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1 ミルスペース [What s New in Virtual Library?] NASA MSFC Marshall Star MarshallStar_Cover.jpg MarshallStar_Cover.jpg McGraw Hill AW&ST Aviation Week AWST_Contents.pdf, Cover.jpg nasa_KSC_SpaceportNews_7pages.pdf, Cover.jpg BIS British Interplanetary Society Space Flight 1302SF_Contents.pdf, Cover.jpg MSM milsatmagazine milsatmagazine_13feb_contents.pdf, Cover.jpg NASA KSC Spaceport News [What s New in Real Library?] [ 謝 辞 ] Feb. 20, By Mike Gruss [ 編 注 ] メルマガ 後 半 ページに Mandiant のレポートの 詳 しい 記 事 や URL などあり 航 空 宇 宙 情 報 通 信 の 企 業 群 がハッカーの 狙 う 最 上 位 目 標 Aerospace, Telecom Firms High on the List for Hackers Telecommunications firms, a subset of which utilize or produce satellite-related technology, were fourth on the list, with more than 10 reported intrusions, the report said. A timeline included in the Mandiant study showed at least 11 security breaches in the aerospace industry dating back to That included four attacks in 2011 and three in It also mentioned another 11 breaches in the satellite and telecommunications industry during 2011 to 2012 timeframe. The report said it was difficult to determine how much information the group had stolen, but that generally the group had copied product development, A 2006 photo taken prior to the construction of the Unit Center Building, located within the white circle. Credit: DigitalGlobe photo WASHINGTON Aerospace and telecommunications companies, including satellite firms, have been frequent targets of a group of hackers believed to have backing from the Chinese military, according to a report by a top cybersecurity firm. Mandiant of Alexandria, Va., investigated intrusions at more than 140 companies over seven years and found many of the security breaches showed characteristics of a prolific group they referred to as APT1, short for Advanced Persistent Threat. The details we have analyzed during hundreds of investigations convince us that the groups conducting these activities are based primarily in China and that the Chinese Government is aware of them, the report, released Feb. 19, said. As many as 82 percent of the targeted firms are U.S. based, the report, entitled Exposing One of China s Cyber Espionage Units, said. Ranking second on the list of frequent targets information technology companies ranked No. 1 were aerospace companies, 15 of which were hacked during the period, according to the report. manufacturing procedures, business plans and policy positions, among other documents. Mandiant s leaders felt confident they had tracked the cyberhackers executing the attacks to an area where a Chinese military team, labeled Unit 61398, is based. We believe that APT1 is able to wage such a long-running and extensive cyber espionage campaign in large part because it receives direct government support, the report read. In seeking to identify the organization behind this activity, our research found that People s Liberation Army (PLA s) Unit is similar to APT1 in its mission, capabilities, and resources. PLA Unit is also located in precisely the same area from which APT1 activity appears to originate. The Chinese Defense Ministry denied the report in a statement to the Associated Press. "The Chinese government has always firmly combated such activities and the Chinese military has never supported any form of hacking activity," the ministry said. "Statements to the effect that the Chinese military takes part in Internet attacks are unprofessional and are not in accordance with the facts." 1

2 20:02 20/02/2013 en.rian.ru/russia/ ロシアの 軍 は 隕 石 からの 防 衛 手 段 を 開 発 予 定 Russian Military to Develop Anti-Meteorite Defenses In the aftermath of meteorite that crashed in Russia s Chelyabinsk region Photo Zhenya Khazhei MOSCOW, February 20 (RIA Novosti) The Russian Aerospace at the time of the explosion at less than 500 kiloton equivalent. Defense Forces will develop a series of measures aimed at protecting the Russian soil from falling meteorites and other dangerous space objects, commander of the western military district s aviation Maj. Gen. Igor Makushev said on Wednesday. The Aerospace Defense Forces have been ordered to handle this issue and come up with a plan to protect Russia from these He also said astronomers have discovered and catalogued only two percent of potentially dangerous space objects about 50 meters in size, which are capable of causing a catastrophe worse than the Tunguska Event. It is a sign of our ignorance, as we should be able to monitor about at least 90 percent if not all of these objects, Shustov said. space travelers, Makushev said. The announcement comes days after a meteorite entered the Earth s atmosphere undetected by existing space-monitoring means and slammed into Russia s Urals on Friday with a