混相流 Vol.30 No.5

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1 特集号論文推薦原稿 論 文 * 規則充填物内気液対向二相流の流動特性 ( 充填物間の隙間の影響 ) Flow Characteristics of Counter-Current Two-Phase Flow in Structured Packings ( Influence of Clearance between Packings ) 久保田貴大 ** 網健行 ** 梅川尚嗣 ** KUBOTA Takahiro AMI Takeyuki UMEKAWA Hisashi Abstract The operating condition of the distillation column is strongly influenced by flow characteristics of counter-current two-phase flow in structured packings. Generally, the flooding and loading conditions determine the limitation of the operating condition. Thus, various investigations have been conducted so far, but most of those studies were based on the results which were obtained by using simple test section such as a round-tube. Consequently, the characteristics of the actual apparatus have not been fully understood so far. In this study, the influence of clearance between structured packings on flow characteristics of counter-current two-phase flow was experimentally investigated. In the investigations, liquid hold up, which was quantitatively estimated by using X-ray radiography, pressure drops and liquid distributions were measured under several clearances (, 3 and 5 mm). As a result, when the clearance is 5 mm, influence of the clearance is clearly observed in the flow characteristics. Keywords: Counter-current two-phase flow, Distillation column, Structured packing, Flooding, X-ray radiography 1. 緒言空気分離装置などで利用される充填塔を運転 設計する際には 塔内部の充填物で形成される気液対向二相流の流動特性の把握が重要となる 充填塔で 気相流量を増加させていくとせん断力により気液界面が波立ち やがて液が逆流するフラッディングが発生する 充填塔内でフラッディングが起こると 塔内の圧力損失の増加 液偏流が発生するなどし 蒸留効率が急激に低下し操作限界となる フラッディングに至る前には 蒸留効率が最も高くなるローディング状態も発生するため性能的にはこの領域で運転を行うのが理想的ではあるが 実際にはローディング以前の安定操作領域と呼ばれる範囲で運転される つまりこれらローディング フラッディング特性の らは気相流束 液相流束 流体の物性 系圧力 塔径 充填物の高さや形状 充填物の挿入方法 気相や液相の流入方法などに影響される これに対して機器設計上の見積もりは 充填物の形状等を考慮するために実測値に基づき評価される Packing Factor 設計条件および物性値から求まる Flow Parameter と Sherwood-Eckert の GPDC (Generalized Pressure Drop Correlation) に基づいた Kister の相関などで求める手法がとられる [1] しかし現在も より詳細な理解を目的として 様々な形状の充填物を用いた研究が行われており 例えば X 線ラジオグラフィや 線ラジオグラフィをはじめとした放射線を用いることで塔内部を可視化し 内部の流動状態や局所的な液ホールドアップの取得が試みられている [2-6] 把握は充填塔の運転上重要なものとなるが これこのように充填塔は産業機器として既に広く * 受付 ** 関西大学システム理工学部機械工学科 大阪府吹田市山手町 TE: (6) FAX: (6) 混相流 3 巻 5 号 (217) 467

