Title 修辞理解のメカニズムに関する基礎的研究 : 転義現象の分析を中心に Author(s) 小松原, 哲太 Citation Kyoto University ( 京都大学 ) Issue Date URL

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1 Title 修辞理解のメカニズムに関する基礎的研究 : 転義現象の分析を中心に Author(s) 小松原, 哲太 Citation Kyoto University ( 京都大学 ) Issue Date URL Right Type Thesis or Dissertation Textversion author Kyoto University

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6 ( [ ] ( ) (2006) (metaphor) (chassé croisé[ ]) (sicilia amissa[ ]) Aristotle (1992/330BC-abt), Black (1962/1954)

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12 ABT about MOD modification ADJ adjective MTNY metonymy AM action marker MTNYC metonymic AMB ambiguous MTPR metaphor ANTCLA antanaclasis MTPRC metaphoric ANTE antecedent N noun ANTI antithesis NP noun phrase ANTIM antimeria NEG negation ANTIP antiptosis NOM nominal ANTO anotonym NP noun phrase APEU à-peu-prés[ ] OXYM oxymoron APOSIO aposiopesis P phonological pole ATLG attelage PARONM paronomasia C case ( PRED predicate CC chassé croisé[ ] ( PRED-FOCUS predicate focused CONSE consequence ( S semantic pole CONST construction ( SA sicilia amissa[ ] CONTR contrastive SIM simile COP copulative SOLE solecistic COUP couplet SPEC species CTG category ( SYLP syllepsis DECRP description SYNES synesis DM double meaning SYNEC synecdoche ELLIP ellipsis TAUPH taughtophony ENLAGE enallage TE transferred epithet EXP explicit TOP topic FEAT feature TR transitive HYPB hyperbole V verb HYPL hypallage VP verb phrase INT integrate W word LITO litotes WP wordplay MEIO meiosis ZGMA zeugma METLP metalepsis 11

13 12

14 1 Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Volume I Theoretical Prerequisites (figurative language) (Langacker 1987: 1)

15 5 6 14

16 2 (trope) µ (metaphor) 4.2 (metonymy)

17 (a) (b) (c) (d) 2.1: (1) 2 Barthes (1979/1970), (1973: ), (1994), (1995) 3 Gibbs (1994: ) Giora (1997, 1999) (salience) 16

18 : 137 (1) [ ] Plato (1967/390BC-abt,/), Aristotle (1992/330BCabt, 1997/330BC-abt), Cicero (2000/54BC, 1999/55BC), Quintilianus (2005/95-abt, 2009/95- abt) (Barthes 1979/1970: 23) (ibid., 19 25) (a-1) (a-2) (a-3) [a-1] Aristotle (1997/330BC-abt: 78 83) (onoma) 8 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 17

19 (a) (b) (c) (d) (ibid., 79) (metaphora) (1) [a-2] Aristotle (1992/330BC-abt: ) (ibid., ) (1) [a-3] (ibid., 347) (1) Jakobson (1981/1956), Ullmann (1957), Barthes (1971/1964, 1979/1970), le groupe µ (1981/1970) µ µ (a-4) (a-5) [a-4] (Aristotle 1997/330BC-abt: 78) µ (le groupe µ 1981/1970: 53) (ibid., 72) (1) 18

20 (ibid., 53) motion body-part [a-5] (métasémème) (ibid., 50) (trope) (ibid., 179) (1) motion body-part body-part celestial Ricoeur (1998/1975: ) µ (ibid., 64) (ibid., 65) µ µ (ibid., 98) µ 4 Grice (1975), (1978) (conversational maxims) (a-6) [a-6] (Grice 1975: 45) (1) (2) (ibid., 46) (1) 4 Chomsky (1965: 149) 19

21 (ibid., 53) µ (A) (A) Jakobson (1981/1956) 5 Barthes (1971/1964) (b-1) (b-2) [b-1] (selection) (combination) (Jakobson 1981/1956: 61) (association) (syntagm) (ibid., 60) (similarity) (ibid., 61) (contiguity) (ibid.) 5 Lacan (1977/1957) (1988: ), (1998: ) Barthes (1972/1967) 20

22 (metaphoric way) (metonymic way) (ibid., 76) (1) [b-2] 2.1: Jakobson (1981/1956: 76 77) (M s ) (M c ) (P s ) hut, cabin, palace, den litter, poverty (P c ) is poor little house burnt out 2.1 (ibid.) (hut) P s P c M s M c (P s ) (P c ) (M s P s ) hut hut cabin palace den 6 (M s P c ) hut poor little house (ibid., 77) (M c P c ) burnt out litter poverty (ibid.) (1) (M s P s ) 2.1 (M s P c ) (M c P s ) 6 hut den 21

