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1 Special Feature (Article)/ 特集 ( 論文 ) The Tyranny of the Anecdote Alternative Readings of the Pre-Islamic Poet, al-muraqqish al-aṣghar s Poem and Its Anecdote (1) SUMI M. Akiko Ⅰ. Introduction Ⅱ. Previous related studies and the theoretical framework of this study Ⅲ. The Poem and the anecdote Ⅳ. Conclusion 逸話の専制 前イスラーム期詩人アルムラッキシュ アルアスガルの詩の読解 鷲見朗子 アルムラッキシュ アルアスガルは前イスラーム期の西暦 6 世紀に活躍した詩人である アルムラッキシュ アルアクバル ( 西暦 550 年頃没 ) の甥であり 著名な詩人タラファの父方のおじと言われている 本研究はアルムラッキシュ アルアスガルの詩の一作品とそれにまつわる逸話 (khabar) を扱う この作品はA-lā ya-slamī どうか無事で で始まるミーミイヤ ( ミームによる押韻詩 ) であり アルムファッダル アッダビー ( 西暦 786 年頃没 ) によって編纂された名高い古典アラブ詩選集 ムファッダリイヤート に 71 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

2 収録された ファーティマという名の女性への詩人の恋慕と彼女を失う悲哀をうたったものである この詩が収録されたリオール Lyall 編 ムファッダリイヤート では アルムラッキシュ アルアスガル以外の作品と同様に 注釈家アルアンバーリー ( 西暦 916 年頃没 ) によって詩の直前に逸話が挿入されている この逸話の内容が事実であるとすれば そこから詩人の出自や作品成立の契機を知ることができる 本研究の主目的はアルムラッキシュ アルアスガルの詩と逸話との関係を考察し 詩の解釈における逸話の役割をあきらかにすることである リチャード バウマンのパフォーマンス理論および読者受容批評理論を援用し 逸話が詩の直前に挿入された状況や逸話の存在が詩の解釈に与えてきた効果を考察する このふたつの理論は 詩人と聞き手 読み手の間 語り手と聞き手 読み手の間に生じる相互作用の視点による詩と逸話の検討を可能にさせるものである 聞き手 読み手が詩と共に逸話を知ることによって 詩の解釈に有力な示唆が与えられる 一般的にも逸話が詩の注釈として機能することは過去の幾つかの研究で論証されている しかし 逸話は聞き手 読み手に特定の詩の解釈を強要し 他の解釈の可能性を排除してしまうものでもある 本研究では アルムラッキシュ アルアスガルのミーミイヤの解釈における 逸話による専制と言うべき制約と偏向を具体的に論じる まずはじめに逸話と詩の読解を試みた後に 古典アラブ詩の伝統的視点を踏まえながら 詩のみの読解を行う 逸話によると アルムラッキシュ アルアスガルはファーティマの心を射止め 彼女の寝所に通うようになるが その密会は彼の従兄弟であるジャナーブに知れてしまう ジャナーブに懇願された詩人は 仕方なくジャナーブを自分の身代わりに仕立て上げ ファーティマの閨房へと送り込む 男がアルムラッキシュ アルアスガルではないと気づいたファーティマは即座にジャナーブを追い出し アルムラッキシュ アルアスガルとの関係を断ってしまう そこでアルムラッキシュ アルアスガルが詠んだ詩がそれである この逸話によって 読み手はかつてこの詩が成立した状況を思い描くことができるのみならず 続く詩の作品を期待し 受容する態度を整えることができるといえる しかし この逸話が詩人以外の人物によって挿入されたという事実を忘れてはならない この逸話はアラブ イスラーム文学の伝統に深く根ざしてきたハバル ( 逸話 ) という形式をとっており 真正なハバルであると思われるが 詩成立の契機としての史実性には疑問符が付く 一方 作品のみをみると それは古典アラブ詩の慣例や規則に立脚し 独自の文学的価値を備える秀逸な詩であることがわかる 詩に綴られた 恋人への張り裂けんばかりの想いと自分の元へ戻ってほしいという 去りゆく彼女への詩人の切ない訴えは読み手の心に痛いほどに迫ってくる にもかかわらず 逸話を伴った詩の解釈では AJAMES no

3 例えば詩中で詩人がうたう恋人への熱情は 悔恨にあふれた弁解と解釈される これは逸話の効果による すり替えである 詩人は作品に より広い意味の可能性を与えようとしていたのかもしれない 逸話が制約された解釈を読み手 聞き手に強要するのである 本研究は アルムラッキシュ アルアスガルの逸話を詩と共に読むことは詩自体の解釈にひとつの補助線を与えるが それは逸話が読み手 聞き手に特定の解釈を押し付けるものであり 他にもありうる詩の意味を限定することになると結論づける I. Introduction This study examines a poem by the pre-islamic poet al-muraqqish al-aṣghar (d. ca. 570 C.E.) and its associated khabar or anecdote. The poem is the Mīmiyyah (poem with the rhyme-consonant mīm) that opens with A-lā ya-slamī (Be safe) (2) in Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt, which is an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry compiled by al-mufaḍḍal ibn Muḥammad al-ḍabbī (d. ca.786 C.E.). An anecdote pertaining to this poem is also found in Lyall s edition of this anthology [Dīwān al-mufaḍḍaliyyāt 1920, 1: ]. My main goal is to explore the relationship between the poem and its anecdote to determine the function of the anecdote regarding the interpretation of the poem. The anecdote, which provides the poet s biographical information and the occasion for which the poem was composed, is inserted before the poem, as is the case with many other poems in the anthology. I examine why the anecdote is included, why it was done in this way, and how its presence affects our understanding of the poem. The poem falls within the genre of the qaṣīdah, the classical Arabic ode, which is deeply ingrained in the classical Arabic literary tradition. The qaṣīdah is generally a polythematic poem with mono-rhyme and mono-meter. As one of the major genres in Arabic literature, its substantial history ranges from approximately the sixth century C.E. to the first half of the twentieth century, although it is still produced on a much reduced scale. The poetic tradition, therefore, remained and flourished after the advent of Islam in the seventh century C.E. In the pagan pre-islamic era, later called the Jāhiliyyah or Age of Ignorance, the qaṣīdah was orally composed and transmitted from one rāwī (transmitter) to another. The corpus of the pre-islamic qaṣīdah was not recorded until the early Abbāsid era, the second half of the eighth century or the opening of the ninth century C.E. (3) 73 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