2 用いられているものの フラッディング発生時の内部流動構造の把握や 偏流対策など未解決の課題も多いため 多種流体 多種サイズに対応しうる知見がもとめられている 特にこの種の機器は連続運転に供せられるため 例えば火力発電所等では所内動力のほとんどを空気分離装置が占めており その性能向上に対する要求は大きい 従来は 充填物として粒子状 ラシヒリング ベルサドルというような構造物を筒内に充填する不規則充填物が多くもちいられてきたが 近年ではプレートフィンを積層することで構成する規則充填物がもちいられることが多い しかし 大型の充填塔では 塔内に挿入される規則充填物は幾つかのユニットを積層することで作成される 製作にあたっては挿入圧力等で管理するが 各充填物ユニット間に隙間が発生することは十分に考えられるうえ この隙間が気液対向二相流の流動特性 さらには蒸留性能に与える影響については十分に理解されていない 本報では X 線ラジオグラフィにより液ホールドアップ分布を測定するとともに 圧力損失特性 フラッディング特性および液流量分配を測定し 充填物間の隙間が規則充填物内の気液対向二相流の流動特性に与える影響について実験的に検討を行った結果について報告する 2. 実験方法 2.1 画像処理手法本研究では 液ホールドアップ分布 h を取得するために X 線ラジオグラフィ装置 ( 島津製作所製 FI-3) を用いた 本節では画像処理手法について簡単に概説しておく ラジオグラフィでは式 (1) で表される物質を通過する際の放射線の減衰を利用する ここで G は入射 X 線に対する撮像系のゲイン S は透過厚さ を通過して減衰した X 線を撮像した画像の輝度値 m はそれぞれ物質の密度と質量減衰係数である [7] S G exp m (1) 処理に際しては テストセクション内を気液が流れる二相流状態 ( 式 (2)) テストセクションだけの状態 ( 式 (3)) 満水状態 ( 式 (4)) ならびに暗電流 ( 式 (5)) をそれぞれ撮像し 以下の手順で画像処理を実施する 1) 暗電流値は時間的に安定していることから オフセット補正により除去 2) X 線空間分布 光学系 撮像系の空間分布ならびにテストセクションによる減衰を補正するためにテストセクションだけの画像を用いてシェーディング処理を実施 ( 式 (6)) 3) 液透過厚さが幾何学的に求まる満水時の画像との比から液ホールドアップ分布 h を算出 ( 式 (7)) ρ μ δ ρ μ δ O S G exp (2) S T.S. T.S. m, T.S. T.S. ρ μ δ O G exp (3) T.S. m, T.S. T.S. m, ρ μ δ ρ μ δ O S, Full G exp T.S., Full (4) T.S. m, T.S. S Offset O (5) ρ μ m, T. S. Offset m, S SOffset δ ln (6) S S ρ μm, δ h (7) ρ μ δ m,,full なお 可視化画像は 3 frame/s で撮像しており 後述する結果は 3 秒間の時間平均値を用いている 2.2 実験装置および実験手法実験装置の概略図を Fig.1 に示す 実験装置は作動流体として液相に水 気相に空気を用いており ポンプ ローターメータ テストセクション リザーブタンクからなる液相循環ループと ブロワー 熱交換器 セパレータ オリフィス テストセクションからなる気相循環ループから構成されており テストセクション内で気液対向流が形成される これらの系のうちテストセクションは可視化のために X 線防護箱内部に設置されている 液相循環ループはリザーブタンクに貯められた水をポンプによって圧送し ローターメータを用いて流量調節した後 テストセクション上部に設置した液ディストリビューターを介してテストセクション上部へと流入させる 液ディストリビューターはテストセクション側から吹き上げられる空気通過用流路を有した開水路であり液相はディストリビューター底部に複数設けら 468 Japanese J. Multiphase Flow Vol. 3 No. 5(217)

