エジプト2012年憲法の読解

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1 Journal of Asian and African Studies, No.88, 2014 エジプト 2012 年憲法の読解 1 Reading the Egyptian 2012 Constitution A Comparative Study with the Previous Constitutions in Egypt (vol. 2) TAKEMURA, Kazuaki This paper presents a comprehensive Japanese translation of the Egyptian 2012 Constitution, originally written in Arabic, with annotated commentaries based on a comparison with previous Egyptian constitutions. The 2012 Constitution is an outcome of the Egyptian 2011 Revolution, the so-called January 25th Revolution, which overthrew the Mubarak regime that had lasted for three decades. Since the Revolution, constitution-making has been an issue of high political sensitivity. While many studies discuss its political implications, this study focuses on the constitutional text itself, reading it as a document. Such an approach requires a careful interpretation and evaluation of the literal expressions adopted in the 2012 Constitution and pays attention to changes in the text and their origins. This paper consists of two parts: Part I General Introduction and Part Translation and Commentary of the 2012 Constitution. Part I is divided into three chapters. The first chapter is a genealogical survey of previous Egyptian constitutions. Since the first modern constitution in 1923, Egypt has witnessed constitutional enactments and revisions several times in the past nine decades. This chapter overviews the historical contexts of these previous constitutions and introduces their contents and characteristics. The second is an overview of the composition of the 2012 Constitution. Like other constitutions all over the world, the Egyptian 2012 Constitution is made up of articles and composed of parts, chapters, and sections. The combination of these various elements forms the structural features of this Constitution. The third introduces three categories to distinguish similarities from differences in the literal expressions of the 2012 Constitution. Particular emphasis is put on a comparison with the 1971 Constitution, which the post- Keywords: Egypt, the 2012 constitution, comparative constitutional law, January 25th Revolution, Arabic : ) ( )

2 92 88 revolutionary 2012 Constitution was made to overcome. The three categories are labeled preserved, changed, and new. While new articles tend to attract much more attention, changed articles account for almost half of the total 236 articles. Moreover, these changed articles suggest constitutional changes that may not be obvious but that have important consequences in the future. This categorization is used as a benchmark for understanding the characteristics of the 2012 Constitution. It highlights the continuation and discontinuation of concepts and ways of thinking in the constitutional text. Part provides an annotated Japanese translation of the 2012 Constitution; on each article are put the original Arabic text and a commentary with particular interest in its literary expressions. It also shows the articles of the previous constitutions, which have contents and themes related to the discussed article. By juxtaposing the translation and the original text, this paper intends to serve as a basic archive for those who are interested in the Egyptian 2012 Constitution and wish to pursue a comparative study of constitutional law

3 al-sulṭa al-tashrī iyya majlis tatakawwanu majlis al-nuwwāb majlis al-shūrā 1923 majlis al-shuyūkh 1956 majlis al-umma 1971 majlis al-sha b 1980 majlis al-shūrā majlis 2007 al-shūrā ( 6 ) le parlement al-barlamān yumārisu yatawallā

4 94 88 yumārisu li-sulṭa al-tashrī iyya yatawallā-hā al-malik (1831: : 74)

5 uḍwiyya lā yajūzu al-jam al-jam al-ukhrā (1831: : 75) mahām al- uḍwiyya yatafarraghu waẓīfa amal

6 yanūbu an al-sha b bi-asr-hi nāba ( ) nā ib( nuwwāb) al-umma kulla-hā 1971 al-sha b lā tuqayyadu bi-qayd wa-lā sharṭ (1831: : 32)

7 amāma majlis-hi uḍw majlis al-sha b amāma al-majlis amāma jalsa alaniyya 1971 uqsimu bi-allāh al- aẓīm an ~ yuqsimūna an yakūnū ~ 4 uḥāfiẓa mukhliṣan alā al-niẓām al-jumhūrī aḥtarima al-dustūr wa-l-qānūn ar ā maṣāliḥ al-sha b ri āyatan kāmilatanuḥāfiẓa alā istiqlāl al-waṭan wa-salāma arāḍī-hi ar ā maṣāliḥ al-sha b uḥāfiẓa mukhliṣan alā salāma al-waṭan wa-l-niẓām al-jumhūrī salāma al-waṭan istiqlāl al-waṭan wa-salāma arāḍī-hi mukhliṣan yakūnu mukhliṣan li-l-waṭan

8 maḥkama al-naqḍ ṣiḥḥa uḍwiyya a ḍā al-majlisayn al-faṣl altaḥqīq 3 2 naqḍ

9 tārīkh ilm al-majlis bi-hi qarār

10 (1831: : 75) uḍw ayy min al-majlisayn bi-l-dhāt aw bi-l-wāsiṭa 1971

11 iqrār dhimma māliyya 3 hadiyya al- uḍwiyya al-khazzāna al- āmma li-l-dawla 4 2 (138 ) (158 ) al- uḍw ammā yubdī-hu

12 min ārā tata allaqu bi-a māl-hi lā yus alu a ḍā ārā 1971 afkār wa-ārā lā yus alu lā yu ākhadhu lā yajūzu mu ākhadha 1971 (1831: : 77) 90 30

13 ḥāla al-talabbus ijrā jinā ī al-qabḍ al-taḥqīq al-taftīsh al-ḥabs idhn sābiq idhn ra īs al-majlis maktab al-majlis awwal in iqād maqbūlan 1971

14 (1831: : 77) mukāfa a yataqāḍā yatanāwalu (1831: : 79) (1831: : 83)

15 maqarr maḥrūsa miṣr 1954 maqarr markaz 2 makān ākhar bi-qānūn 1971 makān jiha 3 bāṭila ijtimā fī ghayr al-makān al-mu add la-hu ghayr mashrū al-qarārāt allatī tuṣdaru fī-hi bāṭila

16 jalsāt alaniyya jalsa sirriyya thumma

17 (1831: : 75)