4 Khabar (pl. akhbār) basically means a report or a piece of information. In the classical Arabic literary context, it is a narrative report of an historical, biographical, or anecdotal nature, and its length may vary from one line to several pages. In a broader sense, akhbār are not necessarily based on facts, though they are often regarded as valid reports that were transmitted orally or in writing through generations from the original witnesses. However, the style of akhbār and their narrative form suggest factual and historical validity (see below) [Leder 1992: ]. In the classical Arabic literary works that deal with the qaṣīdah, akhbār are occasionally inserted, providing poet s biographical information or the occasions of the composition of poems. Some akhbār are associated with particular poems, and others are presented merely as general reports concerning the poet s life and historical background. A khabar with content closely connected with a poem is sometimes located in the marginal notes section of a poem [e.g., al-mufaḍḍal 1964, Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt, ed. Shākir and Hārūn (4) ]. This kind of khabar is often placed immediately before the poem. For instance, the khabar of al-muraqqish al-aṣghar is intimately associated with the poem and is placed right before it in Lyall s edition of Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt [1920: 1, ], as well as in another major classical literary anthology, Kitāb al-aghānī (The Book of Songs) compiled by Abū al-faraj al-iṣbahānī (d. 967) [ : 6, ]. In Lyall s edition of Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt, all the akhbār, including the khabar of al-muraqqish al-aṣghar, were positioned by the commentator Abū Muḥammad al-qāsim ibn Muḥammad ibn Bashshār al-anbārī (d. 916 or 917), who was a prominent Arab philologist. In Kitāb al-aghānī, the compiler al-iṣbahānī himself inserted the akhbār. For theoretical tools, I mainly use the performance theory of Richard Bauman and reader-response criticism. Bauman s theory is useful to show the strong influence of the anecdote in the interpretation of the poem, particularly with regard to its performance, through the concept of keying. Reader-response criticism helps to illuminate the role of an accompanying anecdote in the interpretation of the poem. It also cautions the reader against the idea that reading an accompanying anecdote is necessary, or is the best or only way to interpret a poem. Because it is generally acknowledged that there is no one correct meaning of a literary text for all readers [Abrams and Harpham 2009: 299], reader-response criticism urges a more careful treatment and examination of the role of the anecdote, despite its apparent utility for the understanding of the poem. AJAMES no

5 While the anecdote may allow the reader to envision a particular situation that this poem once described, we must remember that the anecdote was also inserted by a different author (i.e., the commentator, al-anbārī). As such, reading it along with the poem may add one dimension to the poem s interpretation, but it may also limit other possible meanings. The poem might also stand by itself to present its own literary and aesthetic qualities, and in fact, it may have been intended to do so. Thus, the commentator s addition of the anecdote can be taken as an imposed influence that tends to direct interpretation in only one way, while the poem itself may allow wider possibilities. II. Previous related studies and the theoretical framework of this study Why were anecdotes placed in the classical Arabic poetic compilations? This question leads us to ask how we should read and understand classical Arabic odes. Anecdotes have been generally recognized to possess information of historical and biographical value, but they can also be read merely as entertaining narratives. In earlier studies, the idea has been expressed that anecdotes are useful for describing the background and context in which poems were composed or performed [Kilpatrick 2003: 89]. (5) However, Suzanne Stetkevych asserts that the primary function of akhbār is to serve as a sharḥ, commentary or explication, of the poetic text, as in the case of the pre-islamic poet Labīd [1993: 54] and other Jāhilī poets. (6) Similarly, I have argued elsewhere that the anecdote concerning the two pre-islamic poets, Imru al-qays and Alqamah al-faḥl, which describes a narrative context of a poetic contest, helps to explain their odes on horses [2004: 19-60]. In discussing Nabaṭi poetry, Saad Sowayan likewise perceived the merit of prose narratives as a socio-historical context for poems. He pointed out that the reciter of a poem provides his listeners with a prose narrative that sketches the occasion on which the poem was composed, or which accounts for the motives behind its composition [1985: 125]. Nabaṭi poetry is the popular vernacular poetry of Arabia, and is very similar to the Arabic qaṣīdah in its form and themes. Sowayan said, To illuminate these allusions [of Nabaṭi poetry] and put the poem in its proper social and historical context, the reciter offers his listeners a prose narrative [1985: 125]. As these scholars argue, akhbār or prose narratives can enable the listener/reader 75 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

