation is approximately homogeneous, although it is possible that other types of radiation Isotope News

8 of either small intensity or very great penetration power may be present Paris École Normal Supérieure Paul Villard Académie des Sciences Ra γ Sur la réflexion et la réfraction des rayons cathodiques et des rayons deviables du radium, Compt. rend., 130, ; Sur le rayonnement du radium, ibid., 130, Ra γ F. O. Giesel 0.27 g RaBr Ra γ γ F. O. Giesel Über radioaktive Stoffe, Ber. d. Deutschen chem. Ges., 33, Paris H. Becquerel Ra F. O. Giesel P. Curie Ra Ra γ Académie des Sciences Henri Becquerel et P. Curie : Action physiologique des rayons du radium, Compt. rend., 182, P. Curie Ra emanation 3 Ch. Bouchard, P. Curie et V. Balthazard : Action physiologique de l émanation du radium, Compt. rend., 138, Ra emanation Ernest Rutherford Rutherford New Zealand Nelson New Zealand Nelson College Christchurch Canterbury College Isotope News

9 Magnetization of Iron by High-frequency Discharge, Trans. New Zealand Institute, 27, Magnetic Viscosity Cambridge Rutherford 1851 Exhibition Science Scholar Canterbury College Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory J. J. Thomson New Zealand Dublin Trinity College John Sealy Townsend Oxford J. J. Thomson Rutherford J. J. Thomson X H. Becquerel J. J. Thomson α β α β γ Rutherford Montreal McGill MacDonald Professor Owens Th emanation Mary Newton 8 Montreal 5 demonstrator 23 Frederick Soddy emanation Th ThX Soddy London University College William Ramsay Ar,Ne,Kr,Xe1904 Nobel Rutherford Soddy Th 2 The Radioactivity of Thorium Compounds, I, An Investigation of the Radioactive Emanation, Trans. Chem. Soc., 81, The Radioactivity of Thorium Compounds, II, The Cause and Nature of Radioactivity, ibid., 81, I Curie 1898 radio-active The term radioactive is now generally applied to a class of substances, like uranium, thorium, radium, and polonium, which have the power of spontaneously giving off radiations capable of passing through thin plates of metal. 4 Th Ra emanation Isotope News

10 3 The Cause and Nature of Radioactivity, Part I, Phil. Mag., vi, 4, Sept., The Cause and Nature of Radioactivity, Part II, ibid., 4, Nov., Radioactive Change, ibid., 5, May, The Energy of Radioactive Change, and the Internal Energy of the Chemical Atom Ra U 1g Ra emanation 1 8,200 ergs 5 Ra ergs per second, ergs per year, 15,000 gramcalories per year 3 atomic energy Rutherford Soddy 20 Hence there is no reason to assume that this enormous store of energy is possessed by the radio-elements alone. It seems probable that atomic energy in general is of a similar high order of magnitude, although the absence of change prevents its existence being manifested. The existence of this energy accounts for the stability of the chemical elements as well as for the conservation of radioactivity under the influence of the most varied conditions. It must be taken into account in cosmical physics. The maintenance of solar energy, for example, no longer presents any fundamental difficulty if the internal energy of the component elements is considered to be available, i.e. if processes of sub-atomic change are going on. 6 Rutherford Soddy Soddy Rutherford The work published by us was joint work in the full sense of the team : for Mr. Soddy not only assisted in the experimental work but also supplied many of the suggestions and explanations incorporated in our published papers. 7 Muriel HoworthPioneer Research on the AtomThe Life of Frederic Soddy London, 1958 p.318 Rutherford E. Rutherford 1908 Nobel 1 β β 24 Isotope News

11 Gy γ radioactive 51erg10 7 J1 calories4.2 J 6 7 Soddy 1900 Planck p.6061 Max Planck Wärmestrahlung p Isotope News

12 1903 Ra C. T. R. Wilson Coulomb B , β α 2 Phil. Mag. Kinetics of a System of Particles illustrating the Line and the Band Spectrum and the Phenomena of Radioactivity, Phil. Mag., vi, 7, University College of WalesAberystwyth G. A. Schott Nature 23 J. J. Thomson 32 Isotope News