23 7 (b-3) [b-3] Barthes (1971/1964: 191) (ibid., 192) (ibid., ; ) Lakoff and Johnson (1980) Lakoff and Turner (1989), Lakoff (1993), Langacker (1993), Kövecses and Radden (1998), Köevecses (2000) (1982, 1992, 2004, 2007), (1997), (2002), (2002b) Lakoff (1987), Taylor (1989), (1988, 1995), (2003) Barcelona (2000), Radden (2000) (b-4) (b-5) [b-4] 7 den hut the hut is den 22

24 (Lakoff 1993: 209) (conceptual domain) (mapping) (ibid., 208) (ibid., 210) (1) [b-5] (ibid., 245) (1) (B) (B)

25 Richards (1936) Black (1962/1954), Beardsley (1958) Ricoeur (1998/1975), Levin (1979) (c-1) [c-1] (vehicle) (tenor) (interaction) (Richards 1936: 100) (1) [ ] [ ] (c-2) (c-3) [c-2] (focus) (frame) (Black 1962/1954: 27) (1) (extension of meaning) (ibid., 39) (ibid.) (1) [ ] [c-3] (ibid.) 24

26 (organized) (associated commonplaces) (principal subject) (seen through) (ibid., 41) (ibid., 42) (1) 8 (1879), (1889), (1909) (1927/1893), (1902), (2007/1905) ( 1978, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1996, 2006) (c-4) [c-4] (1978: 77) (ibid., ) (1) 8 (1968/1961), (1988) 25

27 (C) (C) 26

28 (A) (B) (C) (I) (II) (III) (I) (rhetorical conditions) (II) (rhetorical action) (III) (rhetorical effects) (2) :

29 (I-1) (I-2) [I-1] (6) (Trnka s law)(trnka 1982/1936) (selection rules)(chomsky 1965: 149) [I-2] (rhetorical focus) (6) (II-1) (II-2) 28

30 [II-1] (vehicle) (tenor) (domain of vehicle) (domain of tenor) (6) [ ] (6) (6) [ ] [II-2] (associative relation) (syntagmatic relation) (metaphoric action) (6) [ ] [ ] (metonymic action) [ ] [ ] [ ] 29

31 : (6) (metaphor) (3) : 267 (3) (I) (II) 30

32 [ ] (III) (metonymy) (4) : 46 (4) (I) (II) [ ] [ ] (III) (paronomasia) (5) : 36 (5) (I) (II) (III) 31

33 4.3.3 (transferred epithet) (6) : 60 (6) (I) (II) (III)

34 3 (i) (ii) (ii) (i) (ii) (iii) 3.1 (ii) 3.2 (iii) (schema) (Langacker 1987: 65) 33

35 (semantic space) (phonological space) (Langacker 1987: 76) 3.1: Langacker (1987: 77) 2 (grammar) (usage event) (ibid.: 57) (ibid.: 66) (sym) (bipolar) (semantic pole) (phonological pole) (semantic unit) (phonological unit) 2 (Langacker 1987: 79) 34

36 3 (conceptualization) (vocalization) (symbolic unit) (cod) (coding) (target structure) 4 (ibid.: 493) (categorization) 3.1 (ibid.: 68) (i) (ii) (ibid.: 66) (i) (ii) 3 (unit) (Langacker 1987: 494) 4 (Langacker 1987: 493) 35

37 [NP 1 NP 2 ] : 3.2 (a) (entity) (X)

38 entity (Langacker 1987: 198) (b) (profile) (base) (designated) [ ] X [X] (c) (correspondence line) (d) (thing) (ibid.,183) (e) (relation) 3.3: Langacker (1987: 249) (interconnection) (ibid.,198) (non-processual relation) (f) t (process) (g) tr lm (trajector) (landmark) (ibid.,217) (h) n (norm) 37

39 3.4: 3.4 (i) (noun) (j) (verb) (k) (adjective) (l) (adveb) 3.5:

40 (m) (metaphoric action) (n) (metonymic action) (1) : (1) [A] (1) Mn 39

41 3.6: (1) [ ] [ ] (1) [ ] 3.6 [A] [A] 3.7 [B] 3.7: (1) [A] [B] [B] [A] [A] [B] [B] 40

42 3.6 [A] 3.7 [B] (i) (ii) (iii) (i) [A] (1) (ii) [A] [B] (iii) 3.6 (integration) (composite structure) 3.6 [ ] [B] [ ] (reference-point) R 1 D 1 T 1 41