6 to better understand the poems. Yet, what I hope to show in this study is that there are cases in which the existence of anecdotes tends to suggest a limited interpretation of their respective poems. This effect of anecdotes is particularly true of al-muraqqish al-aṣghar s poem and anecdote. Although the anecdote provides useful social and historical background, and erotic and witty elements to expand the plot, all of which further entice the listener/reader, this anecdote suggests only one of several possible interpretations. The two framing theories for this study, the performance theory of Richard Bauman and the reader-response theory, are related in terms of communication, i.e., the interaction between the poet and the audience, or the narrator and the listener. Both frameworks allow us to analyze the role of the audience by examining the function of the anecdote in the interpretation of the poem. Richard Bauman s theory of performance is set in this framework of communication. [T]he term performance has been used to convey a dual sense of artistic action the doing of folklore and artistic event the performance situation, involving performer, art form, audience, and setting both of which are basic to the developing performance approach. This usage accords well with the conventional meaning of the term performance and has served to point up the fundamental reorientation from folklore-as-materials to folklore-ascommunication... (the italics are Bauman s) [Bauman 1977: 4]. Once the original poet had died or was separated from the live performance, anecdotes about him were passed down orally and eventually recorded in writing as akhbār. Hence, akhbār are literary lore and do not belong to the folklore genre, strictly speaking; but we can use Bauman s idea to examine the interaction between the poet and the audience, or the narrator and the listener, as well as to consider performance. Although we do not know if the poem and the anecdote were actually performed verbally in the past, we can speculate that they were both intended to be recited in front of the audience. This can be surmised from an understanding of the socio-literary environment during the Abbāsid era, when Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt, Kitāb al-aghānī, and other anthologies that contain this poem and its anecdote were compiled. That environment is partly exemplified by Abbāsid literary gatherings or salons (mujālasāt). The mujālasāt included collegial salons, which were held in mosques and AJAMES no

7 other Islamic institutions for humanities education, and royal salons, which were held in courts for the enjoyment and edification of kings, caliphs, princes, and courtiers [Ali 2010: 13-19]. In these salons, the acquisition of adab, literary knowledge or courtly etiquette, was one of the intellectual and social goals, and possession of the same was one of the essential qualifications for their participants [Ali 2010: 33-37]. Adab was a corpus of knowledge that contained ancient Arabic poetry and akhbār, along with other subjects, such as the art of oratory, historical and tribal traditions of the ancient Arabs, rhetoric, grammar, and lexicography. Therefore, we can assume that classical Arabic poems, including the pre-islamic qaṣīdahs, and their associated akhbār were performed via recitation or read aloud in the setting of the mujālasāt. Reader-reception criticism also focuses on the relationship between the poem and the anecdote, because the anecdote may provide some interpretive clues for the reader of the poem. In this theory, the interpretive activities of readers rather than the author s intentions or the text s structure formulate a text s significance and its aesthetic value. This idea emerged partly in reaction to New Criticism, which asserts the primacy of the text, and places the reader(s) and context firmly in a secondary and subordinate role. Reader-reception criticism seeks to shift critics attention from the author and his/ her text to the studies of readers and the role of the reading process itself. For these theorists, the activity of reading involves not merely the readers response to the text but also their contributions to a construction of the text s meaning. III. The Poem and the anecdote Rabī ah ibn Sufyān ibn Sa d ibn Mālik, known by his sobriquet, al-muraqqish (7) al-aṣghar (the Younger) (d. ca. 570 C.E. (8) ), was a pre-islamic poet. (9) He is said to have been a nephew of the pre-islamic poet al-muraqqish al-akbar (10) (the Elder) (d. ca. 550 C.E. (11) ) and a paternal uncle of the famous poet Ṭarafah. Like his uncle al-muraqqish al-akbar, al-muraqqish al-aṣghar enjoyed a reputation as the hero of ushshāq (lovers) and was reported to have engaged in the war of al-basūs ( ) [Lyall 1920: 2, 186]. The information about his life seems to be limited in general to his akhbār and is sometimes confused with the information about al-muraqqish al-akbar. (12) The poem of al-muraqqish al-aṣghar, the focus of this study, can be called a qaṣīdah in a general sense in the classical Arabic poetic tradition. In the full traditional 77 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

8 manner, a qaṣīdah contains a three-part thematic structure: 1. the nasīb (amatory prelude), 2. the raḥīl (journey), and 3. the fakhr (boast) or the madīḥ (praise). (13) The poem of al-muraqqish al-aṣghar can also be considered a qiṭ ah (a mono-thematic poem or fragment), because its theme is generally similar only to the nasīb. If it is the fragment of a full qaṣīdah, the rest of the verses must have been lost. The anecdote pertaining to the poem is found in major literary anthologies, such as Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt, the Kitāb al-aghānī of al-iṣbahānī (d. 967), and the Kitāb al-shi r wa al-shu arā of Ibn Qutaybah (d. 889) [1904]. These are variants of the same khabar, as their contents are similar and relate to the same episode. (14) I mainly use the version of the anecdote of Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt. All three anthologies place the anecdote first and then the poem, as I will show below. (The translation is mine.) The Khabar (anecdote) that includes the poem in Lyall s edition of Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt, (15) as follows: A Report (ḥadīth) on Muraqqish (16) al-aṣghar Abū Ikrimah said what al-mufaḍḍal said: It was from a report (ḥadīth) on Muraqqish al-aṣghar, whose name was Rabī ah ibn Sufyān ibn Sa d ibn Mālik. He was a paternal uncle of Ṭarafah, and [al-muraqqish] al-akbar was a paternal uncle of his father. [Al-Muraqqish] al-aṣghar was a better poet and lived longer [than al-muraqqish al-akbar]. He was the lover of Fāṭimah bint al-mundhir. She had a slave-girl named Bint Ajlān. She [Fāṭimah] had a palace (qaṣr) at Kāẓimah. (17) She had guards who would drag cloth along the ground around her palace every night, so that no one could tread around it except for Bint Ajlān. Bint Ajlān would take in a man every night from the people at the water wells, who would stay over with her. Then Amr ibn Janāb ibn Awf ibn Mālik told Muraqqish [al-aṣghar]. (18) Then Amr ibn Janāb ibn Awf ibn Mālik told him [al-muraqqish al-aṣghar]: Bint Ajlān takes in every night a man whom she likes and lets him stay over with her. Muraqqish [al-aṣghar] tended camels, from which he was never separated. He lived at a water well [but] left his camels thirsty. He had the most handsome face and the most beautiful hair. Fāṭimah, the daughter of the king, would sit on the castle [wall], watching people. It happened that Muraqqish [al-aṣghar] came and stayed with Bint Ajlān. The next day, she disrobed before her mistress. Then she [the mistress] said, What is that between your thighs? There were marks that looked like straws. She answered, It is from a man who stayed with me last night. Fāṭimah AJAMES no

