Investigation of Laser Hardening Analysis of Hardening Condition in Carbon Steel by Hiroshi Maruo, Isamu Miyamoto, Takashi Ishide and Yoshiaki Arata L

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1 Investigation of Laser Hardening Analysis of Hardening Condition in Carbon Steel by Hiroshi Maruo, Isamu Miyamoto, Takashi Ishide and Yoshiaki Arata Laser hardening process in various plain carbon steels containing 0.1 `0.84%C has been analyzes based on hardness distributions, change in micro-structure observed and thermal conduction theory. Results obtained are summerized as follows: 1) In laser hardening with cooling rates faster than the critical values of Ar" transition, the hardness depends only on the maximum temperature attained during heating, not on heating and cooling rates and holding time above the transformation temperature. 2) Hardening occurs at heating temperatures above 750 Ž, independently of carbon content and carbide distribution of material. For hypo-eutectoid carbon steel having a ferrite and pearlite structure, two-step change in hardness has been observed whereas eutectoid steels having spherodized carbide gives onestep curve. 3) Carbon steel containing pearlite structure gives a narrower transient hardness region between maxi mum hardness layer at the surface and the mother matrix than that for steel having spherodized carbide. 4) The heating temperature ƒæ corresponding to the maximum hardness in ferrite-pearlite steel decreases with increasing carbon content, approaching progressively about 880 Ž for eutectoid steel. ƒæ in sphero dized steel is higher than ƒæ / in eutectoid pearlite steel. 5) In laser hardening carbon steel with carhon content less than 0.84%, the effect of retained austenite on the hardness has been found to be negligible.

2 Table 1 Chemical composition of materials used (wt-%) Fig. 1 Power density distribution in laser spot. Fig. 2 Hardness distribution in S IOC, S20C and S30C. 83

3 Fig. 3 Hardness distribution in S58C. Fig. 5 0max vs. distance from surface for various travelling speeds (calculated). Fig. 4 Hardness distribution in SK-5, Fig. 6 Cooling time from 800 C to 400 C for various travelling speeds (calculated). 84

4 Fig. 7 Maximum hardness vs C cooling time for S1OC. Fig. 9 ľmax vs. hardness in S58C. Fig. 8 ľmax vs. hardness in SIOC, S20 and S30c. 85

5 212研 究論文 丸 尾,宮 本,石 出,荒 田:レ ーザ 焼 入 れ の研 究 な り高 温 に まで 加 熱 さ れ るが 実験 した範 囲 の 材 料 で は 残 留 オ ー ス テ ナ イ トはtipで 4.6硬 き る もの と考 え られ る. さ と ミ ク ロ組 織 の 関 連 レー ザ焼 入 れ部 断 面 の ミク ロ組 織 を 光学 顕 微 鏡 で 観 察 した.表 面 が 溶 融す る と溶 融 域 に は 割 れ が 発生 す る が, 溶 融 しな い場 合 に は全 く割 れ は認 め られ な か った. 硬 化 の始 ま る750 付 近 に 対応 して ど の 試料 で も母 材 組 織 か ら急激 な組 織 変 化が 見 られ た.た で はFig.11に とえ ばS30C 示 す よ うに 母 材 の パ ー ラ イ ト部 が そ の ま ま 形 を 変 えず に均 一 な 白色 に近 い 組 織 に 変 化 す る が,周 囲 の フ ェラ イ トに は変 化 が 認 め られ な い.こ の 白 色 に近 Fig. 10 ƒæmax vs. hardness in SK-5. い 組織 は 急速 加 熱 の た め に ご く短 時 間(こ の場 合 室 温 か ら1000 まで の上 昇 は約0.1秒 の 多 いSK-5を レーザ 焼 入 れ した 後,液 体窒 素 に よ って サ ブ ゼ ロ処 理 した.Fig.10に 閥)に パ ー ライ ト部 の み が オ ー ス テ ナ イ ト化 し,そ の 後 の 冷 却 で マ ル テ ンサ イ ト その 硬 さを 一 緒 にプ ロ ッ 変 態 した もの と推 察 さ れ る.こ れ を5000倍 で電 子 顕微 鏡 トした が,最 高硬,各 加 熱 温 度 で の硬 さ と も に変 化 は見 観 察 した が 全 く針状 組 織 は見 られ な か った.こ の組 織 は られ な い.レ ー ザ焼 入 れで は通 常 の焼 入 れ に く らべ て か 岡 田 正5)が 示 した オ ー ス テ ノ マル テ ンサ イ ト*)に 相 当 Fig 11 Fig. 12 Microstructure of laser- hardnened D S30C (2b=3.5mm, 3 m/min). Microstructure of laser-hardned SK-5 (2b=3.5 mm, 2 m/min). 寧)層 状 パ ー ラ イ トをA駄 点.ヒに短 時 間 で 加 熱 し て 水 焼 入 れ した と き,セ メ ソ タイ トが 十 分 に 拡 散 し き らず,高 炭 素 域 とな るた め の 残 留 オ ー ス テ ナ イ トと な り,周 囲 の マ ル テ ン サ イ トと混 在 す る 組 織 86

6 Fig. 13 Carbon content ľ vs. and ľh. 87

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