massive boom that blew out windows and damaged thousands of buildings around the city of Chelyabinsk, injuring 1,200 people in the area. According to the Health Ministry, 52 were hospitalized. NASA estimates the meteorite was roughly 50 feet (15 meters) in diameter when it entered Earth's atmosphere, travelling faster than the speed of sound, and exploded into a fireball brighter than the sun. None of the existing systems, either Russian or American, detected this space object until it entered the atmosphere, Director of the Astronomy Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Boris Shustov said on Wednesday. Shustov The scientist said it was impossible to spot the meteorite, as it was coming from the direction of the Sun, while radars were set to detect objects flying within a predetermined speed range. Shustov said the Russian scientists estimate the energy released 2

3 00:5220/02/2013 en.rian.ru/science/ ロシアの 隕 石 は 米 国 の 小 惑 星 探 知 への 資 金 投 入 を 着 火 / 活 性 化 Russian Meteorite Ignites Funding for US Asteroid Detection WASHINGTON, February 19 (By Sasha Horne for RIA Novosti) In the aftermath of Friday s meteorite that crashed and injured more than a 1,000 people in Russia s Chelyabins あsてろいdk region, some private asteroid-detecting telescope projects in the some 20 to 50 years before any potential major impact with Earth. There are many, many, many more objects out there that need to be found, former Apollo 9 astronaut and B612 co-founder Rusty Schweickart told RIA Novosti last week. United States have seen a surge in both interest and financial donations, a sign of renewed global concern about the dangers and unpredictability of space rocks hurtling into Earth. Over the weekend we have seen about 1,000 times more internet traffic than usual, which translated into tens of thousands of dollars in donations from across the world, said Diane Murphy, spokeswoman for the B612 Foundation, a non-profit company that hopes to build and launch a privately funded infrared space t e l e s c o p e t o t r a c k a s t e r o i d s. space-partnering-to-develop-asteroid-map-to-protect-earth/ The telescope designed to slingshot off of Venus and back into solar orbit would give researchers a unique vantage point that could allow them to look back over the earth with the sun behind them, differing from ground telescopes that look directly Murphy In the weeks prior to Friday s meteorite that crashed to Earth in Russia, Murphy said the world s attention was focused on the 150 foot (46 meter) 2012 DA14 asteroid, which on the same day passed roughly 17,200 miles (27,681 kilometers) within Earth and was detected a year ago by an amateur astronomer. But no one predicted the Russian meteor, and it hit, said Murphy. I think that really shocked people and made them realize, this could have happened in my neighborhood and no one saw it coming, she said. In cooperation with NASA the B612 foundation is working to launch an infrared telescope into the orbit of Venus that would locate asteroids that have not yet been identified, into the sun and make spotting asteroids more difficult. In the first two weeks after our telescope launches, it will discover more asteroids than have been detected in history, Murphy told RIA Novosti on Tuesday. The B612 foundation s telescope prototype has already been designed and is currently undergoing tests. The $450 million project is slated for completion in 2017, and is just one of at least half a dozen private ventures that are helping to propel space exploration and the tracking of asteroids. "The Chelyabinsk meteorite was frightening and several hundred people were injured, but the damage was minor compared to what could occur with an object only slightly larger," said John Tonry, principal investigator for the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System (ATLAS), a University of Hawaii-based organization that is currently developing a series of small ground 3

4 telescopes to track near Earth objects. NASA, it is intended to provide a warning system of impending impact. Astronomers expect the system to be fully operational by the end of Such an object could kill thousands of people and evastate a city, Tonry said in a statement on the ATLAS website. With ATLAS, he said, the system could offer a Tonry one-week warning for smaller asteroids and a three week lead time for larger ones. While the ATLAS project would not be capable of deflecting an approaching asteroid, with the help of a $5 million grant from :37 sankei.jp.msn.com/science/news/ 宇 宙 基 地 交 信 が 一 時 不 通 ソフト 更 新 でトラブル NASA NASAは19 日 通 信 衛 星 を 経 由 した 国 際 宇 宙 ステーションと 地 上 と の 交 信 が 一 時 できない 状 態 になったと 発 表 コンピュータソフト 更 新 時 のトラブルが 原 因 とみられる 露 の 地 上 局 との 直 接 交 信 は 可 能 で 滞 在 している 米 露 の 飛 行 士 らの 健 康 状 態 やステーションの 主 要 機 能 に 問 題 はなかった