9 had told her before that, I saw a handsome man who had left and whom I had not seen before. She [Bint Ajlān] said, He is a young man [who] tends his camels and grazes them. When she [Fāṭimah] saw what was on her thighs, she asked her about it. She [Bint Ajlān] said, It is the act of the handsome man, whom you refused. Fāṭimah said, If he comes tomorrow, give him a cassolette (mijmar) and command him to sit on it. Then give him a stick for cleaning the teeth (miswāk). And if he cleans his teeth with it or refuses it, there is no good in him. And if he sits on the cassolette or refuses it, there is no good in him either. She [Bint Ajlān] brought the cassolette to him and then told him to sit on it. He refused and said, Draw it near to me. Then he perfumed his beard with it and exposed his luxuriant hair to it, and refused to sit on it. He took the stick, cut off its tip, and cleaned his teeth with it. Bint Ajlān came to Fāṭimah and related to her what he did. She [Fāṭimah] was surprised more and more by him. Then she [Fāṭimah] said, Bring him to me. (19) She [Fāṭimah] became attached to him, as she [Bint Ajlān] did. His companions departed, and the people said that she took the shepherd of camels when they departed. Then she [Bint Ajlān] carried him on her back ( unuq) in order to take him to [Fāṭimah]. The king would command [his guards] to keep watch around her dome (qubbah). Then morning came. The followers of tracks came to observe if there were any footprints. They observed and found the footprints of Bint Ajlān, which were heavy. He continued to be taken to her in this way for a while. Amr ibn Janāb ibn Awf ibn Mālik was observing what he [al-muraqqish al-aṣghar] did and said to him, Did you not promise me that you would not hide anything from me, as I would not hide [anything] from you? (20) Al-Muraqqish [al-aṣghar] then told him the information [what had happened]. He [Janāb] said, I will not be pleased with you, nor will I talk to you ever again, unless you let me into her place. He swore an oath on that. Al-Muraqqish [al-aṣghar] went off [with him] to the place of the rendezvous with her and said, Stay here until Bint Ajlān comes to you. He [Al-Muraqqish al-aṣghar] told him [ Amr ibn Janāb] how he behaves. They [al-muraqqish al-aṣghar and Amr ibn Janāb] looked like one another, except that Amr ibn Janāb s body was hairier. Muraqqish [al-aṣghar] departed, and Bint Ajlān let Amr [ibn Janāb] enter to [meet Fāṭimah]. He did what he was told by Muraqqish [al-aṣghar]. When he wanted to have intercourse with her, she touched his hairy thighs and rejected him. He [Janāb] trembled [in excitement], 79 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

10 but she pushed him away and cried, What a shameless ruse the Mu aydī [has played]! She called upon Bint Ajlān, and she took him away. He hurried to the place of his friend, and it did not take long before he [ Amr ibn Janāb] left. When he [al-muraqqish al-aṣghar] saw him [coming] in haste, he realized what had occurred. Then he [al-muraqqish al-aṣghar] bit his finger so hard that he [nearly] bit off it. Then he went to his people and left the water well where he (grazed) [his camels], out of shame at what he had done. He recited about this: (21) Arabic Text of the Poem AJAMES no

11 English translation of the poem 1. Fāṭimah, be safe. No separation from me today, nor evermore, as long as the tie of your love continues. 2. The daughter of the tribe of Bakr shot you with a glance [like an arrow] from a lotus bough [swaying figure], while eye-sunken camels, like ostriches, carried us swiftly off. (22) 3. She appeared before us on the day of departure with her hair hanging down, and her sweet mouth with teeth evenly set. 4. [Her mouth] was well-watered [as if] by a rain cloud, crowned with the sun, flowing white clouds. 5. She showed you at Dhāt al-ḍāl her wrist and her full, soft cheek, smooth as a silver ingot. 6. His heart recovers from his intoxication with her, although if her memory comes to him, the earth spins around him as he stands. 7. Look, my friend; do you see departing women going forth swiftly, seated in camel-litters? 81 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

12 8. They set out from the lowland of al-warī ah after the day had risen high and they crossed the mounds of sand. 9. They were adorned with rubies, small pearls, gold beads, and onyx from Ẓafār and pearls two by two. 10. They went among the villages and the winding of a valley, while their camels were spurred on, and they left Qaww behind and crossed the mountain paths. 11. How lovely is the face whose brightness you show us, and the tresses, as long as ropes, coal-black! 12. I suffer the absence of dear Fāṭimah when I am hungry and lean, and I suffer the absence of her also when I am satiated; 13. I suffer the absence of you [Fāṭimah], while the wide desert is between us, lest you meet a brother of mine who cuts [me off from you]. 14. Though my young camel is tired, I keep pushing her and pushing myself with the utmost speed, O Fāṭimah, 15. Be safe and go with a lucky star, Fāṭimah, AJAMES no