43 3.8: R 2 D 2 T 2 D 1,D 2 [ ] D 1 D Langacker (1993) 42

44 3.2.1 (reductionist approach) (usage-based) (network model) (Langacker 1987: 371) (i) (ii) (i) (prototype) (similarity) (ibid.) (prototype model) (ii) (schema) (ibid.) (elaborate) (ibid.) (schematicity) (ibid., 133) (model based on schematicity) (ibid., 371) (horizontal) (vertical) (outward) (upward) 43

45 (ibid., 373) (network model) 6 (target) T (standard) S (discrepancy) V S T V S (i) (ii) S T V S (schema) S T (instantiation) T S T S S T V S (prototype) S T (extension) T S T S S T (schematization) (conceptualizer) S T (overlook) (ibid., 372) (ibid.) (ibid., 373) 3.9 Prototype Extension Schema 7 Schema Prototype Extension Schema Prototype Extension 3.9: Langacker (1993: 2) (2000: 181) 6 (radial model) (Langacker 1993: 2) 7 Langacker (1993: 2) 3.9 ( 2000: 240) 44

46 S T V S T V (topography model) 8 8 Langacker (2006: ) (moutain range model) 45

47 (domain) (realm of potential value) (Langacker 1987: 133) (category domain) (topography model) 3.10 B P B E B S H S A S 3.10: A S H S H S A S B S B S B P B E 3.10 (specificity) 46

48 B E B S B E :

49

50 '( 4.1:!"# %& $

51 (rhetorical condtions) (rhetorical action) (rhetorical effects) (antanaclasis)[ ] (1) : 199 (1) [ ] [ ] (paronomasia)[ ] (à-peu-prés[ ])[ ] 50

52 (transferred epithet)[ ] (2) : 60 (2) (ellipsis)[ ] (enallage)[ ] (synesis)[ ] (hypallage)[ ] (synecdoche)[ ] (3) : 47 (3) (metaphor)[ ] (attelage)[ ] (hyperbole)[ ] (litotes)[ ] (oxymoron)[ ] (metonymy)[ ]

53 (simile)[ ] (4) : 9 (4) (metonymy)[ ] (5) : 46 (5) [ ]

54 (enallage)[ ] (6) : 74 (6) [ ] [ ] (oxymoron)[ ] (7) : 20 (7)

55 (ellipsis)[ ] (8) : 306 (8) [ ] (metaphor)[ ] (9) : 174 (9) (simile)[ ] (attelage)[ ] (hyperbole)[ ] (sicilia amissa[ ])[ ] (10) : 19 54

56 (10) (metonymy)[ ] (synecdoche)[ ] (metalepsis)[ ] (hypallage)[ ] (transferred epithet)[ ] 4.3 (paronomasia)[ ] (11) : 36 (11) (antanaclasis)[ ] (à-peu-prés[ ])[ ] (zeugma solecistic)[ ] (12) 1 (iconicity) 55

57 : 275 (11) [ ] [ ] (synesis)[ ] 56

58 (metaphor) (associative relation) (syntagmatic relation) (similarity) 57

59 2 [A B ] (1) : 174 (1) (ground) 3 [A B] (possessive expression) (2) : 14 (2) (1) (1) 4.2 (1)(2) MTPR-cop 4.2: (MTPR-cop) 2 (1988: 15 20) 3 [X ] X 58

60 [ ] 4 (3) : 4 (3) (personification) (4) : 137 (5) : 267 (4) (5) 4.3 MTPR-pred [ ] 4.3: (MTPR-pred) (4) [ ] 4 [ ]

61 (6) : 351 (7) : 174 (6) (7) [ ] (7) 4.4 MTPR-nom [ ] 4.4: (MTPR-nom) [ ] (simile) (action marker) 60

62 5 (8) : 262 (9) : 9 (8) (9) 6 (10) : 11 (11) : 27 (10) (12) 5 (allegory) 6 (1978: 48 78) 61

63 (12) : 43 (12) [ X ] 4.5 SIM-decrp AM 4.5: (SIM-decrp) AM (10)(11)(12) (13) : 32 (14) ( ) ( ) : 6 (13) [ ] [ ] [ ] 62

64 (14) [ ] [ ] 4.6 SIM-pred-focus AM SIM-decrp V 1 [ ] [ ] 4.6: (SIM-predfocus) ' ' '" )( ' ()'*! "!"#$!" % ' )( % % & & 4.7: 4.7 [1] SIM-nom SIM-decrp SIM-pred-focus 63