18 dawr al-in iqād al- ādī al-sanawī yad ū 1923 almalik 1954 ra īs al-jumhūriyya yafaḍḍu al-malik yu linu al-malik faḍḍ in iqād-hi ( 116 ) 1923 faḍḍ dawr in iqād al-barlamān

19 (1831: : 88) in iqād ijtimā ghayr ādī da wa

20 (1831: : 88)

21 illā bi-ḥuḍūr aghlabiyya a ḍā -hi lā yakūnu aghlabiyya khāṣṣa bi-l-aghlabiyya al-muṭlaqa li-l-ḥāḍirīn marfūḍ (1831: : 75 76)

22 min bayna a ḍā -hi almuntakhabīn 10 1 ( 128 ) ( ) al-faṣl al-tashrī ī niṣf al-faṣl al-tashrī ī 5 ( 114 ) 6 ( 130 ) fī awwal ijtimā li-dawr al-in iqād al-sanawī al- ādī li-hādhā al-dawr ilā nihāya mudda majlis al-umma ilā bad al-dawr al-sanawī al- ādī al-tālī (5 )(10 5 )

23 fī jamī al-aḥwāl intikhābāt jadīda (1831: : 75) 98

24 bi-ṣifa muwaqqata akbar al-wakīlayn sinnan lā iḥat-hu al-dākhiliyya li-tanẓīm al- amal fī-hi wa-kayfiyya mumārasa ikhtiṣāṣāt-hi ikhtiṣāṣāt waẓā if li-tanẓīm kayfiyya adā -hi li-a māl-hi

25 (1831: : 77) al-muḥāfaẓa alā al-niẓām dākhila-hu li-majlis al-sha b ~ yakhtaṣṣu kull majlis bi~ 2 li-ayy quwwa musallaḥa al-dukhūl al-wujūd al-quwwāt al-musallaḥa dukhūl al-wujūd alā maqraba min-hu al-dukhūl fī almajlis abwāb

26 iqtirāḥ al-qawānīn ḥaqq li-~ al-ḥukūma

27 al-lajna al-naw iyya li-faḥṣ-hi wa-taqdīm taqrīr anhu iḥdā lijān al-majlis 1923 faḥṣ iqrār qabla munāqashat-hi 3 al-iqtirāḥ bi-qānūn al-muqaddam min aḥd al-a ḍā allajna al-mukhtaṣṣa bi-muqtaraḥāt ( ) lajna khāṣṣa fī dawr al-in iqād nafs-hi (1831: : 74)

28 118 88

29 iqrār mashrū qānūn ba da akhdh al-ra y alay-hi mādda mādda 2 al-ta dīl al-tajzi a ḥaqq

30 (1831: : 76) (1831: : 76) khilāf tashrī ī lajna mushtaraka hay a al-mu tamar 1923 (120 ) (121 ) (122 )

31 irsāl ḥaqq iṣdār al-qawānīn aw al-i tirāḍ alay-hā

32 istaqarra qānūnan (1954 )

33 (1831: : 88) ibdā iqtirāḥ bi-raghba fī mawḍū āmm al-ḥukūma ( 155 ) ibdā raghba ibdā raghbāt fī mawḍū āt āmma iqtirāḥ li-majlis alumma ibdā raghbāt aw iqtiraḥāt li-l-ḥukūma fī al-masā il al- āmma

34 munāqasha mawḍū āmm li-istīḍāḥ siyāsa al-ḥukūma bi-sha n-hi ṭarḥ mawḍū āmm li-l-munāqasha li-istīḍāḥ siyāsa al-wizāra bisha n-hi tabādul al-ra y fī-hi

35 al-ḥuṣūl alā bayanāt aw ma lūmāt ḥaqq al-ṣaḥafiyyīn al-anbā wa-l-ma lūmāt 47 kull muwāṭin al- ḥuṣūl alā al-ma lūmāt wa-l-bayānāt wa-l-iḥṣā āt wa-l-wathā iq almuqtaraḥāt al-maktūba 2 la-hu shakāwā 54 ḥaqq mukhāṭaba mukhāṭaba shakwā(shakāwā ) 2 al-īḍāḥāt

36 ḥaqq al-taẓallum ilā al-barlamān kitābatan jalsāt lijān yaḥiqqu li-l-wazīr an yaḥḍarū ayy al-majlisayn

37 wujūbiyyan li-l-majlis an yaḥtimu alā al-wuzarā ḥuḍūr jalsāt-hi la-hum an yasta īnū bi-man yarūna min kibār al-muwaẓẓafīn la-hum an yasta īnū bi-man yarūna min kibār al-muwaẓẓafī dawāwīn-him aw an yastanībū-hum anhum yusma u yastami u ilā yajibu an yusma ū kulli-mā ṭulibū al-kalām alay-him al-radd alā al-qaḍāyā mawḍi al-naqāsh 1971 yakūna la-hum ṣawt ma dūd inda akhdh al-ra y illā idhā kāna min al-a ḍā 156

38 (1831: : 90 91) istiqāla maktūban isqāṭ al- uḍwiyya

39 lā yajūzu isqāṭ al- uḍwiyya illā al-thiqa wa-l-i tibār aḥd shurūṭ al- uḍwiyya allatī intakhaba alā asās-hā akhalla bi-wājibāt-hā aghlabiyya thilthay al-a ḍā

40 idhā khalā makān uḍw 60 shaghl makān-hi intakhaba aw ayyana khalaf la-hu al-wafā aw al-istiqāla aw ghayr dhālika min al-asbāb 60 ( ) 6 2 al- uḍw al-jadīd

41 mukammila li- uḍwiyya salaf-hi

42 al-iqtirā al- āmm al-sirrī al-mubāshir ṭarīq al-intikhāb al-sirrī al- āmm al-iqtirā al- āmm

43 darajatayn yakūnu miṣriyyan( 32 )ḥuqūq-hi al-madaniyya wa-l-siyāsiyya shahāda ittimām al-ta līm al-asāsī yubayyinu al-qānūn al-dawā ir al-intikhābiyya yuḥaddidu al-qānūn