13 even though your course may not be tied to mine! 16. Be safe and you must know that I need you, so reply to me with your favor, Fāṭimah! 17. O Fāṭimah, if all other women were in one land, and you in another, I would pursue you madly. 18. When the beloved one wishes, she cuts off the bond with her lover, and inevitably grows angry with him without cause. 19. Janāb took an oath, and you obeyed him, so turn your blame upon yourself, if you blame someone. 20. If a man prospers, people will praise him; and if he goes astray, he will not lack someone to blame him. 21. Do you not see that one will cut off his hand, and take upon himself great hardships, out of fear of the blame of his friend? 22. Is it due to a dream that you have come to scratch upon earth in grief, for sometimes dreams come to one who is sleeping? 83 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

14 1. Keying the poem to the khabar With performance as a framework, Richard Bauman pointed out the importance of how performance is keyed; that is, the way in which framing is accomplished [1977: 15]. He further said, citing Bateson [1972: 188], Any message, which either explicitly or implicitly defines a frame, ipso facto gives the receiver instructions or aids in his attempt to understand the messages included within the frame [Bauman 1977: 15]. When considering the framing of this poem by its anecdote, we should remember that the anthologies that contain them are anthologies of poems (or songs). Therefore, the poems are the main focus of the anthologies, and the anecdotes are merely placed with the poems to present information on the poems and the poets. In our example from al-muraqqish al-aṣghar, it can be posited that the khabar frames the poem; in other words, the khabar keys the reading of the poem. Bauman further said that this framing is to be understood within the scope of each speech community: [E]ach speech community will make use of a structured set of distinctive communicative means from among its resources in culturally conventionalized and culture-specific ways to key the performance frame, such that all communication that takes place within that frame is to be understood within that community [1977: 16]. Stemming from this idea, this poem is keyed by the khabar in such a way that the frame is a structured set of distinctive communicative means cast in a literary mode. The framing of the poem by the khabar is conventional, given its formulaic character; this can be seen particularly in its isnād structure and style of narration (see below). Bauman stated, Performance thus calls forth special attention to and heightened awareness of the act of expression and gives license to the audience to regard the act of expression and the performer with special intensity [1977: 11]. The khabar focuses the readers or the listeners on the artistic work (i.e., the poem), and prepares them to enter into its aesthetic the poetic world. For instance, immediately before the recitation of the poem, which follows the reading of the anecdote, the narrator says, He [the poet] recited about this [episode]. Then, the poem is presented. Therefore, the khabar keys the poem, not only in form but also in content, because the khabar heightens the readers anticipation of the presentation of the poem. While explaining the context in AJAMES no

15 matn. (24) This use of a quotation coupled with the isnād structure also demonstrates which the poem was composed, the khabar also effectively and dramatically introduces the poem to the audience. In doing so, the khabar, with its story-telling character and its entertaining and amusing elements, becomes in itself a source of enjoyment and satisfaction for the audience [Bauman 1977: 12]. (23) Consequently, the khabar can enhance the impact of the poem for the audience, by increasing the audience s motivation to listen to or read the poem. The first way that the khabar keys the poem is by means of the well-established, traditional scholarly structure called the isnād, which is a chain of transmitters of an account. This element represents an appeal to tradition in Bauman s schema [1977: 21]. In the basic form of a khabar, the matn (content of the khabar) follows an isnād. This anecdote opens with the saying, Abū Ikrimah said what al-mufaḍḍal said. It was from a report on al-muraqqish al-aṣghar, and his name was... (Al-Mufaḍḍal died in ca. 786, and Abū Ikrimah died in 864.) The first sentence can be regarded as a sort of isnād, and the second sentence as the beginning of the matn. The isnād originally evolved to authenticate the ḥadīth, the collection of traditions attributed to the Prophet Muḥammad (his sayings and deeds). It was later used in other fields, such as history [Kilpatrick 2003: 94]. The isnād in al-muraqqish al-aṣghar s khabar contains the accounts of only two transmitters, Abū Ikrimah and al-mufaḍḍal. But the commentator, al-anbārī, uses the isnād structure for the purpose of authenticating the prose report, the the narrator s intention to show that the content of the khabar is believable or true. To possess this quality, as Gérard Genette explained, the actions answer, as so many applications of particular cases, to a body of maxims accepted as true by the public to which the narrative is addressed [Genette 2001 (1968): 242]. If the khabar seems believable to its audience, this will increase the trustworthiness and apparent authenticity of the matn. In fact, it is assumed that al-mufaḍḍal received the report from the same Bedouin informants from whom he collected his poetry. Al-Mufaḍḍal, a Kufan philologist, had a high reputation for reliability and trustworthiness in the transmission of poetry and anecdotes. Therefore, al-mufaḍḍal is the authoritative source of both poems and akhbār that, on his authority, are considered authentic pre-islamic materials [Stetkevych 1991: ]. Al-Muraqqish al-aṣghar s khabar may have been traced back to authentic folkloric materials (see below), but not to an authentic historical setting of the poem. 85 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