65 (simile(pred-type)) (simile(cop-type)) [2] MTPRC-pred SIM-pred-focus MTPR-pred [3] MTPRC (metaphoric trope) (attelage) 7 8 (15) : 104 (16) : 15 (15) [ ] (16) 4.8: (ATLG) 7 attelage le groupe µ (1981/1970) ( 2006: ) 8 (zeugma) zeugma (4.7.1 ) (4.8.3 ) (4.3.1 ) zeugma 64

66 [ ] [ ] 4.8 ATLG MTPR-cop CONTR MTPR-cop [ ] [ ] [ ] V #$" #$" -".. #$" #$" *'","," )#" %#'("!" + "," % )#" )#$" & & & & 4.9: 65

67 4.9 [1] MTPRC-cop ATLG MTPR-cop [2] SYLP DM ATLG SYLP (double meaning) [3] DM SIM-pred-focus 66

68 4.3 (wordplay) (Guiraud 1979/1976: 7) (substitution) (ibid., 8) (métaphore) 4.10: Guiraud (1979/1976: 9 10) (syllepsis) 9 9 ( 1988: 127) 67

69 (1) : (1) [ VP] [ VP] (1) (2) : 106 (3) : 134 (2) [ X ] [X ] (3) [ N] [N ] 4.11: Langacker (1987: 80)

70 3.1.1 (a) dog (b) (Langacker 1987: 78) (ibid., 79) 4.12 SYLP W S 1 W S 2 W P 1 Phonological Space W S 1 W S 2 [ X ] [X ] W P 1 CONST 1 CONST 2 [ X ] X 4.12: (SYLP) 10 W S 1 W S 2 W S 2 W S (antnaclasis) (4) 10 [ X ] [ ] 69

71 : 38 (5) : 105 (4) [ ] [ ] (5) (4) (5) (6) : 199 (7) : 16 (6) (7) (4) [ V][ V] [ ] 4.13 (4) (7) ANTCLA Phonological Space W P 1 [ ] W P 1 70

72 W P 1 [ ] /tsu/ /ka/ W P 1 W S 2 W S 1 CONST : (ANTCLA) CONST 2 W P 1 [ ] (4) (5) (6) (7) (paronomasia) (8) 11 : 36 (8) /appa/ 11 (2006: 160) 71

73 ( 1988: 138) (9) : 298 (9) (10) : 49 (11) : 36 (10) (11) [ ] [ ] 72

74 4.14 PARONM W S 1 W S 2 Phonological Space W P 1 W P 2 W P 1 W P 2 12 (12) ( ) 4.14: (PARONM) : 131 (12) (12) (à-peu-prés[ ]) (13) ( ) : 36 (13) [X ] [ ] 12 Kawahara and Shinohara (2009), Kawahara (2009) 73

75 (14) ( ) : 187 (14) (14) 4.15 [ ] W P 2 W P 3 W P 3 W P 2 W P 3 W S : (APEU) (15) : 135 (15) 74

76 4.3.5 # $,(-' (+ %&%' &( * ) ' "!! % 4.16: 4.16 [1] AMB SYLP ANTCLA [2] TAUPH (tautophony) ANTCLA PARONM APEU [3] WP Phonological Space 75

77 ( 1986: 54) (Jakobson 1960: 358) (selection) (combination) (rhyme) (alliteration) (message) (Jakobson 1960: 356) 76

78 (hyperbole) 13 (1) : 10 (1) Leech (1969: ) Leech (1983: ) (2001) 14 (1978: ) 77

79 (2) : 160 (3) : (2) [ ] [ ] (3) [ ] (4) : 9 (4) (4) 4.17: Langacker (1987: 133) 78

80 4.17 (norm) (HEIGHT SCALE) tall exactly six feet five and one-half inches tall 4.18 HYPB-mtpr [ ] n 4.18: (HYPB-mtpr) [ ] 4.17 (5) : 76 (5) 79

81 [A B] 15 (adynaton) (6) : 11 (6) 4.19 HYPB-sim AM (5) 4.19: (HYPB-sim) (i) (ii) (action marker) (1961) 80

82 (7) : 185 (7) [ ] 4.20 (7) HYPB-lito AM (i) 4.20: (HYPB-lito) (ii) 81

83 4.4.2 (litotes) (8) : 26 (9) : 9 (8) (9) (8) (9) (politeness) (10) : 16 82

84 (10) [ ] (10) 4.21: Langacker (1991: 134) 4.21 (existence) (location) (non-existence) (Langacker 1991: 132) M (negation) (ibid., 133) M M M M M 4.22 LITO-anto 4.22: (LITO-anto) [ ] 83