44 134 88

45 (1831: : 77) (1831: : 77 78) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (1831: : 78) (1831: : 78 79) mudda uḍwiyya tārīkh awwal ijtimā la-hu al-intikhāb li-tajdīd al-majlis 60

46 ijrā āt intikhāb 6 (1831: : 79) al-siyāsa al- āmma li-l-dawla al-khuṭṭa al- āmma

47 li-l-tanmiya al-iqtiṣādyya wa-l-ijtimā iyya al-muwāzana al- āmma lil-dawla iqrār yumārisu al-raqāba alā a māl al-sulṭa al-tanfīdhiyya ( yatawallā yumārisu ) i dād arḍ-hā (1831: : 74)

48 al-muwāzana al- āmma li-ldawla yajibu mashrū -hā lā takūnu nāfidha illā bi-muwāfaqa alay-hā yatimmu al-taṣwīt alay-hā bāban bāban bāb mādda 2 yajūzu ~ addā al-nafaqāt

49 allatī taraddu tanfīdhan li-iltizām muḥaddad li-l-dawla lā illā ~ tuṣdaru al-muwāzana bi-qānūn qānūn

50 140 88

51 (1831: : 99) (1831: : ) naqlghayr wārid bi-hā zā id alā taqdīrāt-hā

52 al-amwāl al- āmma jibāya al-khazzāna al- āmma li-l-dawla al-murattabāt al-ma āshāt al-ta wīḍāt al-i ānāt al-mukāfa āt

53 al-sulṭa al-tanfīdhiyya al-iqtirāḍ al- ḥuṣūl alā tamwīl al-irtibāṭ bi-mashrū yatarattabu alay-hi infāq mabāligh aqd qurūḍ 1964 aqd qarḍ illā illā bi-muwāfaqa majlis al-sha b illā bi-qānūn bi ba da

54 al-ḥisāb alkhitāmī al-jihāz al-markazī li-l-muḥāsabāt al-taqrīr al-sanawī mulāḥaẓāt-hu alā al-ḥisāb alkhitāmī al-taṣwīt 1971

55

56 lajna khāṣṣa lajna min lijān-hi nashāṭ iḥdā al-jihāt al-idāriyya aw al-hay āt, aw al-mashrū āt al- āmma taqaṣṣī al-ḥaqā iq ḥaqīqa alawḍā al-māliyya aw al-idāriyya aw al-iqtiṣādiyya ijrā taḥqīqāt mā yarā-hu munāsiban fī hādhā al-sha n lā yamna u min dhālika taḥqīq qaḍā ī aw idārī

57 yuwajjihu as ila mawḍū yadkhulu fī ikhtiṣāṣāt-hā alay-him al-ijāba man yanībūna-hu fī ayy waqt saḥb al-su āl

58 taḥwīl al-su āl ilā istijwāb lā yajūzu fī al-jalsa nafs-hā al-su āl al-istijwāb

59 al-umūr al- āmma al- ājila dhāt al-ahammiyya iḥāṭa bayān ājil 2 al-radd muḥāsaba tawjīh istijwāb ayy mawḍū muḥāsabathim an al-shu ūn muḥāsaba 1971

60 ba da sab a ayyām alā al-aqall ( )

61 saḥb al-thiqa ḥaqq istijwāb 10 1 iqtirāḥ ushr a ḍā al-majlis ṭalab yuwaqqa u min ushr al-a ḍā khilāla sab a ayyām alā al-akthar lā yajūzu ~ qabla thalātha ayyām

62 mawḍū sabaqa li-l-majlis an faṣala fī-hi fī dawr al-in iqād nafs-hi a lanat al-ḥukūma taḍāmun-hā ma -hu qabla al-taswīt aḥd a ḍā al-ḥukūma istiqāla al-wizāra wajaba alay-hi i tizāl manṣib-hi yuqaddimu ilā ra īs al-jumhūriyya 1971 a ḍā al-ḥukūma istiqāla al-ḥukūma

63 al-wizāra

64

65 lā ~ illā qarār musabbab ba da istiftā al-sha b inda al-ḍarūra li-ra īs al-jumhūriyya ḥaqq ḥall majlis al-umma( ) li-l-malik ḥaqq ḥall majlis al-nuwwāb( )ḥaqq khilāla dawr in iqād-hi al-sanawī al-awwal li-l-sabab alladhī ḥulla min ajl-hi al-majlis al-sābiq

66 waqf jalsāt al-majlis 20 khilāla ishrīn yawman alā al-akthar qarār aghlabiyya al-aṣwāt al-ṣaḥīḥa qarār al-ḥall idhā aqarrat al-aghlabiyya al-muṭlaqa li- adad man a ṭū aṣwāt-hum al-ḥall khilāla thalāthīn yawman alā al-akthar fī mī ād lā yujāwizu sittīn yawman 2007 tārīkh ṣudūr qarār al-ḥall (2 ) khilāla alayyām al- ashara al-tāliyya idhā lam tuwāfiq hādhihi al-aghlabiyya alā al-ḥall yata ayyanu alā ra īs al-jumhūriyya an yastaqīla min manṣib-hi min tilqā nafsi-hi

67 (1831: :88)

68 adad lā yaqillu an mā a wa-khamsīn uḍwan al-iqtirā al- āmm al-sirrī almubāshir a bil-iqtirā al- āmm adadan lā yazīdu alā ushr adad al-a ḍā al-muntakhabīn a 90 b 30 c

69 (1831: : 80)

70 yushturiṭa fī an ~ al-mutarashshaḥ 4 ta līm ālī ta līm asāsī ( 113 )

71 (1831: : 80)

72 tārīkh awwal ijtimā la-hu kull thalātha sanawāt yatajaddadu wafqan li-mā yunaẓẓimu-hu al-qānūn 114