16 The second element of keying is the style of narration in the khabar. Akhbār generally employ two methods to transmit information use of the narrator s voice, and of dialogue among the characters [Leder 1992: 307]. These methods are further linked with the apparent authenticity and reliability of the khabar and poem. This is further explored below. According to Genette, Plato named the attributes of narrative. Plato s term lexis (style of narration) can be divided into diegesis (simple narrative) and mimesis (representation of another person s words in a speech) [Genette 1976: 2]. Theoretically, the whole matn may be taken as mimesis, because it is the narration of Abū Ikrimah, who is presenting an older account(s). Yet, though the khabar was originally orally transmitted, it is now a written text and can be studied as a narrative text. Consequently, the khabar also can be regarded as a mix of diegesis and mimesis. An example of diegesis is, He had the most handsome face and the most beautiful hair. An example of mimesis is the utterance of Bint Ajlān to Fāṭimah, I saw a handsome man who had left and whom I did not see before. Genette mentions, quoting Plato, that the mixed narrative is the most popular and universal mode of telling a story. He goes on to say that a straightforward comment (diegesis) should represent as well as it can, and a dialogue (mimesis) should be presented as simple quotes [1976: 4]. Moreover, according to him, a narrative that is precisely faithful to historical events should be entirely based on a received verbal account; but a narrative that is partially or totally fictitious may be composed of both a received verbal account and later, derived narration. For Genette, if the khabar is composed of mimesis only, then it was intended as historically faithful narrative, because the entire anecdote is quoted. The large percentage of mimesis may thus indicate al-anbārī s purpose to authenticate the matn. However, if the matn is viewed apart from the isnād, then the narrative consists of mimesis and diegesis. Moreover, the set composed of the poem and the khabar can be divided into three parts: poetry, mimesis (dialogue), and diegesis (narrative). With a closer look at these distinctions, we can observe that a relative emphasis seems to be placed upon each style in terms of its implied trustworthiness. The most important part is the poem, the second most important is the mimesis, and last is the diegesis, if we agree with Genette. This order matches the order of the implied authenticity of its three parts: poetry is the most reliable, the mimesis is second, and diegesis is considered the least reliable. Yet, we cannot sufficiently prove the suggested relative status of mimesis and diegesis in the case of al-muraqqish al-aṣghar s khabar. That distinction in the two AJAMES no

17 forms is perhaps only theoretical at this stage. However, the supremacy of the poem is obvious. This is due to the oral-formulaic qualities of Arabic pre-islamic poetry. By the application of the Parry-Lord theory of oral poetry, James Monroe has proved that this corpus of poetry is oral-formulaic in nature, as it contains repetitions of a substantial number of formulas or formulaic phrases and constructions [1972: 39]. (25) Together with its mono-rhymed and mono-metered form, the formulaic features of pre-islamic poetry also enhances the stability of the poetic texts, because they facilitated and strengthened the mnemonic faculty of the transmitters. From this perspective, the poems can be supposed to have been maintained and preserved more accurately than prose narratives, which bear fewer formulaic traits and depend instead upon the content during the oral transmission. Hence, poetry is the most reliable or stable among the three forms: diegesis, mimesis, and poetry [See Motoyoshi 1995]. Al-Muraqqish al-aṣghar s case is no exception. The textual stability of the poem further allows us to see the relationship between the poem and the khabar. The khabar is subordinate to the ode. (26) The hypothesis that the poetic text is more reliable or stable than the prose text allows us to posit that the prose text may have been reworked and developed over time, changing the content of the original or real episode. (27) This possibility is supported by the fact that the prose text (i.e., the anecdote) contains a number of Arab folkloric motifs, which may have been incorporated in the anecdote during its early oral transmission. According to Hasan El-Shamy, there are more than fifteen motifs in the khabar (see Appendix). For example, the motif of Friendship without refusal, that is, Friends bind themselves each to grant desire of the other (P0319.7), is found in the relationship between al-muraqqish and Janāb in the anecdote. Al-Muraqqish could not refuse Janāb s request, because the refusal would result in the rupture of their friendship. Another example is the motif of Identification by touch (sensation) (H ), which is seen in the scene where Fāṭimah notices, by means of her touching his hairy body, that the man who was brought to her tent is not her lover. Thus, the notion of keying is revealed in the relative positions of the poem and the khabar. The khabar s subordinate position in this keying or framing is congruent with our understanding of its role in relation to the poem in reader-response criticism. Although the three elements (text, reader, and context) mutually interact, it is clear that this is intended for the purpose of interpreting a text. The main object is the poem (text). The anecdote (context) serves to clarify a meaning of the poem, and the interpretation of the poem is done by the reader. 87 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

18 2. Text, reader, and context For the purpose of clarifying the role of the anecdote, the reader-response theory is useful, particularly in the work of Hans Robert Jauss and Wolfgang Iser, which emphasizes three inseparable though distinguishable elements that interact during reading: the text, the reader or the reading process, and the context [Lane 2002: 285]. The theory posits that all three are involved in the construction of assigned value or meaning to the literary work or aesthetic object. This theory is beneficial for clarifying the meanings of the poem and the anecdote. Their relationship should be considered in three stages. The first stage is the original circumstances within which the poem existed. The poet s tribesmen are the original audience, and the context is the social, historical, and cultural norms within that society when the poem was composed. That original setting was the oral community of the pre-islamic era. The anecdote as a text was not a part of this first stage, because only the poem and its audience existed then. The second stage is the moment when al-anbārī added his commentaries to Al-Mufaḍḍaliyyāt and included the khabar into the anthology. In that stage, the text is the poem, the reader is al-anbārī, and the context is the social, historical, and cultural norms of the Abbāsid era, when al-anbārī lived. It is important to note that this second stage was when the khabar was included as a context for the poem. Al-Anbārī added the khabar next to the poem in his anthology, because he regarded the khabar as something that would help his reader(s) to better understand the poem. We do not know if there were other akhbār pertaining to this poet that were available to al-anbārī as other options; but we can be certain that al-anbārī chose this khabar for his anthology. The third stage is our current age, in which the text is a set comprising the poem and the khabar, the reader is us, and the context is the social and cultural norms of each contemporary reader in addition to that of the khabar. Needless to say, this stage is shaped by the current condition of the poem and the khabar. Although the khabar is also part of the text, it can be regarded as a context for the poem or a reading process of the poem supplied by al-anbārī. (28) These layers of reading can be explained by Jauss s attempt to reintroduce history into the study of literature. Of particular use are his term horizon of expectation and his thoughts on the continually changing nature of this horizon of expectation [1970: 13]. (29) Based on the notion of horizon, which came from Jauss s teacher, the hermeneutic theorist Hans-Georg Gadamer, the horizon of expectation refers to a structure of expectations that an individual reader brings to a literary text. Jauss believed that a specific horizon of expectation for a work is produced during the process of AJAMES no