13 J. J. Thomson Rutherford Moseley N. Bohr Ra Straβburg 1 Ra 5mg Ra F. O. Giesel Braunschweig Buchler 20No C. Engler H. Sieveking fontactoscopefontaktometer 4 H. Sieveking : Über einen neuen Apparat zur Bestimmung der Radioaktivität der Thermalquellen, Phys. Zeits., 6, Extner CaCl2 U Ra emanationrn 5 Rn Rn Rn Mache 6 D. Ishitani and K. Manabe : Radioactivity of Hot Springs in Yugawara, Izusan and Atami, Tokyo Sugaku Butsurigakkwai Kiji, ii, 5, Phil. Mag. Isotope News

14 S. Kinoshita, S. Nishikawa and S. Ono ; On the amount of radioactive products present in the atmosphere, Phil. Mag., vi, 22, C. T. R. Wilson α β cm Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory J. J. Thomson Charles Thomson Rees Wilson On a Method of making Visible the Paths of Ionising Particles through a Gas, Proc. Roy. Soc., A85, On an Expansion Apparatus for making Visible the Tracks of Ionising Particles in Gases and some Research obtained by its Use, Proc. Roy. Soc., A87, C. T. R. Wilson Edinburgh John Wilson 4 Manchester J. J. Thomson 1 Owens College University of Manchester 18 B.Sc Cambridge Sidney Sussex College 1892 Yorkshire grammar school Cambridge Cambridge demonstrator E. Rutherford J. S. Townsend Cavendish Laboratory J. J. Thomson 1896 Clerk Maxwell 3 Meteorological Council 1900 Sidney Sussex College fellow lecturer demonstrator Ben Nevis v1v2 v2v11.25 v2v v2v α β Wilson 2 E. Rutherford 34 Isotope News

15 C. T. R. Wilson 1927 Nobel Nobel E. Rutherford J. Chadwick Cavendish Laboratory α 1923 Compton Wilson X Compton 1927 Arthur Holly Compton Nobel 1918 Cambridge University Lecturer 1925 Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy Edinburgh Peeblesshire Carlops Strasbourg Straβburg 2Ra Ra 1 g 1Ci MBq RaBr2 108 MBq 226 Ra 1g Bq , Rn Bq mg g g , kg kg g mg0.005 g g academic discount 1903 Isotope News

16 V. F. Hess 1912 G. de Hevesy F. A. Paneth 1913 Hevesy V. F. Hess U Th γ 10 cm B , Freiburg Albert W. F. E. Gockel ,800 m 1,000 m 2,800 m Albert Gockel :Messungen der druchdringenden Strahlung bei Ballonfahren,Phys. Zeits., 12, A. Gockel Hohenstrahlen Wien Institut für Radiumforschung Stefan Meyer Viktor Francis Hess mm 26 Isotope News

17 ,600 m 3 1,680 m Donau 2,000 m ,350 m 3 Hess 3 2,000 m γ 3 Viktor F. Hess : Über Beobachtungen der durchdringenden Strahlung bei sieben Freiballonfahrten,Phys. Zeits., 13, A. Gockel Halle Werner Kolhörster Hess 3 6,300 m emanation 4 12 Werner Kolhörster :Messungen der durchdringenden Strahlung im Freiballon in grösseren Höhen,Phys. Zeits., 14, V. F. Hess W. Kolhörster Robert A. Millikan 1922 Texas San Antonio 55, Millikan 1936 V. F. Hess Nobel C. D. Anderson 1932 Nobel Viktor Francis Hess Graz DeutschFeistriz Waldstein Forstbeamte 1905 Graz Wien 2 Franz Serafin Exner Hess 1910 Wien Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften Institut für Radiumforschung Stephan Meyer A. Gockel 1920 Graz Isotope News

18 New York U.S. Radium Corporation 1923 Graz Helgland 1931 Rockefeller Foundation Innsbruck Hofelekar Spitz 2,300 m 1937 Graz New York Fordham Hess Empire State Bldg New York Mount Vernon G. de Hevesy F. A. Paneth 1913 Hevesy Rutherford Montreal Manchester Wien 400 mg RaCl2 Ra Rutherford George de Hevesy 5 György Hevesy Budapest Berlin Freiburg 1908 Freiburg Ph.D.Zürich ETH 6 Richard Lorenz Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule Fritz Haber1918 Nobel Manchester Rutherford Niels Bohr FajansSoddy 7 F. Soddy 8 Rutherford 1911 Hevesy U 20 RaD 9 kg 10 RaD Hevesy RaD 1912 Wien Institut für Radiumforschung RaD RaD Friedrick Adolf Paneth Mainz Max Planck RaD RaD RaD indicator Isotope News

