96-6 (1987) The Cambrian and Ordovician Systems in the South Side of Eurasia and the Origin of the Tethys Sea Teiichi KOBAYASHI Abstract The trans-eur

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1 96-6 (1987) The Cambrian and Ordovician Systems in the South Side of Eurasia and the Origin of the Tethys Sea Teiichi KOBAYASHI Abstract The trans-eurasiatic faunal connection in the early Phanerozoic eon ia an important problem in geology, as it concerns the origin of the Tethyan sea. When I proposed the Tsinling-Keijo (i.e. Seoul) line in 1930, I traced the southern fauna from South Korea to Northern Europe through Pamir and Kirghiz Steppe, because none was known of the Eo- Palaeozoic fossis in Near and Middle East. Two years later however, I could confirm the route of migration from South France to Eastern Asia with the distribution of the Dikelokephaliniidae. In 1976 I classified the early Cambrian biogeography into the Redlichian, Olenellidian and intermediate provinces in the last of which extending from Morocco to Northern Siberia, the olenellids and redlichids coexisted. In the present knowledge the Redlichian province reaches as far as Sardinia in the Mediterranean sea. In the Middle Cambrian period on the contrary the Paradoxidian province expanded into Turkey, while the Tokinella- Oryctocephalus fauna is traceable to Kashimir, although Iran is still a question. Recently it was ascertained by the discovery of Maladioidella that the oriental trilobites have migrated westerly to the Iberian peninsula in the late Cambrian period. Of the early and middle Ordovician ages the Asaphopsis-Taihungshania-Neseuretus fauna distributed through the Tethyan sea, although the late Ordovician faunal aspect is not so well clarified in the area.

2 Palaeogrographic map of Asia showing the probable distribution of land and water (black) in Lower Cambrian time. DIKELOKEPHALINIINAE Montagne Redlichian and Olenellian provinces two routes of migration Noire Tonkinella, Bailiella, Manchuriella, Damesella, Billingsella, Prosaukia, Calvinella

3 (General Dept. etc., 1980) B Annamitia, Paraeoosia, Damesella Drepanura, Stephanocare Billingsella tonkiniana, Prochuangia, Calvinella Thansa Suite, 850-1,000m, Lotagnostus, Hedinaspis Dongson Suite, m, Asaphopsis, Annamitella Lochodomus, Glyptograptus

4 Sinhvinh Suite, 2,000-2,500m, Plasmoprella, Demiroastrites Pagodia, Mictosaukia, Coreanocephalus Quadraticephalus, Mictosaukia (KOBAYASHI, GAN AHSAI & MURTHY 1979,

5 Redlichia noetlingi (Redl.) Hyolithes wynnei (Waag.) Lingulella wanniecki Redl. Lingulella fuchsi (Redl.) Bostsfordia granulata (Redl.) Neobolus warthi Schizopholis Wynnia warthi Waagen rugosa Waagen (Waag.) Ptychoparia warthi (P. geei, P. sakesarensis), Ptychoparia richteri (Chttidilla plana), " Olenus" indic us, Pseudotheca cf. subrugosa (or. Pseudotheca waageni) Peronopsis cf. rakuroensis Tonkinella bregiceps Kobayashi Tonkinella quadrifera Reed Bailiella frangttengensis Kobayashi (Reed) Bailiella seyuncta Reed) " Ptychoparia" dardapurensis Reed

6

7 Ano7nocarella (Entorachis) Tnemor (Reed) Anomocaraspis hundwarensis (Reed) Hundwarella personata (Reed)

8

9

10 DE LAPPARENT, BLAISE, DESPARMENT Tremadocian Fauna of Surkh Bum, Afghanistan, (Wolfart, 1970) Lingulella Paracraniops? Apheoorthis Geragnostus sp. sp. Trinodus sp. A. Afghancephalites surkhbumiensis weipperti angustus Pagodia (Wittekindtia) variabilis Saukia wirtzi Saukia turgida Macropyge Hazarania bregicaudata levis Harpides sp. A. Pilekia afghanensis Pilekia sp. A.