85 (11) : 11 (11) [ ] 4.23: (LITO-double) 4.23 LITO-double LITOanto 17 (12) : (meiosis) 84

86 (13) : 46 (12) (13), 4.24 LITO-meio 4.24: (LITO-meiosis) [1] EXP SIM-nom HYPB-sim SIM-nom [2] HYPB [3] HYPB HYPB-lito HYPB-sim [4] HYPB-lito bf LITO-meio [5] LITO-anto LITO-double LITO-neg 85

87 "#$% " )% "% "'% " (% *., *0, *+, *-, */, "#$% "#$% "% "% "&% "!% "#$%! 4.25: 86

88 4.5 [ ] (antithesis) ( 1981: 117) (1) 87

89 (2) : 448 : 30 (1) [NP 1 NP 2 NP 3 ] NP 2 NP 3 (2) [NP 1 NP 2 NP 3 ] (1) NP 2 NP 3 (3) : 442 (3) [NP 1 NP 2 NP 3 ] NP 2 NP 3 [ ] [ ] 88

90 4.26 ANTI-nom CONTR CONTR CONST [NP X ] (1) (3) 4.26: (ANTI-nom) 18 (4) : 12 (5) : 37 (4) [NP 1 NP 2 NP 3 ] (5) 18 (parallelism) (isocolon) 89

91 [NP VP] (5) [ ] [ ] 19 (6) : 486 (6) [V VP] [ ] (3) 4.27 ANTI-coup CONST 1 [NP VP] 4.27: (ANTI-coup) 19 (maxim) 90

92 4.5.2 (oxymoron) (1994) ( 1981, Leech 1969) ( 2002a, 1989) 20 (7) 20 (paradox) (tautology) 91

93 : 21 (8) 21 : 20 (7) (8) (7) (8) (i) (ii) (8) [ ] [ ] (iii) 4.28: (OXYM-anti) 4.28 OXYM-anti ANTI-nom ANTI-coup 21 (1981: 134) 92

94 CONTR CONST (i) (8) [ ] [ ] [NP 1 NP 2 ] (ii) [ ] [ ] (9) 22 : 89 (13) [ ] [ ] (10) : 131 (10) [ ] [ ] [ ] (13) 22 (1977: 220) 93

95 (11) : 265 (12) : 15 (11) [ ] (12) [ ] 4.29 OXYM-synec 4.29: (OXYMsynec) [ ] [ ] [1] ANTI-contr OXYM-anti ANTI-nom [2] ANTI-relation OXYM-anti ANTI-coup [3] ANTI MTPRC 94

96 $% $!" # % $ $ $ % % 4.30: [4] OXYM-synec MTNYC (1) Bain (1887: 24 27) 95

97 ( 1976/1965: ) (8) (13) : 7 96

98 4.6 Aristotle (1992/330BC-abt) 23 (Lakoff and Johnson 1980, Taylor 1989, Kövecses and Radden 1998, 1988, 2003) ( 1988: ) : (Ruwet 1986/1975, Langacker 1993, 1999/1995, 2009a,b, 2004, 2002, 2004) (Langacker 2009a: 46) 3.1 (contiguity) Blank (1999) 25 97

99 (metonymy) [N 1 N 2 ] [N 1 N 2 ] N 1 (1) : 46 (1) [N 1 N 2 ] [N 1 N 2 ] [N 1 N 2 ] [N 1 N 2 ] (2) 98

100 : 160 (2) [ ] (1) [N 1 N 2 ] N 1 N 2 N 1 N 2 N 1 N 1 (3) 26 : 69 (4) : 37 (5) : 113 (3) [ ] (4) [ ] (5) [ ] 4.32 MTNY-feat [N 1 N 2 ] [ ] 4.32: (MTNY-feat) [N 1 N 2 ] N

101 (6) 27 (7) : 84 : 199 (6) (6) [N 1 N 2 ] N 1 N 2 (7) (8) : 20 (8) (6)(7) (8) ( 2000: 87 90) 4.33: (MTNY-part) 4.33 [N 1 N 2 ] tr/lm 27 (1988: 105) 100

102 [N 1 N 2 ] [N 1 N 2 ] (synecdoche) 28 [N 1 N 2 ] [N 1 N 2 ] N 2 [N 1 N 2 ] N 1 N 2 N 1 N 2 (9) : 47 (10) (11) : 26 : 240 (9) [ ] (10) [ ] (9) [ ]

103 4.34 SYNEC-kind MTNY-feat (copulative) [ ] 4.34: (SYNEC-kind) [N 1 N 2 ] N 1 (12) (13) : 78 : 167 (12)(13) [ ] [ ] [ ] (12) (13) 4.35: (SYNEC-spec) 102