19 Wien K. Akademie der WissenchafteninWien F. Paneth und G. v. Hevesy :Über Versuche zur Trennung des Radium D von Blei, Sitzungsber. K. Akademie der Wissenschafen in Wien, IIa, 122, G. v. Hevesy und F. Paneth :Die Löslichkeit des Bleisulfids und Bleichromats, Zeits. f. Anorg. Chemie, 82, ThB indicator 11 indicator F. Paneth und G. v. Hevesy : Über Radioelemente als Indikatoren in der analytischen Chemie,Sitzungsber. K. Akademie der Wissenschafen in Wien, IIa, 122, Hevesy 1914 G. v. Hevesy und F. Paneth :Zur Frage der Isotopen Elemente,Phys. Zeits., 15, isotope Nature Fredric Soddy F. Soddy :Intra-atomic Charge,Nature, 92, G. v. Hevesy Budapest Privatdozent Budapest 2 RaD 1920 Copenhagen Bohr 1926 Freiburg Dick Coster Groningen N. Bohr H. G. J. Moseley X 72 hafniumhf Georg v. Hevesy :Über die Auffindung des Hafniums und den gegenwärtigen Stand unserer Kenntnisse von diesem Element,Ber. Dt. Chem. Ges., 56, D. Coster and G. v. Hevesy :On the missing element of atomic number 72,Nature, 111, D. Coster and G. v. Hevesy :On the new element hafnium,nature, 111, D. Coster and G. v. Hevesy :Über das Element der Atomzahl 72,Nature, 11, RaD tracer G. de Hevesy :The Absorption and Translocation of Lead by Plants,Biochem. J., 17, Isotope News

20 Bi RaE 12 Bi Bi 13 Bi ThB I. A. Christiansen, G. de Hevesy et Sv. Lomholt : Recherches, par une méthode radiochimique, sur la circulation du bismuth l organisme,compt. rend., 178, I. A. Christiansen, G. de Hevesy et Sv. Lomholt : Recherches, par une méthode radiochimique, sur la circulation du plomb dans l organisme,compt. rend., 179, JoliotCurie 14 Hevesy Paneth RaD G. de Hevesy 1943 Nobel Hevesy 1926 Freiburg X 1934 Copenhagen N. Bohr 1943 Stockholm University of Stockholm 1959 G. de Hevesy Freiburg Hevesy George von Hevesy Memorial Medal George von Hevesy Lecture Medal Paris 3 International Conference of Nuclear Medicine Memorial Medal Lecture Medal 15 1 http : mextatm.jst.go.jpatomica _1. html 2 γ Rn 5Hevesy G. de HevesyG. v. HevesyG. HevesyGeorg von Hevesy 6ETH Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule 30 Isotope News

21 ETH Zürich F. Soddy FajansSoddy Soddy isotope RaD 210 Pb Pb 11ThB 212 Pb 12RaE 210 Bi 13 14Frédéric JoliotCurie Irène JoliotCurie Hevesy Hevesy Award 1896 X 1898P. Curie M. S. Curie Po Ra α β γ Ra γ Ernest Rutherford Ra C. T. R. Wilson 1912V. F. Hess 1913G. de Hevesy F. A. Paneth Hevesy Niels Bohr 1913FajansSoddy Soddy isotope 1928X γ Klein 1934Frédéric JoliotCurie Irène JoliotCurie Isotope News

22 Niels Bohr P. CurieMarie S. Curie Ra Ra Rn Rn Rn Tn B , Rn Tn Curie Radioactivite, Paris, R. IshizuThe Mineral Springs of JapanSankyo, Tokyo, San Francisco Panama Pacific International Exposition Rn Tn 1 2 Ra Curie 6 4 Curie Isotope News