3 混相流 3 巻 5号

4 加させていく なお レイノルズ数の算出にはテ ストセクション水平断面で幾何学的に算出した水 力相当直径 dh = 6.8 mm を用いた 本実験では 上部の液供給部にて液滴飛散を確認した流動状 態を目視による Flooding 下段充填物底部にて液 の滞留を確認した流動状態を oading Flooding 発生までの流動状態を Falling liquid と称呼する Table 1 Experimental conditions. Working fluid c [mm] j [mm/s] jg [m/s] Re [-] ReG [-] pexp [MPa] Air / Water, 3, 実験結果 Fig.2 4 に X 線ラジオグラフィによる可視化結 果を示す 条件は j = 2.4 mm/s 一定で c = 3 5 mm それぞれに対し Falling liquid Flooding 状態 となった気相流束条件の画像を示している 撮像 位置は模式図に示したように 上図が上下充填物 間の隙間部を 下図が充填物最下端部に相当 (a) (b)は 3 秒間の時間平均結果を グレースケールを 用いて液ホールドアップ分布として示したもの (c)は同可視化結果を水平方向に空間平均したもの であり 両条件での流れ方向の液ホールドアップ 分布を同一グラフ上に併記しており 実線は Falling liquid 破線は Flooding 状態を示す なお (c) のグラフ作成においては 下段充填物下の空間 ならびに上部の構造ボルトの映り込み部を除外し た範囲で示している Fig.2 4 (a) (b)の可視化画像では充填物の波板 溝構造に沿って液膜の厚い箇所が傾斜格子状に パーフォレート構造部が白丸状にそれぞれ確認で きる また Falling liquid の状態では 充填物の隙 間および最下端部で液ホールドアップが若干増加 しているもものの それ以外の場所では比較的一 様な液膜厚さが確保されていることが確認される またこの流動状態では隙間間隔の影響は顕著には 確認できない 一方流動状態が Flooding に遷移し た条件では いずれの隙間間隔でも下段充填物の 下端部で液の滞留による液ホールドアップの増加 が広い範囲で確認できる 特に c = 5 mm の条件で は 他と異なり最下端部の液ホールドアップの増 加後 上段充填物底部においても 最下端部同様 の液ホールドアップの増加が顕著に確認でき 3 mm 以下の結果とは流動構造に明確な差が発生す ることが判る Fig.5 7 にテストセクション圧力損失 P の時 間変動波形 (a) および 確率密度関数 PDF (b) を 示す 図は何れも Falling liquid 状態と Flooding 状 態での結果を同一グラフ上に併記している Falling liquid 状態に比べて Flooding 状態では絶対 値レベルと 分散が大きくなる傾向が見て取れる が それ以外に特徴的な変化はなく比較的安定し た変動特性を示している また 差圧変動特性に 関しては充填物間の隙間間隔の影響は確認でき ない Fig.8 にテストセクション圧力損失 P を 3 秒間 時間平均した値を気相体積流束 jg に対してプロッ トしたものを示す なお 結果は隙間間隔を変え て それぞれ 3 回 5 回独立して測定を行った結 果の平均値である 図中には 観察結果に基づく oading 開始速度 Flooding 開始速度を 青色中実プロット 赤色二 で 空気単相での測定 重プロット 結果を 印で示している なお 前述の水力相当 直径 dh = 6.8 mm と軸方向長さを用いて 式(8) のダルシー ワイズバッハの式により圧力評価し た場合 かなり小さめの値となったことから こ こでは実験結果に計算結果が合致する様に直径を チューニングして求めた値を比較対象として実線 で示している なおここでは 2 mm で計算した結 果が実験結果と近い値を示しており 便宜上この 値を実測値に基づいて評価した相当直径として取 り扱う P jg2 d h' 2 Japanese J. Multiphase Flow Vol. 3 No (8)