104 4.35 SYNEC-spec MTNYpart (copulative) [ ] %!"! #$ #$ 4.36: 4.36 [1] MTNYC-lm [2] MTYNC-tr [3] MTNYC-nom (metalepsis) (antecedent consequence) 103

105 (14) : 122 (15) : 84 (16) : 86 (14) [ ] (15) (16) 4.37: (METLP-ante) 4.37 METLP-ante ( 2004, Gibbs 1994) 104

106 (17) : (18) : 81 (19) : 288 (17) [ ] [ ] (18) (19) (17)(18) [ ] 4.38 METLP-conse 4.38: (METLP-conse) (19) (14) 105

107 ! 4.39: [1] METLP [2] MTNYC-lm [3] MTNYC-tr [4] MTNYC [N 1 N 2 ] N 2 [ ] [ ] 106

108 (ellipsis) 29 Halliday and Hasan (1976: ) (i) (ii) (iii) (nominal ellipsis) (verbal ellipsis) (clausal ellipsis) 29 (brachylogy) 107

109 4.40 the cat won t catch mice in winter (i) (nominal group) (ii) (verbal group) 4.40: Halliday and Hasan (1976: 194) (iii) (propositional) (modal) (1) (2) a. b. (1) [ ] (2a) [ ] (2b) [ ] (2a) [ ] (2b) [ ] (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 194) 108

110 (3) : 58 (6) [ ] (4) : 387 (5) 30 : 58 (4) [ ] (5) 31 [ ][ ] (5) [ ] [ ]

111 (4) 4.41 ELLIP-nom 4.41: (ELLIP-nom) (zeugma) 32 (6) (7) : 140 : 333 (6) (7) (7) 32 zeugma (zeugma solecistic) (attelage) (syllepsis) zeugma 110

112 [ ] (8) (9) : 306 : 79 (8) [ ] (9) [ ] (10) : : (ELLIPpred) (10) [ ] [ ] [ ] 4.42 ELLIP-pred [ ] 111

113 (11) : 28 (11) (aposiopesis) 33 (12) ( ) 33 (2006) (suspension) (contre-interprétation[ ]) (paralipsis) 112

114 : 58 (12) [ ] [ ] [ ] (13) ( ) : 10 (13) (14) : 61 (14) [ ] [ ] (indirect speech act) (15) : 19 (15) [ ] [ ] 113

115 (16) : 52 (16) [ ] [ ] 4.43 APOSIO CONST [ ] CONST [ ] [ ] 4.43: (APO- SIO) ( 1981: 38) [1] ELLIP-part APOSIO ELLIP-nom [2] ELLIP 114

116 ( ' $%&$ "#! "# 4.44: MTNYC [3] APOSIO ANTI 115

117 116

118 (enallage) 34 (2006) (antiptosis) 35 (1) : enallage 35 ( 2006: 124) (semantic role) (deep case) 117

119 (2) : 189 (1) (1) (2) (1) (1)(2) (3) : 74 (3) 4.47 ENLAGE-antip C 1 C 1 [ ] 4.45: (ENLAGE-antip) (2009/1993) 118

120 37 bean beans s (antimeria) (4) : 120 (5) : 201 (4) [ ] 37 (3) (1993) (1995: ) 119

121 (5) [ ] [XX ] (6) 38 : 131 (6) [X ] 4.46 ENLAGE-antim CTG 1 CTG : (ENLAGE-antim) CTG 1 CTG 2 CONST 1 [X N] [X ] CONST 1 CTG

122 (7) : 29 (7) [ ] (synesis) (8) : 59 (8) [ ] (8) [ ] [ ] 121

123 (9) ( ) : 244 (9) (10) ( ) : 270 (10) [ ] 4.47 SYNES 4.47: (SYNES) (8) [ ] 122

124 4.8.3 (zeugma solecistic) (11) 42 : 275 (12) : 532 (11) 4.48 ZGMAsole-pred 4.48: (ZGMA-solepred) 39 zeugma ( 2006: 21 27) zeugma zeugma solecistic 40 Halliday and Hasan (1976) (2006: 137) 123

125 [ ] (13) : 355 (13) [ ] [ ] 4.49 ZGMA-sole-nom 4.49: (ZGMA-solenom) [ ] [1] ENALGE [2] 124

126 & #! ", $%&'' ()*+,- $%&'' $%&'' (.,- 4.50: SYNES ENLAGE-antip ENLAGE-antip SYNES [3] ZGMA-sole-pred SYNES [4] ZGMA-sole-nom ENLAGE-antip [5] INT 125