11 Redlichia, Protolenid Chelidonocephalus Iranochuangia, Chuangina, Maladioides Maladioidella Lingulella Acrothele Nissusia sp. Diraphora Latouchella? Orthotheca Redlichia Kermanella Kermanella Kermanella Stocklinia Paragraulos? Gogia? 2 spp. sp. venzlaffi kingi noetlingi buckriedea kuhbananensis lata lata lata minuta spinosa sp. dahuensis

12 (STOCKLIN, RUTTNER and U-T Saukia zone Upper Cambrian or Tremadocian U4 Alborsella zone U3 Kaolishania zone U2 Prochuangia zone Ut Drepanura zone M2 Dorypyge zone Mt Iranoleesia zone Upper Middle Cambrian Cambrian Drepanura (Spinopariura) (2), Koldiniella (2), Esseigania (1), Alborsella (1), Saukia (2) Upper Cambrian? Alborsella zone (U3) Prochuangia-Paracoosia-assemblage Drepanura-Torifera-Eokaolishania-assemblage Middle Cambrian zone (U2) zone (Ui) Dorypyge-Abharella-Erbenia-Chemidonocephalus-assemblage zone (m2)

13 Iranoleesia-zone (ml) Esseigania aff. tolli Kobayashi Derik (Mardin), Tut-Penbegli, Amanos Mts. (Hassa Region) (Ellesmereoceratidae, Endoceratidae) Neseuretus, Paramegalaspia, Symphysurus Paradoxides Agraulos? Corynexochus Corynexochus Pardaihania sp. indet. sp. indet. cf. delagei Miguel cf. sardous Rasseti hispida Thoral Conocoryphe (Parabailiella) languedocensis Thoral Ctenocephalus (Hartella) antiguus Thoral Solenopleura cf. ribeiroi (de Verneuili & Barrande) Jincella sp. indet. Conocoryphe (Conocoryphe) cf. brevifrons (Thoral) Homagnostus? sp. indet. Pseudagnostus (Pseuagnostus) cf. cyclopyge (Tullberg) Pseudagnostus (Pseudagnostus) sp. indet. Agnostinarum g. et sp. indet.

14 Maladioidella Ptychopariidarum Solenopleuracearum kelteri Sduzy? g. et sp. indet. g. et sp. indet. Micragnostus haudi Sduzy Rhaptagnostus? sp. Proteuloma cf. geinitzi (Barrande) Koldinioidia (Koldinioidia) cf. sulcata Robison-Pantoja-Alor Onchonotellus aff. amsassensis (Poletayava) Macropyge cf. taurina Dean Niobella cf. primaeva Parakoldinia (Westergard) cf. gibbosa (Lermantova) Lower Ordovician Sobova Trilobites, Taurus Mts, Turkey (Dean 1973) Geragnostus semipolithus Sobovaspis tuberculata Trinodus hebetatus Phillipsinella maturina Ampyx sp. Metopolichas sp. Harpides sp. Pricyclopyge superciliata Trinucleid gen, et sp indet. Cyclopygid gen et sp. indet. Cheirurid gen. et sp. indet. Protost sp. Pliomerina sp. Illaenus cf. herculeus Gortani Pterygometopus? sp. Panderia monodi Euloma (Lateuloma) laticeps Nileus sp. Carolinites sp. Symphysurus pannuceus Apatokephalus sp. Ptychopyge elegans Agerina pamphylica Niobe sobovana Pseudopetigurus cf. hofmanni (Perner) Asaphid, gen. et sp. indet. Peronopsys fallax aff. minor (Brogger) Solenopleurapsis marginate marginata Sduzy Conocoryphe (Conocoryphe) caecigena Dorypyge terneki Paradoxides (Eccaparadoxides) remus P. (E.) cf. pradoanus de Verneuili & Barrande Paradoxides (s. 1.) pentagonalis

15 Chlidonocephalus Derikaspis Holasaphus toluni anatolicus mesopotamicus Redlichops blanckenhorni R. and E. Richter, 1941 Resserops (Richterops) orientalis (Picard), 1942 Kingaspis campelli (King), 1924 Hesa problenzatica R. and E. Richter, 1941 Myopsolenus palmeri Parnes, Har 'Amram silty shales Myopsolenus palmeri Timnalla wingi Parnes Timanuella eyali Parnes Parnes, Stromella (Coxuluella) nevoi Parnes Hakhlil Formation, Timna area Har 'Amram sh. Aguillizian Hakhlil Fm Tassousekhtian R. orientalis Tinghitian R. blanckenhorni Amouslekian Assadian Soussian stage (Middle Cambrian) Soussian stage (Lower Cambrian)

16 1. Maloppa member 2. Punta Manna member 3. Punta Merina member 4. Nebida formation 5. Gonnesa formation 6. Cabitza shale 7. Cabita shale Dalmanites lamarmoria Vinas. Dalamites fluminensis Vinas. Dalmanites meneghiniana Vinas. Dalmanites cf. james Portl. Homalonotus (?) sardous Vinas.