19 communication between that literary work and readers over the course of generations. He stated, [t]he relationship between literature and reader has aesthetic as well as historical implications. Jauss further argued: The historical life of a literary work is unthinkable without the active participation of its audience. For it is only through the process of its communication that the work reaches the changing horizon of experience in a continuity in which the continual change occurs from simple reception to critical understanding, from passive to active reception, from recognized aesthetic norms to a new production which surpasses them... The obvious historical implication of this is that the appreciation of the first reader will be continued and enriched through further receptions from generation to generation [Jauss 1970: 8]. In light of Jauss s ideas, we can understand the khabar as a result of the communication between the text (the poem) and its audience in the historical phase between the era of the poet and that of al-anbārī. We may also think of the khabar as embodying that audience s horizon of expectation. The audience actively participated in the interpretation of the poem by adding the context, which took the form of the khabar. Had the khabar not been placed in the anthology, later readers of the poem would have read it only with their own, personal horizons of expectation. This historical aspect of the act of reading leads to the question, how do we read the poem? Should we read the poem with the help of our predecessor s knowledge and views on it, that is, using the information presented in the khabar? The setting of the poem and its khabar were acknowledged by the literary authorities of the medieval era, such as al-mufaḍḍal, al-anbārī, and al-iṣbahānī. Can we therefore say that the setting also constitutes part of the scholarly apparatus established by literary critics and specialists? We can also ask, should we read it without any preconceived ideas or assumptions? To answer these questions, first we may examine the effect of the anecdote on a reading of the poem, and second, we can interpret the poem alone, based on the literary and poetic conventions of the qaṣīdah tradition. 3. Examination of the anecdote The anecdote offers the poet s biographical information with an account of a particular episode describing his relationship with his beloved Fāṭimah and his cousin 89 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

20 Janāb. Most of the report is this episode. The anecdote mentions in the beginning that al-muraqqish al-aṣghar was the lover of Fāṭimah bint al-mundhir, indicating the author s desire to tell the reader that the main theme of the anecdote is the poet s love story involving Fāṭimah. The anecdote also slightly emphasizes the following aspects: the social conditions of Fāṭimah and the poet, which suggest their life stages; their difference in social status; and the cause of her anger at him. What we can know from the anecdote is that Fāṭimah is a princess, a daughter of King al-mundhir II of al-ḥīrah. She was living in a palace, watched by guards and attended by her slave girl, Bint Ajlān. Her father assigned guards, lest men should come to call on her. This shows the socio-moralistic restrictions that were placed on highborn maidens in those days, which emphasize the importance of chastity and virginity. It evokes the well-known, pre-islamic poet Imru al-qays s description of bayḍati khidrin (an egg of curtained quarters). Calling it the custom of confining pubescent girls before they are ready for marriage, Suzanne Stetkevych argued that such confinement is the female counterpart of the male liminal expulsion [1993: 267]. In light of this understanding, Fāṭimah s circumstances suggest that she is in the stage of immaturity, as is al-muraqqish al-aṣghar (see below). The anecdote reveals that the poet was a camel tender, which signifies his boyhood, i.e., the immature and incomplete period of his life in terms of his responsibility to his community. In her analysis of Mu allaqat of Labīd, the pre- Islamic poet, Suzanne Stetkevych pointed out that Labīd s khabar indicates that he is in the liminal phase, before reaching full manhood and membership in his tribe; this is when he is presented in the khabar attending to the gear, the livestock, and the mounts [1993: 48]. Similar to this example, al-muraqqish al-aṣghar s occupation of grazing the camels, which was the traditional job of boys in the pre-islamic society, signifies that he is also in the immature phase of his life. The poet, who used to tend his camels, leaves his camels thirsty and runs to his beloved; this shows his irresponsibility to the tribal community, for whom camels were extremely important. Fāṭimah s status as a princess represents a contrast to the status of al-muraqqish al-aṣghar, a camel-tender. He was leading a desert life with camels by the water well. We can assume that his low social status and Bedouin origin urged Fāṭimah to test him, to see if he knew how to use a cassolette and a stick to clean his teeth. She is testing his adab, or cultured manner. Because of his background, Fāṭimah did not want to take him in, if he had no adab. His comeliness alone was not enough for him to be her lover. AJAMES no

21 However, the poet s etiquette and refined manner astonished and satisfied Fāṭimah, who then allowed him to visit her at night. Fāṭimah s conduct, as a free-born lady of high social rank, represents a contrast to that of Bint Ajlān, her slave girl, who every night takes in any man from the people of water wells who suits her fancy. The anecdote then elaborates on Janāb s oath, how Fāṭimah was enraged by al-muraqqish al-aṣghar, and how the poet felt shame (ḥayā ) before her. In fact, it is Janāb who told the poet about Bint Ajlān s conduct of taking a man into her place every night. It can be assumed that Janāb never imagined that his cousin could have gained access to Fāṭimah. Knowing that al-muraqqish became Fāṭimah s lover, Janāb asked al-muraqqish to allow him go to her place. Janāb s oath stated that, if al-muraqqish did not grant his request, then Janāb would be angry with al-muraqqish and might no longer talk to the poet. Janāb threatened the poet, hinting that his refusal of this request would cause a permanent breach of friendship between them. Taking advantage of the two men s outward resemblance, al-muraqqish sent Janāb to his beloved. The only difference between the two men was that Janāb was hairier than al-muraqqish. This difference resulted in divulging their conspiracy to dupe Fāṭimah, who became furious at them. After incurring her wrath, al-muraqqish nearly bit his finger off and left the water well out of shame for his own misbehavior. Then the poet recited his poem to Fāṭimah. By keying the poem in this way, the anecdote helps the audience prepare to receive the poem, and it heightens the audience s anticipation of its presentation. The characters social environments and the events described in the anecdote also enable us to better understand the poem. However, this understanding is only built on the anecdote, which directs the readers with its own story. The anecdote makes the audience feel less sympathetic about the poet s sorrowful and distressed situation in the poem, because the separation was mainly caused by his misdeed. According to the anecdote, the poet succumbed to his cousin s threat and chose to serve his cousin over his beloved. Given this situation, it is natural that she would become furious at him and decide to forsake him. Therefore, however passionately the poet entreats her to come back to him in the poem, his passion does not resonate with the readers due to their understanding of his past actions, which was keyed by the anecdote. To the readers, his ardent love for Fāṭimah in the poem would then sound as if it were mingled with his apology and regret. As evidence of this influence of the anecdote, contemporary scholars see the poet 91 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