127 126

128 (hypallage) (surface case)

129 44 (1987: 51 79) (1) 45 : 164 (1) 46 (2) : 341 (2) 47 [ ] (2) ( 1990a: 50) (3) 44 (spray paint hypallage) (1981), (1996) 45 (2006: 103) (2000: 68 70) 128

130 (4) (5) ( 1990a: 46 47; ) (3) (4)(5) 48 (1) (2) 4.51: (HYPL) (1)(2) HYPL C 1 C 2 C 1 C 2 C 1 [ ] HYPL [ ] 48 (1990a) (1990b) 49 (1981) 129

131 50 ( 1987: 65 66) (6) : 30 (6) [ ] (sicilia amissa[ ]) (7) 51 : 303 (8) : 19 (7) [ ] (8) 50 (1978) 51 (2006: 111) 130

132 [ ] (8) 52 (7) [A B] [ ] 4.52: (SA) 52 (active zone profile discrepancy) 131

133 (chassé-croisé[ ]) (9) : 60 (10) 54 (9) (10) 4.53 (9)(10) CC (2006: 106) 132

134 (9) (9) 4.53: (CC) (synesthesia) (transferred epithet) Hall (1973) (1991: 51 53) (2008) 55 (11) : 60 (11) (11) 55 (1995: 79 80) (2002: ) (2009) (2011) 133

135 (12) : 240 (12) (11) (12) (11) [N ] (11) [NP 1 NP 2 ] NP 1 NP : (TE) 4.54 TE ADJ (2008: 30 31) 56 (1997) (2009: 90 92) (1999) 134

136 ( 1987: 74 75) (13) : 113 (14) : 240 (13) (14) [1] ALT (syntactic alternation) HYPL SA [2] V-CON CC 135

137 !!& ' ',-,-,.- $""%()*#%+ $!!"& $""%!"# 4.55: CC ALT [3] 136

138 MTPRC (wordplay) (hyperbole) (enallage) MTPRC ANTI MTNYC MTNYC ELLIP (hypallage(wide-meaning)) 137

139 4.56: " #$ "! " #% "" " "" & ''''''' & #% #% 138

140

141 (1) (2) (1) (2) (1)(2) (3) : 47 (3) (4) (4) (3) (4) (5)

142 : 259 (5) (5) (5) (6) : 26 (7) : 240 (6) (7) (8) ( ) : 178 (8) 141

143 (9) : 371 (9) (10) ( ) : 452 (10) (11) 142

144 : 18 (11) (11) [NP 1 NP 2 ] (12) : 241 (12) [NP 1 NP 2 ] (13) : 37 (14) : 84 (13) (14) (allegory) 143

145 [ ] (13) (15) : 6 (16) : 312 (15) (16) [ ]

146 2 (17) : 235 (17) [ ] (18) : 277 (18) [ ] (19) : 38 (19) (20) 2 (2011), (2011) 145

147 : (20) [ ] [ ] (cliche) 146

148 (21) : 312 (21) [ ] (21) (21) 147

149 5.2.2 (22) : 43 (22) (23) : 238 (23) (23) 148

150 149

151

152 The Philosophy of Rhetoric (discourse) (shifts of sense) (metaphor) (Richards 1936: 10 11) 151

153 152

154 [1]. 1995/1915. : : [2]. 1995/1916. : : [3]. 1996/1918. : : [4]. 1996/1920a. : : [5]. 1996/1920b. : : [6]. 1974a. : [7]. 1974b. : [8] : [9]. 1994/ : : [10]. 1994/ : : [11]. 1988/1945. : : [12]. 1969/1929. : : [13]. 1969/1934. : : [14]. 1969/ : : [15]. 1970/1925. : : [16]. 1970/1927. : : [17]. 1970/1930. : : [18]. 1970/1931a. : : [19]. 1970/1931b. : : [20]. 1970/1931c. : : [21]. 1980/1925. : : [22]. 1980/1926. : : [23]. 1980/1935. : : [24]. 1987/ : : [25]. 1950/1893. : : [26]. 1952/1889. : : [27]. 1988/1939. : : [28]. 1993/1973a. : 36. : 153

155 [29]. 1993/1973b. : 36. : [30]. 1983/ : : [31]. 1967/1939. : : [32]. 1929/1906a. : [33]. 1929/1906b. : [34]. 1938/1905. : [35]. 1956/1907. : : [36]. 1956/1909. : : [37]. 1956/1910. : : [38]. 1994/1908a. : : [39]. 1994/1908b. : : [40]. 2002/1932. : 3 9. : [41] : [42]. 1997/ : [43]. 2008/1909. : : [44]. 2008/1915. : : [45]. 2008/1916. : : 154