5 混相流 3 巻 5号

6 .1 jg = 1.7 [m/s] ( Flooding ) PDF [-].5 jg = 3 [m/s] ( Falling liquid ) t [s] ( a ) P vs. t ( b ) PDF vs. P Fig. 5 Pressure drop fluctuation ( c = mm, j = 2.4 mm/s ). 隙間間隔によらずほぼ同等の空気流束で発生し ていることが確認できる Fig.9 に前述の目視による Flooding 開始速度 oading 開始速度および圧力損失の空気単相状態 からの離脱点で定義した oading 条件を Wallis [8] の手法にならって式(9)に示す無次元化気相 流束 jg*.5 の形で求めたものを 充填物の隙間 c に対して示す jg*.5 j *.5.1 jg = 1.8 [m/s] ( Flooding ) PDF [-] ( a ) P vs. t ( b ) PDF vs. P Fig. 6 Pressure drop fluctuation ( c = 3 mm, j = 2.4 mm/s ). PDF [-] jg = 1.3 [m/s] ( Flooding ) 2 t [s].5 jg2 j2, Fr gd h ghn (1) 1 3 ( b ) PDF vs. P ( a ) P vs. t Fig. 7 Pressure drop fluctuation ( c = 5 mm, j = 2.4 mm/s ). 気液対向二相流状態の圧力損失も低気相流束にお いては空気単相状態と同等の圧力損失を取り そ の後気相流束の増加にともない 空気単相状態の 値より離脱しその後は単調に増加する この増加 へ転じる条件は差圧特性から判断される oading 点として取り扱い 後述する Fig.9 では空プロッ トで示す また c = 3 mm の両条件においては 増加後も差圧特性はほぼ同様であるのに対して c = 5 mm の条件は空気単相条件からの離脱が低気 相流束条件で現れ 値も他と比較すると大き目の 値をとる なお前述したように図中には観察結果 から定義した Flooding ならびに oading の開始点 を中実プロットで示しているが これらの条件は 472 図中には比較対象として単管での Flooding 相関 式[8-15]を前述の実測値に基づいて評価した相当 直径を用いて算出した値を示している FrG jg =.3 [m/s] ( Falling liquid ) 1 ( K G, ) FrG 45Fr Ka.1 (9) jg = 4 [m/s] ( Falling liquid ) t [s] K gd h G j K* j K hn g Q d h 1 3 Ka 4 g これらの相関式はあくまでも充填物ではなく単 管を対象に求められた結果ではあるが Wallis な らびに本系の水力相当直径に近い小口径管を対象 にしている Mouza の相関式 式(1) が実験結果 に近い値を示すことが判る なお 相当直径の評 価方法が十分に議論できていないことから ここ では代表して Mouza の式については破線で幾何学 的に定めた水力直径に対する値も併記している 相当直径の評価もふくめて汎用性を高めるには今 後評価が必要となる また Fig.9 でも確認された ように本実験結果では充填物の隙間は 目視で確 Japanese J. Multiphase Flow Vol. 3 No

7 認される oading 開始速度および Flooding 開始速度に対しては顕著な影響は示していない しかし 差圧特性から判断した oading 開始速度については c = 5 mm の場合のみ他に比べて低めの値を取ることが確認できる なお 実験では 偏流発生の確認を目的として受取法により液流量分配の評価も実施したが 本手法では再現性のある特徴的な差異は確認できなかったことからここでは割愛する P [kpa].7.5 c =, c = 3, c = 5 [mm] Air only Eq. (8) oading point Flooding point.3 c = [mm] c = 3 [mm] j G [m/s] Fig. 8 Time-averaged pressure drop ( j = 2.4 mm/s). j G *.5 [-].8 English(1963) Zapke(2) Wallis(1969) Mouza(25) c = 5 [mm] ( d h = 6.8 [mm] ) ( d h = 2. [mm] ) c =, c = 3, c = 5 [mm] oading point (Pressure drop) oading point (Observation) Flooding point (Observation) c [mm] Fig. 9 Flooding velocity ( j = 2.4 mm/s). 4. 結論本報では規則充填物で構成されるテストセクション内に水 空気を作動流体として気液対向二相流を形成し 特に充填物間の隙間が流動特性に与える影響を実験的に評価した 差圧特性ならびに X 線ラジオグラフィによるホールドアップ分布の測定結果によると Falling liquid 状態では隙間間隔の影響はほとんど確認できないが oading から Flooding 状態となると隙間が ~3 mm の範囲では差が見られないのに対し 5 mm の場合隙間部で発生する液の滞留の影響が顕著に現れた また この傾向は 空気単相特性からの離脱点においても同様の傾向が確認できた つまり充填物間の隙間はある閾値を超えると 明かに流動特性に影響するが 差圧 分布特性 遷移点の何に注視しているかで その評価は異なる また 最も重要な蒸留性能への影響は本報では評価し得ないことは注意が必要である なお以上示したような何らかの形で隙間間隔が特性に影響を示す範囲については キャピラリー長さ ( 本系で 2.5 mm) が一つの基準になると考えているが 現段階では流体として水のみを使用しているうえ 測定条件が限定されていることから今後流体を変更した実験も検討しておりこれらを含めた検討を行いたいと考えている 謝辞本研究実施に際しては 大陽日酸株式会社に多大な協力をいただいたことを記し謝意を示す また実験に際しては 関西大学機械工学科学生の藤木健太氏 脇田大吉氏 中原吉隆氏に協力いただいたことを記し感謝を示す Nomenclature c : clearance between packings [mm] d h : hydraulic diameter [mm] Fr : Froude number [-] G : gain [-] g : gravitational acceleration [m/s 2 ] h : hold-up [-] h N : Nusselt solution for mean film thickness [m] j : volumetric flux [m/s] Ka : Kapitza number [-] : length of test section [m] O : offset value [-] p : pressure drop [kpa] p Exp : system pressure [MPa] Q : volumetric flow rate [m 3 /s] Re : Reynolds number [-] S : brightness value [-] 混相流 3 巻 5 号 (217) 473