17 3. Masse carbonatee 2. Gres de Pordaiha (Thoral) i.e. Alernances greso-calcaires (Gese). 1. Formation de Marcory lb. la. Gres dominants Schistes dominants Biconulites courtessori dlichia noiri, Granolenus midiff, Limouolenus trinquo

18 6. Schistes du Landeyran 5. Couches du La Cluse 4. Couches de la Cluse de 1'Orb 3. Couches de La Maurerie 2. Schistes de Saint-Chinnian 1. Couches de Barroubio

19 Callavia choff ati (Delgado) Delgadella zouzai (Delgado) Hicksia elvensis Delgado Hyolithes lusitanicus, " Modiolopsis" bocagei, Lingulella delgadoi. NANDEZ-SAMPELA).70(1935), MELENDEZ(1943), RUD, U. E. RicHTER(1948) tibritisches Gebirges-System, Leon, Asturia, Galicia, Toledo, Sierra Morena Olenellidae, Holminave Andalusiana, n. Redlichidae, Redlichinae Redlichia Neoredlichinae Realaspis, n. Perrector

20 ,, Saukiandinae Saukianada Sierra de COrdoba general series (Ossa-Morena Zone), 2. Sierra de Guadalupe Series (Luso-Oriental-Alciadica Zone), 3. Rio Uso Series (Galcico-Castellana Zone) Flanco Norte de la Alleacion Olivenza-Monesterio Toreearboles Formation

21 A. Asturian Zone B. Westastian-Loneerusian Zone C. Galician-Castilian Zone D. Eastlusitanian-Alcudian Zone E. Ossa-Morena Zone F. Southern Portuguese Zone HAMMANN (1976), ROMANO (1982a, b) Liegendes : Untere Kalke, mit Collenia

22

23 Taihungshania, Hungioides, Neseuretus, s.l. (or Neseuritinae) Colpocoryphe, Ceraurinella, Hanchungolithus Dikelokephaliniidae, Taihungshaniidae Birma- Asaphopsis-Taihungshania-Naseuretus

24 GRABAU, A. W. ( ), Stratigraphy of China, I, Palaeozoic and Older. 28 pp., 6 pls KIAER, J. The Lower Silurian at Khabasova. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, Sciet. Results, XII KOBAYASHI, T. Ordovician Fossils from Korea and South Manchuria, Proc. Imp. Acad. vol. 5, (2), 87-89, Cambrian and Ordovician Faunas of South Korea and the Bearing of the Tsinling-Keijo Line on Ordovician Palaeogeography. Ibid. vol. 6, (10), pp , The Natural Boundary between the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems discussed from the Asiatic Standpoint. Rep. XVI Intern. Geol. Congr. Washington, 1933, vol. 1, p , The Dikelokephalininae (nov.), its Distribution, Migration and Evolution. Three Contributions to the Cambro-Ordovician Faunas-1. Japan. Jour. Geol. Geogr. vol. 13, p , Zoopalaeogeographic Provinces in the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Periods. Ibid. vol. 19, p , 1971a. The Cambro-Ordovician Faunal Provinces and the Interprovincial Correlation discussed with special Reference to the Trilobites of Eastern Asia. The Cambro-Ordovician Formations of South Chosen (Korea) Jour. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, sec. 2, vol, 18, no 1, p , 1971b. The Eurasiatic Faunal Connection in the Ordovician Period. Colloque sur l'ordovicien et le Silurien 1971, Brest, France, p , Mem. du Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, No. 73, Three Faunal Provinces in the Early Cambrian Period. Proc. Japan Acad. vol. 48, (4), p , On the Time-Relation batween the Graptolite Zones and Dalmanitina Beds near the Ordovician-Silurian Boundary in Eurasia. Proc. Japan Acad. vol. 50 (7), , Distribution of Cambrian Trilobites in the Peri-Gondwana Seas. Ibid. vol. 52 (4), p On the Ordovician Trilobite Provinces. Ibid. vol. 52 (5), p , A Comparison of the Cambrian Trilobites between the North and South Sides of the Western Pacific Basin. Ibid. v. 62-B, , Relation between the Ordovician Faunas of Asia and Australia. Ibid. v. 62-B, (8), , On the Pacific Biogeography of the Cambro-Ordovician Age. Ibid. U. 62-B (107) , WEBER, V (Neue Fund von Untersilur Trilobiten in asiatischen Teil d. U. S. S. R.