23 8 34 Niels Bohr 1913 Niels Hendrik David Bohr Copenhagen Christian Bohr Ellen master 2 1 Niels 2 2 Harald Herald Hoffding VilhelmL.P.Thomsen Christian Christiansen Bohr 2 Niels 1907 Christiansen master Ph. D. 9 Carlsberg Foundation Cambridge J. J. Thomson J. J. Thomson Ph.D.thesis J. J. Thomson Cambridge Manchester Rutherford Manchester 7 Rutherford H. G. T. Moseley α GeigerMarsden Rutherford G. von Hevesy H. GeigerJ. ChadwickJ. M. Nutall Rutherford Niels Rutherford C. G. Darwin Niels Copenhagen 1900 Max Planck 1905 Albert Einstein Rutherford Niels 1 Rutherford 2 m u r Planck h eu2 π rmhm E E ν E E h ν he E 3 32 Isotope News

24 Balmer Rydberg Niels Bohr On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules, Phil. Mag., vi, 26, Bohr Copenhagen Rutherford Phil. Mag On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules, II, System containing only a Single Nucleus, Phil. Mag., vi, 26, Bohr Manchester Rutherford Barkla 1 3 On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules, III, Systems containing Several Nuclei, Phil. Mag., vi, 26, Bohr Copenhagen Rutherford 1914 Rutherford Manchester Leadership Manchester Leader Rutherford University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Hendrik Antonie Kramers Niels Bohr G. von Hevesy James Franck Bohr Bohr 3 Manchester MoseleyFrankHertz On the Quantum Theory of Radiation and the Structure of the Atom, Phil. Mag., vi, 30, Bohr Dr. Lo Surdo Stark 1920 Copenhagen Bohr Bohr 1 Bohr Isotope News

25 After many fruitful spectroscopic researches in Japan and various laboratories abroad, Toshio Takamine came to work with us in Copenhagen in 1920, shortly after the creation of our institute designed for the promotion of intimate cooperation between experimentally and theoretically working physicists. Our group was at that time still small, and with his wide experience in spectroscopy, Takamine s participation in the work proved most valuable. The study of the effect of electric and magnetic fields on spectral lines had in those years required great interest as a consequence of the development of the quantum theory of atomic constitution. In this connection, the investigation which Takamine, together with the Danish physicists, H. M. Hansen and W. Werner, performed on the Zeeman and Stark effect in the mercury spectrum brought much new information for the testing and elucidation of the theoretical view points. 2 Bohr 1915 München Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld α 2 π e 2 hc Bohr Copenhagen A. Sommerfeld : Zur Theorie der Balmerschen Serie, Sitzb. d. K. B. Akad. d. Wiss. zu München, Math. phys. Klasse, A. Sommerfeld : Die Feinstruktur der Wasserstoffund Wasserstoffähnlichen Linien, ibid., A. Sommerfeld : Zur Quantentheorie der Spektrolinien, Ann. d. Phys., vi, 51, Niels Bohr 1922 Nobel 1Barkla Cambridge J. J. Thomson X 2 X Liverpool X Barkla 1914 Barkla X pp H. M. Hansen W. Werner 34 Isotope News

26 FajansSoddy Soddy isotope 1913 FajansSoddy Soddy isotope emanationrn Tn 220 Rn Ac 1905 Otto Hahn RdTh Friedrich Oskar Giesel Tadeusz Goldlewski AcX 2 Ac AcX RdAc O. Hahn Chicago Herbert Newby McCoy William Horace Ross RdTh Th Bertran Borden Boltwood Yale Th Io N 2 4 N 3 4 N Soddy Karlsruhe Kasimir Fajans Michigan Moseley X Soddy α 2 4 Glasgow lecturer Alexander Fleck ICI Isotope News

27 β Th UX1RdAc ThB 5 AcB 6 Ac MsTh2 7 Bi RaE 8 Po RaF 9 Glasgow Alexander Smith Russell β 1 Fajans α 2 β α Phys. Zeits Soddy α 2 4 β 1 FajansSoddy Soddy Fajans Fajans α β Soddy inner region of structurenucleus α He β A. van den Brock : Die Radioelemente, das periodische System und die Konstitution der Atome, Phys. Zeits., 14, A. Fleck : The Chemical Nature of Uranium X, Radio-Actinium, and Thorium B, Chem. News, 106, K. Fajans : Uber eine Beziehung zwischen der Art einer radioaktiven Umwandlung und dem electrochemischen Verhalten der etreffenden Radioelemente, Phys. Zeits., 14, K. Fajans : Die Stellung der Radioelemente in periodischen System, ibid., 14, A. Frick : The chemical nature of some radioactive disintegration products, Proc. Chem. Soc., 29, A. S. Russell : THE PERIODIC SYSTEM AND THE RADIO-ELEMENTS, Chem. News, 107, F. Soddy : THE RADIO-ELEMENTS AND THE PERIODIC LAW, Chem. News, 107, F. Soddy : The Radio-elements and the Periodic Law, Nature, 91, A. van den Brock : Inter-atomic Charge, Nature, 92, Soddy isotope Nature F. Soddy : Intra-atomic Charge, Nature, 92, (1913). Isotope News