8 Greek letters volumetric liquid flow rate per unit length [m 2 /s] : thickness [m] pipe friction coefficient [-] : viscosity [Pa s] m : mass attenuation coefficient [cm 2 /g] : density [kg/m 3 ] surface tension [N/m] Subscripts Full : full water condition G : gas phase : liquid phase Offset : offset T.S. : test section 参考文献 [1] Kister, H. Z., Distillation Design, McGraw-Hill, New York, (1992). [2] Olujic, Z., Seibert, A. F. and Fair, J. R., Influence of Corrugation Geometry on the Performance of Structured Packings: An Experimental Study, Chemical Engineering and Processing, Vol. 39(4), (2). [3] Suess, P. and Spiegel,., Hold-up of Mellapak Structured Packings, Chemical Engineering and Processing, Vol. 31(2), (1992). [4] Pelkonen, S., Gorak, A., Ohligschlager, A. and Kaesemann, R. Experimental Study on Multicomponent Distillation in Packed Columns, Chemical Engineering Process, Vol. 4(3), (21). [5] Aferka, S., Viva, A., Brunazzi, E., Marchot, P., Crine, M. and Toye, D., Tomographic Measurement of iquid Hold Up and Effective Interfacial Area Distributions in a Column Packed with High Performance Structured Packings, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 66(14), (211). [6] Janzen, A., Steube, J., Aferka, S., Kenig, E. Y., Crine, M., Marchot, P. and Toye, D., Investigation of iquid Flow Morphology Inside a Structured Packing Using X-ray Tomography, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 12(11), (213). [7] Furui, S., Study on Bed Material Behavior in the Fluidized-Bed by Using the Radiography (in Japanese), Ph.D. Thesis, Kansai University (25). [8] Wallis, G.B., One-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York, (1969). [9] English, K. G., Jones, W. T., Spillers, R. C. and Orr, V., Flooding in a Vertical Updraft Partial Condenser, Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 59(7), (1963). [1] Zapke, A. and Kroeger, D. G., The Influence of Fluid Properties and Inlet Geometry on Flooding in Vertical and Inclined Tubes, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22(3), (1996). [11] Zapke, A. and Kroeger, D. G., Counter Current Gas-iquid Flow in Inclined and Vertical Ducts-I: Flow Patterns, Pressure Drop Characteristics and Flooding, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 26(9), (2). [12] Zapke, A. and Kroeger, D. G., Counter Current Gas-iquid Flow in Inclined and Vertical Ducts-II: the Validity of the Froude-Ohnesorege Number Correlation for Flooding, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 26(9), (2). [13] Mouza, A. A., Paras, S. V. and Karabelas, A. J., The Influence of Small Tube Diameter on Falling Film and Flooding Phenomena, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 28(8), (22). [14] Mouza, A. A., Paras, S. V. and Karabelas, A. J., Incipient Flooding in Inclined Tubes of Small Diameter, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 29(9), (23). [15] Mouza, A. A., Paras, S. V. and Karabelas, A. J., Falling Film and Flooding Phenomena in Small Diameter Vertical Tubes: The Influence of iquid Properties, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 6(18), (25). 474 Japanese J. Multiphase Flow Vol. 3 No. 5(217)

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