25 Jahrb. Russ. Pal. Gesell., 1926, V., , \, Upper Ordovician Trilobites from the Kirgiz Steppe and Kuznetsz Basin. Bull. Comite Geol., 547, no. 3. General Department of Geology and Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (1980) : Characteristic Fossils in the North Viet Nam. 600pp, 123 pls. HAMADA, T. (1964) : Some Middle Ordovician Brachiopods from Satun, Southern Thailand. Japan. J. Geol. Geogr. vol. 35, p , pl. 10. IGO, H. and KOIKE, T. (1967, 68) : Ordovician and Silurian Conodonts from gthe Langkawi Islands Malaya, Pts Palaeont. SE Asia. v. 3, 1-29, pls 1-3 ; v. 4, p. 1-21, pls KOBAYASHI, T. (1943) : Cambrian Faunas of Siberia. J. Fac. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, sec. 2, v. 6, pt. 12, , 3 pls. (1944) : On the Cambrian Formation in Yunnan and Haut-Tonkin and the Trilobites contained. Japan. J. Geol. Geogr. v. 19, , pl (1952) : On the Southwestern Wing of the Akiyoshi Orogenic Zone in Indochina and South China. Japan. J. Geol. Geogr. v. 22, (1956) : Supplementary Notes on the Cambrian Trilobites from Southeasern Asia. Trans. Proc. Pal. Soc. Japan, N. S. no. 24, , pl. 40. (1957) : Upper Cambrian Fossils from Peninsular Thailand, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, sec. 2, v. 10(3), p , 4-5 pls. (1958) : Some Ordovician Fossils from Thailand-Malayan Borderland. Japan J. Geol. Geogr. v. 29(4), , pl. 17. (1960) : Some Ordovician Fossils from East Tonkin, Viet-Nam. Ibid. v. 31(1), 39-48, pl. 5. (1961) : On the Occurrence of Ordovician Nautiloids in North Thailand. Ibid. v. 32(1), 70-84, pl. 5. (1964) : On the Orogenies of the Burmese-Malayan Geosyncline. XXII Intern. Geol. Congr. India, 1964, Part XI, Proc. Sec. 11, (1972) : The early stage of the Burmese-Malayan Geosyncline. Abstr. Papers. Region. Conf. Geol. SE Asia, Annexed to Newsletter no. 34, Geol. Soc. Malaysia ; Geol. Soc. Malaysia Bull. 6, 1973, p ; Geol. Pal. SE Asia, v. 11, p , (1973) : The Early and Middle Palaeozoic History of the Burmese-Malayan Geosyncline. Geol. Palaeont. SE Asia, v. 11, p (1981) : Trilobites of Thailand and Malaysia. Proc. Japan Acad. v. 57-B, 1-6. (1984) : On the Geological History of Thailand and Malaysia. Geol. Palaeont. SE Asia v. 25, (1984) : Older Palaeozoic Gastropoda and Cephalopoda of Thailand and Malaysia. Ibid. 25, (1984) : Trilobites of Thailand and Malaysia. Ibid. v. 25, , GAN AH SAI and MURTHY, K.N. (1979) : On the Geological Age of the Tanjong Malim Limestone in Penisular Malaysia. Proc. Japan Acad. v. 5-B, and Hamada (1964) : On the Ordovician fossils from Satun, the Malayan frontier of Thailand. Japan. J. Geol. Geogr. v. 35, (2-4), , pl. 9. and. (1970) : A Cyclopygid-bearing Ordovician faunule discovered in Malaya etc. Geol. Palaeont. SE Asia, v. 8, 1-16, pls and (1978) : Upper Ordovician Trilobites from the Langkawi Islands, Malaysia. Geol. Palaeot. SE Asia v. 19, 27 pp. 2 pls. and (1979) : Upper Ordovician Trilobites from Langkawi Islands, Malaysia. Ibid. v. 19, 1-21, pls STAIT, B.A. and BURRETT, CF. (1984) : Ordovician nautiloid faunas of Central and Southern