NASAによると 米 テキサス 州 ヒューストンの 管 制 センタ 担 当 者 がステーションのコンピュータソフトを 更 新 する 作 業 を 実 施 その 後 データ 中 継 衛 星 とステーションとの 通 信 機 能 に 異 常 が 起 きた 飛 行 士 らが 予 備 コンピュータをつなぎ 約 3 時 間 後 に 復 旧 ( 共 同 ) 23:46 19/02/2013 en.rian.ru/science/ NASA は ISS とのコンタクトを 回 復 NASA Restores Contact with International Space Station systems malfunctioned, NASA said. Mission Control Houston was able to communicate with the crew as the space station flew over Russian ground stations before 11:00 a.m. EST (1600 GMT) and instructed the crew to connect another computer to begin the process of restoring communications, NASA said. Communication with the ISS was restored at 12:34 p.m. EST (1734 GMT). Six crewmembers were aboard the station during the malfunction, two American astronauts, three Russian International Space Station (ISS) WASHINGTON, February 19 (RIA Novosti) The US space agency NASA said its controllers in Houston lost contact with the International Space Station (ISS) Tuesday for about three hours, leaving the orbiting space laboratory dependent upon Russian ground stations to communicate every 90 minutes as the ISS passed over Russia. This morning at approximately 9:45 a.m. EST (1445 GMT), the International Space Station experienced a loss of communication with the ground. At that time, flight controllers in Houston were updating the software onboard the station s flight computers when one of the station s data relay cosmonauts and a Canadian astronaut. "Hey, just FYI, the station's still fine and straight, everybody is in good shape of course," said expedition commander American astronaut Kevin Ford in audio released by NASA. "And nothing unexpected other than lots of caution warning tones, and of course we have no system in sight. We'll get that back to you as soon as we can." The International Space Station is a $100 billion laboratory approximately the size of a football field. The station has a living space equivalent to a five-bedroom home and was built by five different space agencies representing the United States, Russia, Europe, Canada and Japan, according to Space.com. 4

5 Feb 19, 2013, 6:22 AM ET (1122 GMT) まもなく ISS の 実 験 ダークマターに 関 するデータを 発 表 予 定 ISS experiment to publish data on dark matter soon The Nobel laureate leader of a particle physics experiment on the International Space Station said Sunday that his team plans to soon publish its first paper with findings from the instrument that could offer new insights into the nature of dark matter. Samuel Ting said at a conference in Boston that his team will submit a paper in the next two to three weeks with first results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) instrument. The billion-dollar AMS, installed on the station's exterior on the STS-134 shuttle mission in 2011, is designed to detect a variety of high-energy particles. The first results, Ting said, will be of the ratio of positrons to electrons as a function of both the particles' energy and direction, data that could support models about the nature of unseen dark matter. Other initial results from AMS data are due out later this year, he said. Related Links: BBC article Discovery.com article Nature News article SPACE.com article Globe and Mail article February 15, By Guy Norris 驚 きの 隕 石 は NEO 地 球 近 傍 軌 道 物 体 の 脅 威 検 出 問 題 を 明 らかに Surprise Meteorite Highlights NEO Threat Detection Problem NASA scientists say the surprise Feb. 15 atmospheric entry of a large meteorite measuring 15 meters in diameter over Russia, coincident with the close passage of asteroid 2012 DA14, is a major reminder that detection of near-earth objects (NEOs) remains a key issue for governments worldwide. It s an international problem, certainly in terms of discovery, says Paul Chodas, research scientist in the NEO Program Office at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. one-third the size of 2012 DA14 and traveling in a different direction, says the agency. The meteorite exploded at an estimated altitude of 20 to 25 km (12 to 15 miles) over Russia s Ural mountains in the Chelyabinsk region. Weighing around seven metric tons, the meteorite was traveling at 18 km/sec (40,000 mph) when it hit the atmosphere at a shallow angle of less than 20 degrees. Videos show the object burned brightly, and lasted just over 30 seconds, creating a smoke trail more than 300 mi. long, before breaking apart in a violent explosion. NASA estimates the energy released was equal to between 300 and 500 kilotons of explosive, or the same as a nuclear blast. The shock wave propagated down through atmosphere, causing large numbers of windows to break, walls to collapse and minor damage to the city, says Bill Cooke, lead for the Meteoroid Chodas Environments Office at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. If an asteroid should hit, it could hit anywhere on Earth. Beyond the challenges involved in deflecting an asteroid, Chodas adds that major questions facing the international community include political issues, particularly if deflections threaten some parts of Earth over others. NASA says the Russia meteor is not related to asteroid 2012 DA14 that passed by Earth within hours of the event at a distance of more than 17,000 mi. (27,360 km). Early assessments of the Russia meteor indicate it was about Cooke 5