73 (1831: : 80) inda ḥall majlis al-nuwwāb ikhtiṣāṣāt-humā al-tashrī iyya al-mushtaraka inda giyāb al-majlisayn

74 qarārāt la-hā quwwa al-qānūn tafwīḍ bi-athar raj ī illā (1831: : 83)

75 ra īs aljumhūriyya huwa ra īs al-dawla ra īs al-dawla almalik ra īs al-dawla al-a lā ra īs al-dawla al-sulṭāt 1 1 ra īs al-sulṭa al-tanfīdhiyya 1 yar ā maṣaliḥ alsha b yuḥāfiẓu alā istiqlāl al-waṭan wa-salāma al-arāḍī-hi yurā ī al-ḥudūd bayna al-sulṭāt al-makāsib al-ishtīrākiyya

76 iḥtirām al-dustūr siyāda al-qānūn yubāshiru ikhtiṣāṣāt-hu 1971 ( yumārisu ikhtiṣāṣāt-hu ) (1831: : 74)

77 yuntakhabu ra īs al-jumhūriyya ( 135 ) ( ) 4 i āda intikhāb-hi 1 illā limarra wāḥidalā yajūzu li-mudda tāliyya wa-muttaṣila 1980 li-mudad ukhrā manṣib ḥizbī 1971

78 yushtaraṭu fī-man yatarashshaḥu ra īsan li-l-jumhūriyya an ~ yakūna miṣriyyan min abwayn miṣriyyayn

79 min abuwayn wa-jaddayn miṣriyyayn min ab wa-jadd miṣriyyayn 1 ( ) ( 156 ) yakūna miṣriyyan allā yakūnu qad ḥamala jinsiyya dawla ukhrā allā yakūnu mutazawwijan min ghayr miṣrī al-dīn al-jins al-aṣl al-jinsiyya

80 yushtaraṭu li-qubūl al-tarashshuḥ li-ri āsa al-jumhūriyya an ~ al-mutarashshaḥ 20 al-a ḍā al-muntakhabīn yuzakkā 2 yuwīda-hu

81 (250 ) lajna al-intikhābāt al-ri āsiyya

82 172 88

83

84 yuntakhabu an ṭarīq al-iqtirā al- āmm al-sirrī al-mubāshir bi-l-aghlabiyya almuṭlaqa li- adad al-aṣwāt al-ṣaḥīḥa ( ) ijrā āt ( ) ( 86 ) ( 157 )

85 inda ḥall majlis al-nuwwāb

86 al-mu āmala al-māliyya li-ra īs al-jumhūriyya murattab lā yajūzu an yataqāḍā ayy murattab aw mukāfa a ukhrā

87 yakhtāru ra īs al-jumhūriyya ra īs majlis alwuzarā yukallifu-hu bi-tashkīl al-ḥukūma wa- arḍ barnāmij-hā

88 (30 ) al-thiqa al-ḥizb al-ḥā iz alā akthariyya maqā id majlis al-nuwwāb fī jamī al-aḥwāl

89 al-siyāsa al- āmma li-l-dawla al-ḥukūma majlis al-wuzarā aldawla al-wuzarā yushurifāni alā al-naḥw al-mubayyan fī al-dustūr

90 yatawallā sulṭāt-hu addā ~ mā yattaṣilu min-hā bi-l-difā wa-l-amn al-qawmī wa-l-siyāsa alkhārijiyya 6 al-sulṭāt al-ikhtiṣāṣāt

91 ba ḍ ikhtiṣāṣāt-hi yajūzu da wa al-ḥukūma li-l-ijtimā

92 yatawallā ri āsa al-ijtimā alladhī yaḥḍuruhu ḥaqq da wa majlis al-wuzarā li-l-in iqād wa-ḥuḍūr jalsāt-hi yajtami u ra īs al-jumhūriyya ma al-wuzarā fī hay a majlis wuzarā yaṭlubu mā yarā-hu min taqārīr fī al-sha n al- āmm la-hu ḥaqq ṭalab taqārīr min alwuzarā li-ra īs al-jumhūriyya an ~ yulqiya bayānan ḥawla al-siyāsa al- āmma li-l-dawla jalsa mushtaraka inda iftitāḥ dawr in iqād-himā yulqī bayānan

93 yumaththilu al-dawla fī alāqāt-hā al-khārijiyya yubrimu al-mu āhadāt yuṣaddiqu alay-hā

94 al-taṣdīq alay-hā nashr-hā takūnu la-hā quwwa al-qānūn mu āhadāt al-ṣulḥ wa-l-taḥāluf wa-jamī almu āhadāt allatī tata allaqu bi-ḥuqūq al-siyāda al-tijāriyya wa-l-mallāḥa tajibu muwāfaqa majlis al-sha b alay-hā 3 2 bi-aghlabiyya al-thilthay a ḍā -himā 3 lā yajūzu iqrār

95 (1831: : 87 88) al-qā id al-a lā li-l-quwwāt al-musallaḥa al-malik huwa al-qā id al-a lā li-l-quwwāt al-barriyya wa-l-baḥriyya illā lā yu linu al-ḥarb lā yursilu al-quwwāt almusallaḥa ilā khārij al-dawla

96 al-hạrb al-hujūmiyya akhdh ra y majlis al-difā al-waṭanī muwāfaqa majlis al-nuwwāb bi-aghlabiyya adad al-a ḍā (1831: : 87 88) 147

97 al-muwaẓẓafīn almadaniyyīn al- askariyyīn al-mumaththilīn al-siyāsiyyīn li-ldawla al-mumaththilīn al-siyāsiyyīn li-l-dawla wa-l-hay āt al-ajnabiyya alhay āt (1831: : 87)

98 ba da akhdh ra y al-ḥukūma yu linu ḥāla al-ṭawāri al-malik yu linu al-aḥkām al- urfiyya arḍ hādhā al-i lān alā majlis al-nuwwāb 7 khilāla al-ayyām al-sab a al-tāliyya fawran kull min al-majlisayn li-mudda muḥaddada 6 lā tujāwizu sitta ashhar