26 Thailand. Geol. Mag. v. 121(2), , and THANIS WONGWANICH (1984) : Ordovician trilobites from the Tarutao Formation, Southern Thailand. N. Jb. Geol. Palaeont. Mh. 1984, H. 1, TERAOKA, Y., SAWATA, H., TOSHIDA, T. and THONGCHAI, P. (1982) : Lower Paleozoic Rsearch Proj. of the Tarutao Islands, Southern Thailand. Prince of Songkla Univ. Geol. Formations Publ. 6, 54 pp. 3 pls. WEBBY, B. D., WYATT, D. BURRETT, C. (1984) : Ordovician Stromatoporoids from the Langkawi Islands, Malaysia. Alcheringa 9, WONGWANICH, I., WYATT, D., STAIT, B. and BURRETT, C. (1983) : The Ordovician System in Southern Thailand and Northern Malaysia. Workshop of Stratigraphic Correlation of Thailand and Malaysia, Haad Yai, Proc. 1983, p YOCHELSON, E. L. and JONES, C. R. (1968) : Teiichispira, a new early Ordovician Gastropod Genus. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 613-B, 15pp. 2 pls. BALASHOVA E. A. (1966) : Trilobites from the Ordovician and Silurian Sediments of Pamir. Trudi Geol. Bureau Cabinet Taji. Tadjizstan, USSR. Paleontologia and Stratigraphia, Fsc. Fasc. 2, p , 4p1. DEAN, W. T. (1967) : The Distribution of Ordovician Shelly Faunas in the Tethyan Region. Systemtic Asso. Publ. No. 7, Aspects of Tethyan Biogeography. Edts. : C. G. Adams & D. V. Ager, p (1975) : Cambrian and Ordovician correlation and trilobite distribution. Fossils and Strata no. 5, p (1971) : The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy and faunas of the Taurus Mountins near Baysehir, Turkey. II. The trilobites of the Seydisehir Formation (Ordovician). Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geol.) v. 20, 1-24, 5 pls. (1973) : Ibid. III. The Trilobites of the Sobova Formation (Lower Ordovician). Ibid. v. 24(5), , 12 pls. (1980) : The Ordovician System in the Near and Middle East. Correlation Chart and Explanatory Notes. IUGS Publ. no. 2, 22pp. (1982) : Middle Cambrian trilobites from the Sosink Formation, Derik-Mardin distirict, south-eastern Turkey. Ibid. v. 36(1), and MONOD. (1970) : Ibid. I. Stratigraphy. Ibid. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. v. 19, p EL-KHAYAL, A. A. and ROMANO, M. (1985) : Lower Ordovician Trilobites from the Hanadir Shale of Saudi Arabia. Palaeont. v. 28(2) p , p FORTY, R. A. and MORRIS, S. F. (1982) : The Ordovician trilobite Neseuretus from Saudi Arabia, and the palaeogeography of the Neseuretus fauna related to Gondwanaland in the early Ordovician. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Geol.) v. 36(2), p GORTANI, M. (1921) : Fossili Ordoviciano nel Caracorum Spedizioni Ital. del Filippi nell Himalaya, Caracorum e Turchestan Cinne ( ), Ser. 4, Vol. 5. HUCKRIEDE, R., KURTEN, M. und VENZLAFFM, H. (1962) : Zur Geologie des Gebietes zwischen Kerman und Sagand (Iran). Beihft. Geol. Jahrb. Hut. 51, 197 pp. 10 pls. IVSHIN, N. K. (1953, 57) : Middle Cambrian Trilobites of Kazakhstah, Parts 1-2. Acad. Nauk Kazakhstan S. S. R. KETIN, I. (1966) : Cambrian Outcrop in Southeastern Turkey and their Comparison with the Cambrian of East Iran. p KING, W. B. R. (1923) : Cambrian Fossils from Dead Sea. Geol. Mag. vol. 60. (1930) : Notes on the Cambrian Fauna of Persia. Ibid. Vol. 67. (1937) : Cambrian Trilobites from Iran (Persia). Palaeontol. Indica. N. S. vol. 22, Mem. No. 5. (1982) : The Cambrian-Ordovician transition in southeastern Turkey and adjacent areas. The Cambrian-Ordovician Boundary : Sections, Fossil, Distributions, and Correlations. Nat. Mus. Wales. Geol. Ser. No. 3,