6 meteors-meteorites-comets-chat.html The damage, which also caused injuries to more than 950 people, was due to the effect of the shock wave not due to fragments striking the ground. Preliminary analysis indicates the object originated in the asteroid belt. It does appear to be an asteroid in nature, says Cooke who adds the object was small enough to be classified as a large meteorite. It was not detected because it came out of the daylight sky and was not detected by any Earth-based telescopes. The fact it broke up suggests it was probably not an iron nickel asteroid like the one that hit in 1947 over the Soviet Union, he says. NASA meanwhile expects to reveal first images of the DA14 asteroid over the next few days. Feb. 18, By Paul Kallendar-Umezu 日 本 は 最 新 の 5 年 計 画 の 下 で IGS の 路 線 に 留 まる Japan Stays the Course on IGS under Latest Five-year Plan TOKYO Japan s latest space policy document places the country s Information Gathering Satellite (IGS) system at the heart of its national security reconnaissance and disaster monitoring strategy, leaving decisions on any future military space capabilities to the Ministry of Defense. The 46-page Basic Plan, released Jan. 25 by the Space Strategy Headquarters, says Japan should continue to fund the development and launch of increasingly capable IGS satellites with an eye toward maintaining a constellation of two optical and two radar imaging satellites, Hiroshi Yamakawa, a member of the seven-member Space Policy Commission that drafted the report, said Feb. 14 in an ed response to SpaceNews questions. 鈴 木 The plan maintains the system in which the Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center (CSIC) controls the IGS program with a budget that is kept separate from the rest of Japan s space development program, he said. The IGS program is funded at about 60 billion yen ($642 million) to 65 billion yen annually, according to budget documents. In the context of the Basic Plan, IGS is regarded as an independent program. The Prime Minister s office has its own plan and budget for developing and maintaining the IGS system and I think the current structure is considered good enough, Suzuki said in a Feb 山 川 Essentially it s no change, the IGS remains the centerpiece of disaster monitoring and national security, Yamakawa said. Following a series of snags over the past decade, the IGS program, initiated following an August 1998 North Korean missile test that overflew Japan, should finally have two functional radar satellites on orbit following the Jan. 27 launch of the IGS-Radar 4 spacecraft. That launch, aboard an H-2A rocket, also carried an experimental optical IGS satellite into orbit. The latest version of the Basic Plan, which lays out priorities for most of Japan s space development for five years starting in April 2013, does not specify budgets for particular programs and essentially leaves the current structure intact, said Kazuto Suzuki, a Japanese space expert and visiting fellow at the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies, Princeton, N.J. 坂 本 But Norihiro Sakamoto, a research fellow and space analyst at the Tokyo Foundation, characterized the no-change policy as a missed opportunity to better integrate the IGS system with future disaster monitoring programs featuring civilian satellites. The CSIC was heavily criticized in Japan for withholding satellite observation data of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japanese coastal areas on March 11, While the latest Basic Plan stresses the need for Japan to build an integrated data platform to expand and expedite data access and utilization for uses such as disaster monitoring, Sakamoto said IGS data will be kept separate. Walling off IGS from programs, including the much lower-cost Asnaro optical and radar satellites being developed by the Ministry of Economy 6