22 and the poem in a similar manner. For example, the editor of Dīwān of al-muraqqishayn said about one of the poetic verses, Do you not see that one will cut off his hand, and take upon himself great hardships, due to fear of the blame of his friend? This refers to v. 21, in which the poet cut off his finger, not because of his infatuation and love for Fāṭimah but because of his remorse (nadam) and shame (ḥayā ) due to what he had done (i.e., he sent his cousin to her tent) [ed. Ṣādir 1998: 21]. The editor even said that al-muraqqish al-aṣghar s conduct was the outcome of his selfishness, his wish to dominate her, and his headstrong jealousy [ed. Ṣādir 1998: 21]. Another recent work reveals a similar interpretation. (30) Moreover, the editor states that because of the incident in the khabar, the poet s name became proverbial [ed. Ṣādir 1998: 21]. The saying is, Atyam min al-muraqqish (More enslaved by love than al-muraqqish) [al-maydānī 1988: 1, 199], which can also be related to the poem. Hence, the influence of the anecdote on the interpretation of the poem still remains in modern times. Thus, the anecdote can impose a particular reading of the poem, while reading only the poem itself yields a more generic reading that fits with the conventions of this poetic genre. 4. Examination of the poem With the poet s unrequited love as its main theme, the poem heavily relies on conventional motifs and the nasīb (amatory prelude), such as the departing women and the description of his beloved. These are common inter-textual and inter-referential features of classical Arabic poetry. In spite of this tendency, the poem has its own characteristics, such as Janāb s interference in the poet s relationship with Fāṭimah (v. 13), Janāb s oath, and the poet s obedience to him (v. 19). These characteristics may stimulate the readers curiosity and conjectures, especially because the poem does not provide information on how Janāb interfered with the love between the poet and his beloved or what Janāb s oath was. The qaṣīdah genre to which the poem belongs is part of a well-established literary tradition which continued for more than fifteen centuries. It depends considerably on inter-textual features, both in structure and content. It seems that reading qaṣīdahs with no knowledge of the deeply cultivated poetic conventions by which they were composed only leads the reader to a wrong interpretation. The following is my own interpretation of the poem, based on the qaṣīdah tradition. The poem conveys the poet s passion for his beloved by presenting his endurance of her absence and his deep grief at losing her. He emphasizes the departing of his beloved. This can be interpreted by various means, AJAMES no

23 such as examining etymology (diction), structure, theme, and rhetoric. As mentioned above, the poem deals with the conventional theme of the nasīb, the poet s unrequited love. His yearning for Fāṭimah is condensed into the opening verse that entreats her not to forsake him. The first verse shows the poet s hope that he may maintain his bond with Fāṭimah. The poem then speaks about how he met her and became captivated by her; that is, it describes the poet s memory of his beloved. You in the [v. 2] s shot you with a glance is the poet. The daughter of the tribe of Bakr refers to Fāṭimah, which means that she is a member of his tribe [Lyall 1920: 2, 186]. The poet continues to describe some aspects of her physical appearance her long hair, her sweet mouth, her wrist, and her full cheek on the day of her departure. This departure scene is one of the common motifs of the nasīb, which is ẓa n or departing women. The poet s beloved is now leaving him in front of his eyes, among the other departing women. This ẓa n may symbolize the defeat of his tribe by another tribe, due to a political split between them. Hasan Izz al-dīn says that a weak tribe lets their women depart out of fear of an attack by a stronger tribe [1994: 176]. The poet indicates his emotion and perturbation, effectively manipulating the present and past tenses through the representation of Fāṭimah s departure. He uses the present tense to express his passion for her and his supplication to her to turn back to him. In verse 7, her departure seems to take place in the present due to the poet s employment of the present tense, tabaṣṣar (look) and tarā (see), although it actually happened in the past, which can be presumed from the context. The poet draws the audience s attention by means of his direct utterance to his friend, Look and do you see. This address makes the readers feel as if they too are seeing the departing women along with the poet, who is inviting them to share his grief. This scene of the ẓa n must have been cruel for the poet, whose affections for Fāṭimah are still keen. The swiftness of the camels augments the mercilessness of the departure, as they quickly bear his beloved far away from him. By contrast, the use of the past tense in verses 2-5 indicates that his close relation with Fāṭimah has really become the past. With the past tense, the poet also demonstrates the increased distance between himself and the departing women, and the high speed by which the camels moved them away from him (v. 8 and v. 10). This employment of the past tense further shows that his beloved actually has now gone far away. The poet returns to the description of Fāṭimah s bright face and black tresses (v. 11), which illustrate her beauty, using the present tense. He then expresses his 93 The Tyranny of the Anecdote (Sumi)

-2-

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