27 FLUGEL. H. W. (1971) : Paleozoic Rocks of Turkey. A. S. Campbell, ed. : Geol. and History of Turkey, p , Petrol. Explor. Soc. Lybya, Tripoli. (1940) : The Cambrian Fauna of the Salt Range of India. Rec. Geol. Surv. India, vol. 75, Prof. Pap. no. 9, 1-15, 5 pls. KOBAYASHI, T. (1934) : Middle Cambrian Fossils from Kashmir. Am. J. Sci. v. 27, p , pl. 1. (1936) : The Dikelokephalininae (nov.), its Distribution Migration and Evolution. Three Contributions to the Cambro-Ordovician Faunas. Japan. J. Geol. Geogr. v. 13, p , pls (1936a) : Brief Remarks on the Cambro-Ordovician of Karakorum. Three Contributions to the Cambro-Ordovician Faunas, 3. Japan. J. Geol. Geogr. v. 13, p , pl. 20. (1967) : The Cambrian of Eastern Asia and other Areas of the Continent. J. Fac. Sci, Univ. Tokyo, sec. 2, v. 16(3), p (1969) : The Ordovician of Eastern Asia and other Parts of the Continent. Ibid. v. 17(2), p (1985a) : On the Dikelokephalininae (Trilobita). Proc. Japan Acad. v. 61-B(1), p (1985b) : The Taihungshaniidae and Birmanitidae, Trilobita. Ibid. v. 61-B (1). p KUSHAN, B. (1973) : Stratigraphie und Trilobitenfauna in der Mila Formation (Mittelkambrium-Tremadoc) im Alborz-Gebirge (N-Iran). Palaeontogr. Bd. 144, Abt. A Lfg. 4-6, p , pls MONAD, 0. : Presence dune fauna ordovicienne dans les schistes de Scydissehir a la base des calcaires du Taurus occidental. Bull. Min. Research and Expl. Inst. Turkey, Foreign Ed. No. 69, p NIKITIN, D. (1956) : Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Brachiopoda from Northern Part of Central Kazakhstan. Acad. nauk Pakistan. PARNES, A. (1971) : Late Lower Cambrian Trilobites from the Timna Area and Har 'Amram (Southern Negev, Israel). Israel J. Earth Sci. v. 20, p , 3 pls. REED, F. R. C. (1906) : The Lower Palaeozoic Fossils of the Northern Shan States. Palaeontol. Indica, N. S. Vol. 2, No. 3, 154 pp. 8 pls. (1910) : The Cambrian Fossils of Spiti. Palaeontol. Indica, Ser. 15, Vol. 7, No. 1. (1912) : Ordovician and Silurian Fossils from the Central Himalayas Ibid. Himalayan Fossils 7, No. 2, 168 pp. 20p1s. (1915) : Supplementary Memoir on New Ordovician and Silurian Fossils from the Northern Shan States. Ibid. N. S. Vol. 6, Mem. No. 1, 98 pp, 10p1s. (1934) : Cambrian and Ordovician Fossils from Kashmir Ibid N. S. Vol. 21, Mem. No. 2. (1937) : The Lower Palaeozoic Faunas of the Southern States. Ibid. N. S. Vol. 21, Mem. No. 3, 130 pp. 7 pls. RICHTER, E. und. E. (1941) : Das Kambrium am Toten Meer und die alteste Tethys. Abh. Senckenb. Naturw. Gesell. 460, 50 pp. 2 pls. Ruttner, A., Nabavi, M. H. and Hajian, J. (1968) : Geology of the S Shirgesht Atea (Tabas area, East Iran), Geol. Surv. Iran, Ren. no. 4, 133 pp. 5 pls. SCHIDEWOLF, 0. H. and SEILACHER, A. (1955) : Bietrage zur Kenntnis' des Kambriums in der Salt Range(Pakistan). Akad. Wiss. u. Liter. Akad. -Natur Wiss. Kl. Jahg. 1955, N. R. 10, p , 33 pls. SHERGOLD, J. H. and SDZUY, K. (1984) : Cambrian and early Tremadocian trilobites from Sultan Dag, central Turkey. Senckenberg. Leth. Bd. 65 (1/3), p , 8 pls. STOCKLIN, J., NABAVI, M. and SAMIMI, M. (1965) : Geology and Mineral Resources of the Soltanieh Mountains (Northwest Iran). Geol. Surv. Iran. Rep. no. 2, 44 pp. 3 pls., RUTTNER, A. and NABAVI, M. (1964) : New Data on Lower Paleozoic and Pre-Cambrian of North Iran. Geol. Surv. Iran, Rep. no. 1, 29 pp. 1 pl. WITTKE. H. W. (1984) : Middle and Upper Cambrian Trilobites from Iran : their Taxonomy,