99 athnā a sarayān al- afw an al- uqūba takhfīf-hā ḥaqq takhfīf 1964 takhfīḍ 2 al- afw al-shāmil lā yakūnu illā bi-qānūn

100 (1831: : 88) al-masā il al-muhimma allatī tattaṣilu bi-maṣāliḥ al-dawla al- ulyā mawḍū kull mawḍū 3 jamī sulṭāt al-dawla al-kāffa fī jamī al-aḥwāl 1971

101 idhā qaddama istiqālat-hu wajjaha kitāb al-istiqāla istiqālat-hu min manṣib-hi ( 110 )( 167 )

102 ittihām irtikāb jināya al-khiyāna al- uẓmā 3 1 ṭalab muwaqqa min thilth a ḍā alā al-aqall 3 2 bi-aghlabiyya thilthay a ḍā irtikāb jarīma jinā iyya 3 1 iqtirāḥ muqaddam yūqafu an amal-hi yaqifu an amal-hi ( 2007 ) 3 maḥkama khāṣṣa majlis al-qaḍā al-a lā

103 aqdam nuwwāb ra īs 2 aqdam ra īsayn nā ib āmm ( ) al-aqdamiyya ijrā āt al-taḥqīq wa-l-muḥākama al- uqūba idāna a fā min manṣib-hi ma adam al-ikhlāl bi-l- uqūbāt al-ukhrā wa-dhāt-hu maṣūna lā tamassu

104 qāma māni mu aqqat yaḥūlu dūna mubāshara ra īs al-jumhūriyya li-sulṭāt-hi nā ib ra īs al-jumhūriyya (2007 )

105 aḥd al-wuzarā al- ajz al-dā im an al- amal khulw manṣib yubāshiru mu aqqatan sulṭāt ra īs al-jumhūriyya al-qā im bi-a māl al-ra īs

106 khulw manṣib al-asbaqiyya

107 al-ḥukūma ra īs majlis al-wuzarā, wa-nuwwāb-hi, wa-l-wuzarā nuwwāb-him ra īs al-wuzarā, wa-nuwwāb ra īs al-wuzarā, wa-l-wuzarā al-ḥukūma huwa al-hay a al-tanfīdhiyya wa-l-idāriyya al- ulyā li-l-dawla majlis al-wuzarā huwa al-muhaymin alā maṣāliḥ al-dawla yatawallā ri āsa al-ḥukūma majlis al-wuzarā al-ḥukūma ra īs-hu huwa alladhī yuwajjihu al-siyāsa al- āmma li-l-wizāra hay a majlis al-wuzarā ra īs alwuzarā 131 yudīru ra īs al-wuzarā a māl al-ḥukūmayar asu majlis al-wuzarā

108

109 man yu ayyanu allā yakūnu qad ḥamala jinsiyya dawla ukhrā al-jam bayna uḍwiyya (1831: : 90) (1831: : 90)

110 ( 86 )( 137 )

111 al-mu āmala al-māliyya 138 murattab aw mukāfa a

112 ( 8 ) bi-wajh khāṣṣ waḍ al-siyāsa al- āmma li-l-dawla al-ishtirāk al-ishrāf alā tanfīdh-hā a

113 al-wizārāt tawjīh a māl al-tansīq bayna-hā mutāba at-hā b i dād d d al-qarārāt al-idāriyya j al-qarārāt al-idāriyya wa-ltanfīdhiyya 5 i dād h i dād w aqd al-qurūḍ z wafqan li-aḥkām al-dustūr mutāba a amn al-waṭan ḥ mulāḥaẓa amn al-dawla 2011 jihāz mabāḥith amn al-dawla jihāz mabāḥith amn alwaṭan

114 yatawallā al-wazīr ( 140 ) yaqūmu bi-tanfīdhhā ( 1964 )

115 al-wazīr huwa al-ra īs al-idārī al-a lā li-wizārāt-hi ayy min a ḍā al-ḥukūma ilqā bayān al-bayān 162

116 al-lawā iḥ al-lāzima litanfīdh al-qawānīn ta ṭīl ta dīl i fā min tanfīdh-hā ghayr-hu ( ) (1831: : 87) 163

117 al-lawā iḥ al-lāzima li-inshā al-marāfiq wa-l-maṣāliḥ al- āmma wa-tanẓīm-hā al-malik yurattibu al-maṣāliḥ al- āmma al-qarārāt al-lāzima litartīb al-maṣāliḥ al- āmma al-qarārāt al-lāzima li-inshā wa-tanẓīm almarāfiq wa-l-maṣāliḥ al- āmma a bā jadīda ( 116 ) lawā iḥ al-ḍabṭ

118 ta yīn al-muwaẓẓafīn al-madaniyyīn wa- azl-hum

119 ittihām al-wazīr 1956 al-wuzarā bi-mā qad yaqa u min-hum min jarā im khilāla ta diya a māl munāṣab-him qad 3 1 ṭalab muwaqqa min thilth a ḍā -hi alā al-aqall ( 2 ) 1 2 qarār al-ittihām

120 iqāma al-da wā ( 152 ) (1831: : 91)

121 kitāb al-istiqāla wajjaha kitāb al-istiqāla wajaba taqdīm ( )

122 al-sulṭa al-qaḍā iyya mustaqilla al-maḥākim alā ikhtilāf anwā - hā wa-darajāt-hā tatawallā-hā aḥkām-hā tuṣdaru ṣalāḥiyyāt-hā 1971 al-tadakhkhul fī shu ūn al- adāla aw al-qadāyā jarīma al-taqādum lā yajūzu li-ayy sulṭa al-tadakhkhul fī al-qaḍāyā aw fī shu ūn al- adāla altadakhkhul lā yajūzu 170

123 (1831: : 92) kull jiha aw hay a qaḍā iyya

124 muwāzana mustaqilla yu khadhu ra y-hā al-quḍā mustaqillūn ghayr qābilīn li-l- azl lā sulṭān alay-him li-ghayr al-qānūn mutasāwiwūn fī al-ḥuqūq wa-l-wājibāt 1971