28 Fajans Fajans A. Fleck 23 Soddy isotope The same algebraic sum of the positive and negative charges in the nucleus, when arithmetical sum is different, gives what I call isotopes or isotopic elements, because they occupy the same place in the periodic table. 10 Rutherford Moseley Z Z Z Soddy isotope iso ισοζ tope τοποζ Oxford Soddy Soddy isotope They are chemically identical, and save only as regards the relatively few physical properties which depend upon atomic mass directly, physically identical also. Unit changes of this nuclear charge, so reckoned algebraically, give the successive places in the periodic table. For any one place, or any one nuclear charge, more than one number of electrons in the outerring system may exist, and in such a case the element exhibits variable valency, concern only the ring and its external environment. There is no in-and out-going of electrons between ring and nucleus. 11 Fajans 1913 Phys. Zeits Tl 3 82Pb 7 Soddy Pb 1914 Ceylon thorianite 12 83Bi 4 84Po 7 86Rn 3 88Ra 4 89Ac 2 90Th 6 91Pa 3 92U 3 Soddy isotope Nature Oct. 27, 1956 Glasgow Baron Alexander Fleck 3 isotope α β isotope From this also came the introduction into our language of the word isotope. It was suggested by Dr. Margaret Todd, arising from discussion that Soddy had in the house of his father-in-law, Sir George Beilby, in Glasgow Isotope News

29 Sir George Thomas Beilby Soddy Isotopes 50 London Chemical Society Proc. Chem. Soc., November 1963pp A. Fleck isotopes Soddy Dr. Margaret Todd Glasgow Clinical Physics Dr. John Lenihan Dr. Todd Graham Travers Sir George Thomas Beilby Soddy the same place Dr. Todd isotope Soddy Science Survey Glasgow isotope Dr. Todd Soddy Nature Soddy Rutherford London Chemical Society Thaddeus J. Trenn Radioactivity and Atomic Theory London Taylor & Francis F. Soddy Sussex Eastbourne Calvinist 1898 Merton College Oxford William Ramsay Ramsay Toronto Montreal McGill Rutherford 2 3 Rutherford ThTn Rutherford London Ramsay 7 Ramsay Ra α He F. Soddy Glasgow Lecturer Calvinist Soddy 1914 Aberdeen 1919 Oxford Dr. Lee s Professor of Chemistry Oxford Calvinist isolate Isotope News

30 Oxford Oxford 17 Oxford F. Soddy Oxford 1921 Nobel A. Einstein Soddy Calvinist Proc. Chem. Soc. pp Mansel Davis : Frederick Soddy : The Scientist as Prophet, Ann. Sci., 49, Nobel LesPrisNobel 1921 Nobel LecturesChemistry Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam, 1966 pp RaThRdTh 238 Th 2 X 223 Ra Th Th 5 B 212 Pb 6 B 211 Pb Ac 8 E 210 Bi 9AcAcA 215 Po AcC 211 Po RaF F 210 Po Isotope News

31 X γ Klein1928 X γ Klein1928 Klein Copenhagen Niels Bohr Niels Bohr 1911 Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory Manchester E. Rutherford Niels Bohr Copenhagen Martin Knudsen Privatdozent 2 E. Rutherford 2 Manchester Manchester 2 Copenhagen Bohr Hendrik Antonie Kramers Bohr 1918 Oskar Benjamin Klein Manchester George de Hevesy Bohr Manchester E. Rutherford München A. J. W. Sommerfeld Bohr Carlsberg Foundation 28 Isotope News