28 Stratigraphy and Significances for Provincialism. Palaeontogr. Abt. A, Bd. 183, Lfg. 4-6, p. 9, pls. WOLFART, R. (1970) : Fauna, Stratigraphie und Palaontolographie des Ordoviziums in Afganistan. Beiheft. Geol. Jahrb. Hft pp. 21 pls. (1974a) : Fauna (Bachiopoda, Mollusca, Trilobita) aus dem Unter-Kambriums von Kerman, Sadost-Iran. Geol. Jahrb. Riehe B, Hft. 8, p. 5-70, 9 pls. (1974b) : Die Fauna (Brachiopoda, Mollusca, Trilobita) des alten Ober-Kambriums (Ober- Kushanian) von Dorah Shad Daf, Sud-Iran, und Surkh Bum, Zentral-Afghanistan. Ibid. Hft 8, , 27 pls. (1983) : The Cambrian System in the Near and Middle East IUGS Publ. 15, 71 pp. index map and correlabion table. and KURSTEN, M. (1974) : Stratigraphie und Palaontologie des Kambriums im mitteren Sud-Asien (Iran bis Nord-Indien) pp. BABIN, C., COURTESSOLE, M. M. PILLET, J., VIZCAINO, D. et YOCHELSON, E. L. (1982) : Brachiopodes (Articules) et Mollusquse, Monoplacophores, Gastropodes) del l'ordovicien Inferieu (Tremadocien-Arenigien) de la Montagne Noire (France Meridional) Mem. Soc. Ttud. Sci. l'aude. CAPEA, J. C., COURTESSOLE, R. et PILLET, J. (1975) : Biostratigraphie de l'ordovicien Inferieur de la Montagne Noire (France, Meridional) Tremacocien Inferieur. Bull. Soc. d'hist. Nat. de Toulouse, tom. 111, fasc. 3-4, p , and, (1978) : Contribution a l' etude de l'ordovicien inferieur de la Montagne Noire, Biostratigraphie et revision des Agnostidae. Ann Soc. geol. Nord, t. 98, p , pls COURTESSOLE, R. et MOO, J. B. (1980) : Biostratigraphie du Cambrien infereur du Cabardes (versat sud de la Montagne Noire, France Meridionale). Mem Soc. d'etud. Sci. l'ande, Carcassone (France). 22 pp. 4 pls. et PILLET, J. (1975) : Contribution a l'etude des faunes trilobitiques de l'ordovicien inferieur de la Montagne Noire. Les Eurominae et les Nileidae. Ann. Soc. geol. Nord. t. 95, p , pls and, (1975) : Sur deux especes nouvelles de trilobites du Tremadocien superieur de la Montagne Noire. Bull. Sci. Et. sci. Anjou, N. S. t. 9, p and, (1978) : La Faune des Couches a Shumardia du Tremadocien superieur de la Montagne Noire. Bull. Sco. Hist. Nat. de Toulouse, t. 114, fsc. 1-2, p ,. ET, VIZCAINO, D. (1981) : Nouvellles Donnees sur la Biostratigraphie de l'ordovicien inferieur de la Montagne Noire. Revision des Taihungshanidae, de Megistaspis (Ekeraspis) et d'asaphopsoides (Trilobites). Mem. Soc. Et. sci. Aude 32 pp. 11 pls.

29 DEBREENE, F. und LOTZE, F. (1963m) : Die Archeocyatha des spanischen Kambriums. Abh. Math- Natulw. Kl. Acad. Wiss. u. Liter. 193, nr. 2p , pl FEDONKIN, M. m LINAN, E. y PEREJON, A. (1983) : Icnofosoles de las rocas precambricocambrias de la Sierra de Cordoba, Espa a. Bol. R. Soc. Espanola Hist. Nat. (Geol.) 1983, GIL Cm, M. D. (1972) Sobre algunos Asaphidae (Trilobites) del Ordovicico de los Montes de Toledo (Espanola), Estud. Geol. v. 28, , Lam HABERFELNER, E. (1952) : Revision de los Graptolitos de Sierra Morena, Publ. Extraj. sobre Geologica de Espanola, T. VI, , Inst. "Lucas Mallada. HAMMANN, W. (1976) : The Ordovicion of the Iberian Peninsula- A Review. BASSETT, M. G. (ed.) : The Ordovician System, p , ROBARDET, M. and ROMANO, M. (1982) : The Ordovician System in Southwestern Europe. IUGS Publ. no. 11, 47 pp. 1 fig. 1 tabl. HENKE, W. y HUNDT, R. (1952) : Informe sobre algunos hallazgos de graptolitos en Sierra Morena. Pul. Rxtranj. sobre Geologia de Espana, T. VI, 29-29, Inst. " Lucas Mallada ". HENNINGSMOEN, G. (1957) : Los Trilobites de la Las Capas de Saukianda, Cambrico Inferior, en Andalucia. Est. Geol. vol. 14, no , , Lam HUPE, P. (1952) : Contribution a etude de Cambrien inferieur marocain. Note et Mem. No. 103, Serv. Geol. Maroc. KOBAYASHI, T. (1954) : A Brief Note on the Lower Cambrian of Morocco. Congr. Geol. Intern. XIXe. Session Alger, 1952, Ser. Maroc No. 16, Rabat, pp LINAN, E. (1984) : Los Icnofosiles de la Formacion Torreaboles (Precambrico? -Cambrico Inferior) en los Alrededores de Fuente de Cantos, Badajoz. Cuadernos Laborat. Xeol. de Laxe, 8, (1984) : Introduction al Problema de la Paleogeografia del Cambrico de Ossa Morena. Ibid. 8, Ibid. 8, y FER ANDEZ-CARASCCO, J. (1984) : La Formacion orreaboles y La Paleogeovrafica del Limite Pre-Cambrico-Cambrico en Ossa Morena (Flanco Notre de la Alineancion Olivenza-Monesterio). Ibid. 8, y PALACIOS, T. (1983) : Aportaciones mi cropaleontologicas para el conocimiento del limite Precambricos-Cambricos en la Sierra de Cordoba, Espa a. Coninc. Serv. Geol. Portugal, tomo 69, fasc. 2, , PALACIOS, T. and PEREJON, A. (1984) : Precambrian-Cambrian boundary and correlation from southeastern and central prt of Spain. Geol. Mag. v. 121(3), p and Sdzuy, K. (1978) : A trilobite from the Lower Cambrian of Cordoba (Spain) and its stratigraphic significance. Senckenb. leth. v. 59 4/6, p , Taf. 1. LOTZE, F. (1961) : Das Kambrium Spaniens, Th. 1, p , Stratigraphie. LOTZE and SDZUY Akad. Wissensch. u. Liter. Abh. der Math. -Naturwiss. Klas. Jharg. 1861, Nr. 6. MAUREL, M. (1971) : Precision sur la stratigraphie et la techtonique du paleorelief ordovicien de Faugeres (Herault), versant sud et oriental de la Montagne Noire. Colloque Ordovicien- Silurien, Brest, 1971, Mem. B. R. G. M. No. 73, p , pl. 1. NICOSIA, M. L. e RASETTI, F. (1970) : Revisione del trilobiti del Cambriano d ' Iglesciente (Sardegna) descritti da Meneghini. Atti Acad. Naz. Lincei, Mem. Cl. Sci etc. Ser. 8, vol. 10, 1-18, tay PILLET, J. et COURTESSORE, R. (1980) : Revision de Harpides (Dictyocephalites) villebruni (Bergeron 1895) (Trilobite, Arenigien inferieur de la Montagne Noire (France meridionale). Bull. Soc. geol. France, 1980(7), no. 3, p POULSEN, Chr. (1960) : Notes on some Lower Cambrian Fossils from French West Africa. Mar. Fys. Medd. Dansk Vid. Sesk. Bd. 32, nr. 7, 3-11, 3 pls. RICHTER, RUD. u. E. (1940) : Die Saukianda-Stufe von Andalusien, eine fremde Fauna in europaischen Ober-Kambrium. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturwm Gesell. Abh. 450, 1-88, 5 Tafn.