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157 [18] Guiraud, Pierre. 1979/1976. : [19] Hall, Robert A TheTtransferred Epithet in PG Wodehouse. Linguistic Inquiry 4(1) [20] Halliday, M.A.K, and Ruqaiya Hasan Cohesion in English. London: Longman. [21] Jakobson, Roman Closing statement: Linguistics and Poetics. in Style in Language Cambridge: The MIT Press. [22] Jakobson, Roman. 1981/1956. Two aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances. in Fundamentals of Language Berlin: Mouton, The Hague. [23] Kawahara, Shigeto Probing Knowledge of Similarity Through Puns. [24] Kawahara, Shigeto, and Kazuko Shinohara The Role of Psychoacoustic Similarity in Japanese Puns: A Corpus Study. Journal of Linguistics 45(1) [25] Köevecses, Zoltán Metaphor and Emotion: Language, Culture, and Body in Human Feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [26] Kövecses, Zoltan, and Günter Radden Metonymy: Developing a Cognitive Linguistic View. Cognitive Linguistics 9(1) [27] Lacan, Jacques. 1977/1957. II : : [28] Lakoff, George Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [29] Lakoff, George The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. in Metaphor and Thought. 2nd edn Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [30] Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [31] Lakoff, George, and Mark Turner More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [32] Langacker, Ronald W Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Volume I Theoretical Prerequisites. Stanford: Stanford University Press. [33] Langacker, Ronald W Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Volume II Descriptive Application. Stanford: Stanford University Press. [34] Langacker, Ronald W Reference-point Constructions. Cognitive Linguistics 4(1) [35] Langacker, Ronald W. 1999/1995. Raising and Transparency. in Grammar and Conceptualization New York: Mouton De Gruyter. [36] Langacker, Ronald W On the Continuous Debate about Discreteness. Cognitive Linguistics 17(1) [37] Langacker, Ronald W. 2009a. Metonymic Grammar. in Panther, Klaus-Uwe, Linda L. Thornburg, and Antonio Barcelona eds. Metonymy and Metaphor in Grammar

158 Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [38] Langacker, Ronald W. 2009b. Metonymy in Grammar. in Investigations in Cognitive Grammar New York: Mouton de Gruyter. [39] Leech, Geoffrey N A linguistic guide to English poetry. London: Longman. [40] Leech, Geoffrey N Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman. [41] Levin, Samuel R Standard Approach to Metaphor and Proposal for Literary Metaphor. in Ortony, Andrew (ed.) Metaphor and Thought Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [42] le groupe µ. 1981/1970. : [43] Plato. 1967/370BC-abt. : [44] Plato. 1967/390BC-abt. : [45] Quintilianus, Marcus F. 2005/95-abt. 1 : [46] Quintilianus, Marcus F. 2009/95-abt. 2 : [47] Radden, Günter How Metonymic Are Metaphors. in Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroads Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. [48] Richards, Ivor A The Philosophy of Rhetoric. New York and London: Oxford University Press. [49] Ricoeur, Paul. 1998/1975. Paris: Seuil [50] Ruwet, Nicolas. 1986/1975. : : [51] Taylor, John R Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes in Linguistic Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [52] Trnka, Bohumil. 1982/1936. General Laws of Phonemic Combinations. in Fried, Vilém (ed.) Selected Papers in Structural Linguistics [53] Ullmann, Stephen The Principles of Semantics. Michigan: Jackson. [54] : [55] Oxymoron Tautology 28: [56] : [57] : [58] : : [59] spray paint hypallage 127: [60] :

159 [61] (10): [62] (1): [63] [64] : [65] : [66] : [67]. 1990a., 98: [68]. 1990b. [ ] 9: 1-57 [69] KLS 19: [70] : [71] : [72] : [73] : [74] : [75] : [76] I: : : [77] : [78] : [79] : [80] : [81]. 1927/1893. : [82] [83]. 1968/1961. : [84]. 1976/1965. : : [85]. 2007/1905. : [86] : [87] I: : : [88] : 158

160 [89]. 2009/1993. : : [90] : [91] : [92] : [93] : [94] : : [95]. 2002a. 35: [96]. 2002b. 2: 1 24 [97] : [98] : [99] : : [100] : [101] : [102] : [103] : : [104] : [105] : [106] : [107] : : [108] : [109] :

161 60, , , 53, 63, 72, 73, 84, 103, , 73, , 89, 94, 103, , 97 95, , , , , , 63, , , , 129, , , 88 83, 88 56, 64, 73, 84,

162 , , , 121, , 106, , ,