125 ta dīb nadb-hum nadb kāmil naql nadb 1971

126 (1831: : 93) jalsāt al-maḥākim alaniyya illā idhā qarrarat al-maḥkama sirriyyat-hā al-nuṭq bi-l-ḥukum jalsa alaniyya (1831: : 92) (1831: : 92)

127 al-qaḍā yakhtaṣṣu bi-l-faṣl fī kāffa al-munāza āt wa-ljarā im addā jiha qaḍā iyya ukhrā

128 al-niyāba al- āmma 2 juz lā yatajazza u al-taḥqīq raf wa-mubāshara al-da wā al-jinā iyya addā mā yastathnīhi al-qānūn nā ib āmm majlis al-qaḍā al-a lā 152 li-mudda arba sanawāt, aw li-l-mudda al-bāqiyya ḥattā bulūgi-hi sinn al-taqā ud ayyhumā aqrab 1 li-marra wāḥida ṭawāla mudda amal-hi

129 majlis al-dawla jiha qaḍā iyya mustaqilla hay a jiha hay a qaḍā iyya tulḥiqu bi-riyāsa majlis al-wuzarā dūna ghayr-hi min jihāt al-qaḍā kāffa al-munāza āt al-idāriyya munāza āt al-tanfīdh al-muta allaqa bi-aḥkām-hi al-da āwā wa-l-ṭu ūn al-ta dībiyya al-iftā fī al-masā il al-qānūniyya al-iftā murāja a wa-ṣiyāgha mashrū āt al-qawānīn wa-lqarārāt

130 dhāt al-ṣifa al-tashrī iyya allatī tuḥālu ilay-hi al-tanẓīmiyya murāja a al- uqūd allatī takūnu al-dawla ṭarfan fī-hā i dād taswiya al-munāza āt

131 al-maḥkama al-dustūriyya al- ulyā jiha qaḍā iyya mustaqilla maqarr-hā madīna al-qāhira al-faṣl fī dustūriyya al-qawānīn wa-l-lawā iḥ al-raqāba al-qaḍā iyya alā dustūriyya al-qawānīn wa-l-lawā iḥ al-maḥkama al- ulyā al-dustūriyya al-faṣl fī al-munāza āt al-khāṣṣa bi-dustūriyya al-qawānīn wa-l-marāsīm

132 ra īs wa- ashara a ḍā -hā tis a quḍā qarār min ra īs al-jumhūriyya yuṣdiru bi-ta yīn-him 1971

133 taqrīr madā muṭābaqat-hā li-l-dustūr 45 wa-illā adam iṣdār-hā li-l-qarār ijāza lil-nuṣūṣ al-muqtaraḥa 2 1 adam muṭābaqa naṣṣ aw akthar li-aḥkām aldustūr i māl muqtaḍā qarār-hā

134 tunsharu fī al-jarīda al-rasmiyya aḥkām al-raqāba qarārāt-hā al-qarārāt al-ṣādira bitafsīr al-nuṣūṣ al-tashrī iyya 2 al-ḥukm bi- adam dustūriyya āthār

135 hay a qaḍāyā al-dawla al-iddi ā al- āmm al-madanīal-niyāba al-qānūniyya an al-dawla fī al-munāza āt al-raqāba al-fanniyya alā idārāt al-shu ūn al-qānūniyya a ḍā -hā a ḍā al-sulṭa alqaḍā iyya 170

136 al-niyāba al-idāriyya al-taḥqīq fī al-mukhālafāt al-māliyya wa-l-idāriyya taḥrīk wa-mubāshara al-da wā al-ta dībiyya amāma maḥākim majlis al-dawla fī adā almarāfiq al- āmma ittikhādh al-ijrā āt al-qānūniyya 2 a ḍā al-sulṭa al-qaḍā iyya

137 al-muḥāmā mihna ḥurra rakn min arkān al- adāla al- adāla al-muḥāmī fī al-istiqlālyumārisu-hā ḥimāyat-hu al-ḍamānāt

138 al-a ḍā al-fanniyyūn bi-lshahr al- aqārī khubarā al-ṭibb al-shar ī al-khubarā alqaḍā iyyūn bi-istiqlāl

139 (2007 ) waḥdāt idāriyya maḥalliyya 1 al-tajzi a al-taqsīm tuqsamu ilā ~ taḍummu al-dawla al-hay āt al-maḥalliyya al-dawla waḥdāt idāriyya maḥalliyya al-shakhṣiyya al-i tibāriyya yakhtaṣṣu bi-mubāshara ḥuqūq-hā ashkhāṣan ma nāwiyyatan al-muḥāfaẓātal-marākiz al-mudunal-aḥyā al-qurā 5 ( )

140 al-mudīriyya 3 3 mudīriyya muḥāfaẓa 1960 muḥāfaẓa yajūzu an ~ idhā iqtaḍat al-maṣlaḥa al- āmma dhālika da m al-lāmarkaziyya tamkīn al-waḥdāt al-idāriyya min tawfīr al-marāfiq wa-l-khidmāt al-maḥalliyya 2007 lā markaziyya

141 al-dawla al-mu āwana altawzī al- ādil taqrīb mustawayāt al-ḍarā ib wa-lrusūm dhāt al-ṭābi al-maḥallī al-aṣīla wa-liḍāfiyya jibāyat-hā jibāya al-amwāl al- āmma

142 ta āwun fī al-a māl dhāt al-naf al-mushtarak wasā il muḥāfiẓ ra īs al-waḥda al-idāriyya

143

144 mumaththilūn an ajhiza al-sulṭa al-tanfīdhiyya uḍwiyya dūna an yakūna la-hum ṣawt ma dūd

145 almuntakhabīn al-majlis al-maḥallī

146 kull mā yahummu alwaḥda allatī yumaththilu-hā almarāfiq al-maḥalliyya al-a māl