30 and (1941) : Die Fauna des Unter-Kambriums von Cala in Andalusien. Ibid. 455, 1-90, 4 Tafn. ROMANO, M. (1976) : The trilobite genus Placoparia from the Ordovician of the Vaongo area, North Portugal. Geol. Mag. 113(1), 11-23, 1 pl., (1980) : The trilobite Eccoptochile from the Ordovician of northern Protugal. Palaeontology v. 23(3), p , pls (1982) : The Ordovician biostratigraphy of Portugal-A review with new data and re-appraisal. Geol. Mag. v. 17, p (1982) : A revision of the Portuguesxe Ordovician Odontopleuridae (Trilobita) : Selenopletis and Primaspis. Comm. Sev. Geol. Protugal, t. 68, fasc. 2, p , 2 pls. (1982) : The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in Spain, Portugal and north-west France. BASSETTY M. G. and DEAN, W. T. (eds.) : The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, fossil distribution and correlation, and HENRY, J. -L. (1982) : The trilobite genus Eoharpes from the Ordovician of Brittanny and Portugal. Palaentology, v. 25(3), , pl. 63. RASETTI, F. (1972) : Cambrian Trilobite Fanuas of Sardinia. vol. 11, 100 pp. 19 pls. Atti Acad. Naz. Linci, Mem. Cl. Sci. etr. Ser. 8. SDZUY, K. (1974) : Mittelkambrische Graptoliten aus NW-Spanien. Palaont. Z. Bd. 48, 1/2, Tafn (1978) : The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in Morocco, (Preliminary Report). Geol. Mag. 115(2), (1981) : Trilobiten. Lotzeu. SDZUY : Das Kambrium Spaniens. 1-2 The. Abhandl. Math. -Naturw. Kla. Jhgang. 1981, NR 7-8, Akad. Wissenschf. u. Litert. p , 115 Tafn , Tafn. SHERGOLD, J. H., Li&AN, E. and PALACIOS, T. (1983) : Late Cambrian Trilobites from the Najerilla Formation, North-Eastern Spain. Palaeont. v. 26(1), 71-92, pls TEIXIERA, C. (1952) : La Fauna Cambrienne de Vila Boim au Portugal. Bol. Soc. Geol. Protugal, v. 10, p , 18 pls. VINASSA, P. de REGNY, P. (1941) : Fossili ordoviciani sardini, Pt. 2, Atti della Reale Acad. d'italia, Mem, Cl. di Sci. Fis. Matm. E. Nat. v. 12, p , 3 tay.