7 Trade and Industry, means potential synergies will not be exploited, Sakamoto said. Sakamoto also said Ansaro appears to be a better investment than IGS. The IGS system is ineffective, expensive and inefficient. Asnaro satellites will cost around 5 billion yen a unit. Japan could maintain a constellation of 20 Asnaro satellites for the same price as maintaining four IGS satellites for about 62 billion yen a year. The Basic Plan is a missed opportunity, he said Feb. 14. Suzuki said the Basic Plan was necessarily left vague to take into account policy changes that might be implemented by the Liberal Democratic Party under Shinzo Abe, which returned to power in December 2012 after three years in opposition. In its election manifesto, the party made general promises to improve Japan s satellite-based reconnaissance abilities and to boost funding for space development to enhance national security, without being specific about programs or schedules. Under the Basic Plan, military space development is left to the Ministry of Defense, which will form its own five-year policy by the end of 2013, ministry spokesman Takaaki Ohno said Feb. 14. In 2009 the ministry produced a shopping list of defensive military space capabilities it was interested in developing, including missile warning satellites. But the ministry has kept most of its space programs on limited study budgets due to its inability to secure additional funds from the Ministry of Finance, Sakamoto said. February 18, 2013 Frank Morring, Jr. Washington 共 和 党 の 議 員 たちが Pete Worden エイムズ 宇 宙 センタ 長 を 追 いかける GOP Chairmen Go After Pete Worden In the process, they have drawn sharp criticism from some whose interests and experience follow a more traditional line, including the drafters of an unsubstantiated but highly detailed whistleblower document that has circulated on Capitol Hill for months. The 55-page document charges that Worden has allowed unauthorized foreign nationals access to ITAR-protected technology, including Chinese engineers attending an International Space University session at Ames in 2009, and has favored idealistic young staffers from other nations at the A pair of powerful Republican congressional committee chairmen with NASA oversight have highlighted a growing schism in U.S. space policy with their public charge that a senior NASA manager failed to protect sensitive U.S. defense technology being adapted for civil use. In suggesting that political pressure may be a factor in a Justice Department decision not to issue criminal charges in the case, they are raising the stakes in an ongoing debate about the proper roles of government and the private sector in space exploration. The official in question, Ames Research Center Director Simon P. Pete Worden, vehemently denies he has been lax in protecting technology covered by International Trade in Armaments Regulations (ITAR), and says he has never been approached by federal law enforcement officials about the matter. But Worden and his supporters epitomize the new space approach adopted by the Obama administration, including freewheeling efforts to promote innovation, international outreach and open-handed transfer of technology developed at taxpayer expense to the private sector. expense of national security. Reps. Frank Wolf (R-Va.) and Lamar Smith (R-Texas), who chair a key House Appropriations subcommittee and the House Science, Space and Technology Committee, respectively, drew on the whistleblower charges in joint letters to FBI Director Robert Mueller and Michael Horowitz, the Justice Department's inspector general, dated Feb. 8. Regarding a federal criminal investigation into the alleged illegal transfer of ITAR-controlled technology by individuals at the NASA Ames Research Center, the lawmakers wrote: It is our understanding that this illegal technology transfer may have involved classified Defense Department weapons system technology to foreign countries, including China, potentially with the tacit or direct approval of the center's leadership. According to sources at Ames and on Capitol Hill, the technology in question includes propulsion and other systems originally developed for missile defense applications that was adapted for civil spacecraft, including a robotic lunar lander prototype and NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer 7

8 (Ladee), now entering thermal vacuum test at Ames. Worden, a retired Air Force brigadier general with a long resume in highly classified military space activities, including missile defense, says he has ensured that ITAR technology at Ames is well protected, and that any non-u.s. citizens who have access to it have proper licenses. Whenever I get information from any source that makes allegations, I turn it over immediately to the investigative folks, Worden says. And it's for them to go do what they will with it. I've been in the government my whole career, and I've found the best way to make sure the truth gets out [is to] turn it over to the investigative folks and say 'we'll let the chips fall where they may.' Smith, who recently became chairman of the science panel that authorizes NASA spending, and Wolf, a veteran appropriations subcommittee chairman