147 qarārāt nihā iyya illa ~ lā yajūzu tadakhkhul al-sulṭa al-tanfīdhiyya fī-hā al-khilāf al-jam iyya al- umūmiyya li-qismay al-fatwā wa-l-tashrī al-maḥkama al- ulyā al-dustūriyya

148 kull majlis maḥallī muwāzanat-hu wa-ḥisāb-hu nashr mīzāniyyāt-hā wa-ḥisābāt-hā lā yajūzu ~ bi-ijrā idārī shāmil

149

150 majlis al-amn al-qawmī iqrār istrātījiyyāt muwājaha ḥālāt al-kawārith wa-l-uzmāt 3 4

151 (2007 ) al-quwwāt al-musallaḥa milk li-l-sha b ḥimāya makāsib al-niḍāl al-sha bī al-ishtirākī waḥda-hā tunshi u hādhihi alquwwāt inshā tashkīlāt aw firaq aw tanẓīmāt askariyya aw sibh askariyya ayy fard aw hay a aw jiha aw jamā a lā yajūzu yuḥẓaru 2 majlis a lā

152

153 wazīr al-difā al-qā id al- āmm li-lquwwāt al-musallaḥa 146 al-qā id al-a lā li-l-quwwāt al-musallaḥa yu ayyanu min bayna ḍubbāṭ-hā wazīr al-ḥarbiya wazīr al-difā al-ta bi a al- āmma shurūṭ al-khidma wa-l-tarqiya wal-taqā ud fī al-quwwāt al-musallaḥa li-l-ḍubbāṭ 2 al-lijān al-qaḍā iyya li-ḍubbāṭ wa-afrād al-

154 quwwāt al-musallaḥa kāffa al-munāza āt al-idāriyya al-jarā im (1831: : 100)

155 majlis al-difā al-waṭanī ra īs arkān ḥarb al-quwwāt almusallaḥa qāda ra īs hay a amaliyyāt ra īs idāra al-mukhābarāt al-ḥarbiyya wa-l-istiṭrā

156 al-majlis

157 al-qaḍā al- askarī dūna ghayr-hi al-faṣl fī kāffa al-jarā im almuta allaqa bi-l-quwwāt al-musallaḥa wa-ḍubbāṭ-hā wa-afrād-hā muḥākama madanī illā fī al-jarā im allatī taḍurru bi-l-quwwāt al-musallaḥa lā yajūzu tilka al-jarā im 3 a ḍā

158 maḥākim amn al-dawla

159 hay a madaniyya niẓāmiyya ra īs-hā al-a lā wājib-hā fī khidma al-sha b walā -hā li-l-dustūr wal-qānūn ḥifẓ al-niẓām wa-l-amn wa-l-ādāb al- āmma tanfīdh mā tafriḍu-hu alqawānīn wa-l-lawā iḥ tatawallā tasharu alā li-l-muwāṭinīn ṭama nīnat-hum ḥimāya karāmat-hum wa-ḥuqūq-hum wa-ḥuriyyāthum al-ṭama anīna wa-lamn dhālika kulla-hu alā al-naḥw alladhī yunaẓẓimu-hu al-qānūn bi-mā yumkinu a ḍā

160 hay a al-shurṭa min al-qiyām bi-wājibāt-him

161 al-hay āt al-mustaqilla al-ajhiza al-raqābiyya al-shakhṣiyya al-i tibāriyya al- āmma al-ḥiyād al- āmma 2 al-ikhtiṣāṣāt al-ukhrā

162 taqārīr ṣudūr-hā al-ijrā āt al-munāsib ḥiyāla-hā alā al-ra y al- āmm 3 dalā il alā irtikāb mukhālafāt aw jarā im al-sulṭāt al-taḥqīq al-mukhtaṣṣa ru usā 4

163 azl mā yuḥẓaru alā al-wuzarā yuḥẓaru alay-him tashkīl 2

164 al-mufawwaḍiyya al-waṭaniyya li-mukāfaḥa al-fasād takhtaṣṣu muḥāraba al-fasād fasād mu ālaja taḍārub al-maṣāliḥ qiyam alnazāha wa-l-shafāfiyya waḍ al-istirātījiyya al-waṭaniyya ḍamān tanfīdh-hā al-ishrāf alā al-ajhiza al-ma niyya

165 al-jihāz al-markazī li-l-muḥāsabāt amwāl al-raqāba dīwān almuḥāsaba yatawallā al-raqāba alā alidāra al-māliyya wa-shu ūn al-khazzāna

166 al-bank al-markazī al-siyāsa al-naqdiyya wa-l-i timāniyya wa-l-maṣrafiyya yurāqibu adā al-jihāz al-maṣrafī istiqrār alas ār ḥaqq iṣdār al-naqd waḥda-hu 2 fī iṭār al-siyāsa al-iqtiṣādiyya al- āmma li-l-dawla ( )

167 al-majlis al-iqtiṣādī wa-l-ijtimā ī da m mushāraka fi āt al-mujtama al-ḥiwār al-mujtama ī akhdh al-ra y mā a wa-khamsīn uḍwan ka-ḥadd adnā al-fallāḥīn wa-l- ummāl wa-l-mihniyyīn

168 alā allā ~ tamthīl al-fallāḥīn wa-l- ummāl 50% uḍwiyya ayy min al-majālis al-niyābiyya 5 taqdīm tawṣiyāt-hi ilā sulṭāt al-dawla

169 al-mufawwaḍiyya al-waṭaniyya li-l-intikhābāt 4 i dād qā ida bayanāt al-nākhibīn i lān al-natīja al-lajna al- ulyā li-l-intikhābāt

170 majlis 10 bi-ḥasab alaḥwāl min ghayr a ḍā -hā aqdam

171 jihāz tanfīdhī 4 ( ) a ḍā tābi ūn la-hā aliqtirā wa-l-farz al-ḍamānāt al-ḥiyāda al-istiqlāl