32 Bohr Hevesy H. G. J. Moseley 3 X Dirk Coster Groningen hafniumhf Bohr Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory Rutherford 4 X Compton Göttingen Max Born 1954 Nobel David Hilbert Copenhagen Bohr Hevesy Coster X 1926 Hevesy Freiburg 1927 X 5 Copenhagen X X Paris Hamburg Wolfgang Pauli1945 Nobel Zürich ETH Isidor Issac Rabi1944 Nobel Columbia X Copenhagen 1928 Hamburg Copenhagen Walter Gordon O. B. Klein 3 Compton 1927 P. A. M. Dirac Compton Klein Klein Fuenen Klein Zeits.f.Phys.2 1 Klein Isotope News

33 O. Klein und Y. Nishina : Über die Streuung von Strahlung durch freie Elektronen nach der neuen relatistischen Quantendynamik von Dirac, Zeits.f.Phys.,52, Klein Compton Y. Nishina : Die Polarisation der Comptonstreuung nach der Diracschen Theorie des Elektrons, Zeits.f.Phys.,52, Copenhagen ParisLondon Zeits.f.Phys. KleinDirac Copenhagen O.Klein 1931 Stockholm N. Bohr W. Heisenberg 28 P. A. M. Dirac Copenhagen N. Bohr 3 X G. de Hevesy P. A. M. Dirac N. Bohr Bohr Nobel Isotope News

34 Wilson Y. Nishina, M. Takeuchi and T. Ichimiya : On the Nature of Cosmic Ray Particles, Phys. Rev., 52, Y. Nishina, M. Takeuchi and T. Ichimiya : On the Mass of the Mesotron, Phys. Rev., 54, Copenhagen G. de Hevesy X Li 2 D UTh 2 Th 232 Th 4 n0 n2n 231 Th UY 4 n3 Y. Nishina, T. Yazaki, K. Kimura and M. Ikawa : Artificial Production of Uranium Y from Thorium, Nature, 142, U n2 n 6.6 β 237 U 6 Y. Nishina, T. Yazaki, H. Ezoe, K. Kimura and M. Ikawa : Induced β Activity of Uranium by Fast Neutrons, Phys. Rev., 57, , dated May 3, Berkeley Radiation LaboratoryUniversity of California Edwin H. McMillan1951 Nobel BeD 238 U n2 n 237 U 1 20 Edwin McMillan : The Seven Day Uranium Activity, Phys. Rev., 58, , dated June 28, U Th Isotope News

35 235 U GHQ GHQ STAC Moseley X KLMN X X K X Z ν 1λ ν 0 Rydberg ν Kα ν 034Z Hf Re Moseley X U 6.75 B A Isotope News

36 Frédéric JoliotCurie Irène JoliotCurie 1934 Frédéric JoliotCurie Irène JoliotCurie 1934 Frédéric Joliot Curie Irène JoliotCurie J. Chadwick Poα 7 Be 3 Li γ 1 Cavendish Laboratory Rutherford Chadwick Poα Al 27 13Al 27 2He 4 15P 30 0n 1 15P MeV 2.55 min Nature Artificial Production of a New Kind of Radio Element, Nature, 133, Académie des Sciences Un nouveau type de radioactivité, Compt. rend., 198, Be 10 2He 4 7N 13 0n 1 12Mg 24 2He 4 14Si 72 0n 1 13Al 27 2He 4 15P 30 0n 1 7N 13 14Si 27 15P 30 β I Production articielle d éléments radioactifs ; II Preuve chimique de la transmutation des éléments, Journ. de Physique et le Radium, 5, Isotope News

37 1935 Nobel Nobel F. Joliot 13Al 27 2He 4 15P 30 0n 1 15P 30 α α Rome Enrico Fermi Otto Hahn Lise Meitner U 235 Jean Frédéric JoliotCurie Paris Henri Joliot Paris École de physique et de chimie industrielle 1923 Pierre Curie Sorbonne Paul Langevin Institut de Radium M. S. Curie Curie Irène 1937 College de France J. F. JoliotCurie Ra 1939 U ZOE 1955 RusselEinstein Irène Paris Irène JoliotCurie Pierre Marie Curie Paris Sorbonne 1918 Institut de Radium 1926 Frédéric Joliot 1934 Curie 1936 Sorbonne B A Isotope News