172 al-ṭu ūn al-maḥkama al-idāriyya al- ulyā maḥkama al-qaḍā al-idārī fī kull al-aḥwāl 8 2

173 al-waqf 4 mu assasāthu al- āmma wa-l-khāṣṣa iltizām-hā bi-anmāṭ adā idāriyya waiqtiṣādiyya rashīda thaqāfa alwaqf ( 4 )

174 al-hay a al- ulyā li-ḥifẓ al-turāth 3 al-ḥaḍārī wa-l- umrānī wa-l-thaqāfī 46 jam -hi tawthīq-hi ṣawn mawjūdāt-hi iḥyā ishāmāt-hi fī al-ḥaḍāra alinsāniyya thawrāt tawthīq

175 al-majlis al-waṭanī li-l-ta līm wa-l-baḥth al- ilmī 4 kull anwā - hi jamī marāḥil-hi al-takāmul al-nuhūḍ bi-l-baḥth al- ilmī alma āyīr al-waṭaniyya li-jawda 2 hādhihi al-istirātījiyya 58 59

176 al-majlis al-waṭanī li-l-i lām shu ūn al-bath al-masmū wa-l-mar ī al-ṣiḥāfa al-maṭbū a wa-l-raqmiyya wa-ghayr-hā al-ṣiḥāfa al-i lām 49 2 yakūnu mas ūlan ḍamān ḥurriyya al-i lām adam tarakkuz-hi aw iḥtikār-hi ḥimāya māṣāliḥ al-jumhūr al-ḥifāẓ alā allugha al- arabiyya murā ā qiyam al-mujtama

177 al-hay a al-waṭaniyya li-l-ṣiḥāfa wa-l-i lām 2 al-hay a al-waṭaniyya iltizām-hā bi-adā mihnī wa-idārī wa-iqtiṣādī rashīd 212 iltizām-hā bi-anmāṭ adā idāriyya wa-iqtiṣādiyya rashīda rashīd 4 4

178 al-mawādd al-maṭlūb ta dīl-hā asbāb al-ta dīl qubūl kulliyyan aw juz iyyan

179 qabla ḥulūl dawr al-in iqād al-tālīlā yu ādu lā yajūzu i āda ṭalab qabla maḍā sana alā hādhā al-rafḍ

180 (1831: : ) ṭalab ta dīl al-dustūr (2 )

181 nāfidhan min tārīkh i lān natīja al-istiftā

182 mabādi al-sharī a al-islāmiyya 3 adillat-hā alkulliyya al-qur ān al-sunna qawā id-hā al-uṣūliyya wa-l-fiqhiyya qawā id qā ida al-uṣūliyya al-fiqhiyya maṣādir-hā al-mu tabara, fī madhāhib ahl al-sunna wa-l-jamā a maṣdar ahl alsunna wa-l-jamā a madhāhib madhhab ijmā qiyās madhāhib 2

183 madīna al-qāhira āṣima al-dawla al-dawla jumhūriyya miṣr al- arabiyya jumhūriyya al- arabiyya al-muttaḥida jumhūriyya almiṣriyya 1923 al-mamlaka al-miṣriyya āṣima qā ida makān ākhar bi-qānūn alam al-dawla shi ār-hā awsimat-hā shārāt-hā khātim-hā nashīd-hā al-waṭanī

184 yabqā nāfidhan ṣaḥīḥan wa-nāfidhan 1964 lā yajūzu ta dīl-hā wa-lā ilghā -hā

185 al-qawānīn illā aḥkām al-qawānīn mā yaqa u min tārīkh al- amal bi-hā athr fī-mā waqa a qabla-hā

186 fī ghayr al-mawādd al-jinā iyya wa-l-ḍarībiyya

187 al-niẓām al-fardī niẓām al-qawā im al-jam bayna-humā tārīkh i lān muwāfaqa al-sha b alay-hi fī al-istiftā ( ) bi-aghlabiyya adad al-aṣwāt al-ṣaḥīḥa li-l-mushārikīn 1971

188 ra īs al-jumhūriyya al-ḥālī 4 i āda intikhāb-hi 1 illā li-marra ukhrā mudda wilāya muḥaddada ghayr qābila li-l-tajdīd 1

189 qābila li-marra wāḥida matā balagha ṣāḥib-hā al-sinn al-muqarrara qānūnan li-taqā ud shāghil-hā tantahī al-lajna al- ulyā li-l-intikhābāt al-ishrāf al-kāmil 208 al-mufawwaḍiyya al-waṭaniyya li-l-intikhābāt 208 waḥda-hu

190 al- ummāl wa-l-fallāḥūn kull man ya malu ladā al-ghayr muqābila ajr aw murattab 10 kull man imtahana al-zirā a li-mudda ashar sanawāt alā al-aqall sābiqa alā tarashshuḥ-hi li- uḍwiyya al-majlis 10 ya malu imtahana 4 230

191 majlis al-shūrā alqā im bi-tashkīl-hi al-ḥālī kāmilatan majlis al-sha b majlis al-shūrā kāmilatan 2 li-ḥīn intikhāb majlis al-shūrā al-jadīd al-intikābāt al-tashrī iyya 3 2 niẓām al-qā ima 3 1 al-niẓām al-fardī 224

192 al-tashrī iyya li-l-aḥzāb wa-l-mustaqillīn al-ḥizb al-waṭanī (al-dīmuqrāṭī) al-munaḥḥal( al-dīmuqrāṭī ) tumna u min mumārasa al- amal al-siyāsī (National Democratic Party, NDP) al-munaḥḥal al-qiyādāt al-amāna al- āmma li-l-ḥizb lajna al-siyāsāt maktab-hi al-siyāsī 2 al-faṣlayn altashrī iyyayn

193 yusrā al-ḥukm al-khāṣṣ bi~

194 al- amal bi 10 yastamirru jamī al-i lānāt al-dustūriyya tulghā āthār fī al-fatra al-sābiqa yabqā nāfidhān