who has blocked NASA from spending any money for space cooperation with China on human-rights grounds, also charged that a computer hard drive confiscated from one member of Worden's staff was corrupted, as were all the backup copies in the government's possession. In addition to that suggestion of evidence tampering, which a congressional staffer says may have occurred while the hard drive was in the possession of the NASA inspector general, the two chairmen also implied that the Justice Department blocked prosecution of the case for reasons that go beyond evidence and legal judgment. We are deeply concerned that political pressure may be a factor and are formally requesting an investigation into the circumstances of the Justice Department's actions with regard to this case, they wrote. When Melinda Haag, U.S. attorney for the Northern District of California, denied publicly that she had sought indictments in the Ames case, Smith and Wolf said they had information to the contrary from federal law enforcement sources, and expressed the hope that the DOJ IG will take our request seriously. I think you've had violations of the law, says Wolf, who oversees appropriations for NASA, the Justice Department and the FBI. You've had the FBI look at this. You've had the U.S. attorneys make a decision to move ahead, and you've had somebody stop it at the Justice Department. I think you have a criminal and a scandal here. Among the technologies allegedly leaked at Ames are designs for high-performance rocket engines, fuel and oxidizer tanks from an ASAT (anti-satellite weapon), guidance and terrain-mapping systems from the Tomahawk cruise missile and a radar altimeter from the F-35, an Ames whistleblower tells Aviation Week, requesting anonymity on advice of counsel. However, Worden says all of the technology used in the Ladee spacecraft is 100% commercial and no defense technology to the best of my knowledge was used on the robotic lunar lander prototype, a pretty simple device which was subsequently transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center. The non-u.s. staffers mentioned in the whistleblower document no longer work at Ames. The charges raised by the two committee chairmen are not the first time Worden has run into trouble over his approach to innovation. He tangled with Rep. Pete Olsen (R-Texas) last year about the transfer of NASA arc-jet test gear from Johnson Space Center in Houston to Ames, and he was frustrated with Administrator Charles Bolden in 2010 over the latter's denial of a $10 million request for alternate-fuels research at the Mountain View, Calif., field center. According to a report by the NASA inspector general on ethics charges against Bolden later deemed unfounded Worden complained to Deputy Administrator Lori Garver about the good ole boy networks at the agency. The ethics case arose after the administrator sought input on alternative fuels from an oil company in which he held stock. This is frankly the worst of NASA and I don't like it, Worden wrote in an to Garver quoted in the IG report. He continued that theme in an interview Feb. 13. Some people accuse me of being the newest of new space, he says. Others accuse me of being the oldest of old space. We're trying to figure out how to do the really cool stuff NASA has to do in science, in technology and in human exploration, in the most efficient, affordable and effective manner. Tap here in the tablet edition of AW&ST to read our account of an uproar over space technology transfer to China in the late 1990s, or go to AviationWeek.com/techtransfer :00 sankei.jp.msn.com/wired/news/ 有 人 月 着 陸 計 画 を 資 金 調 達 サイトで 支 援 2020 年 までに 月 への 有 人 着 陸 をめざす Golden Spike 社 が 資 金 調 達 サイト Indiegogo で 支 援 キャンペーンを 立 上 げた 8

9 Golden Spike 社 が 2012 年 12 月 に 同 社 の 計 画 を 発 表 *3( 日 本 語 版 記 事 )*3 して 以 来 一 般 の 人 から 支 援 したいという 声 がたくさんあったという 今 回 の Indiegogo キャンペーンでは ありがとうのメッセージ が 貰 える 10 ドルの 支 援 から 打 上 げ 地 までの 旅 行 と VIP パス 2 人 分 とそのほかの 全 特 典 が 貰 える 50,000 ドルの 支 援 まで さまざまなインセンティヴが 用 意 され ている Space.com の 記 事 によると Golden Spikes 社 はさらに 広 告 に よる 資 金 調 達 も 行 う スーパボウルのようなプライムタイムに 打 上 げ 放 送 画 像 は 別 の 英 文 記 事 より Photo: NASA nt/ コロラド 州 にある Golden Spike 社 は 2020 年 開 始 を 予 定 している 月 へ の 有 人 飛 行 事 業 の 資 金 調 達 の 足 しにするべく Indiegogo のキャンペ を 行 い 全 放 送 を 15 億 ドルで 販 売 するというものだ アポロ 計 画 の 月 着 陸 船 を 開 発 した Northrop Grumman 社 など NASA を 引 っ 張 って きた 企 業 の 専 門 技 術 者 が Golden Spike 社 を 支 えており 新 着 陸 船 の 設 計 は Northrop Grumman 社 が 行 うという 以 下 は Indiegogo ペ ージの 宣 伝 動 画 ーンを 立 上 げた *1 *1 Golden Spike 社 は 2017 年 にテスト 飛 行 を 開 始 し 2020 年 から 月 へ の 有 人 飛 行 を 始 める 計 画 だ そして 同 社 はこの 計 画 を 軌 道 に 乗 せるた めに 240,000 ドルの 支 援 を 募 集 し 始 めた 宇 宙 愛 好 家 にとってはうれ しいことに 同 社 は 月 への 有 人 飛 行 を 商 業 化 する 一 環 として それぞれ の 月 旅 行 を 記 録 し 愛 好 家 のテレビやスマートフォンなどに 直 接 放 送 し たいと 考 えている 双 方 向 メディア アプリ それにオリンピック ムーヴメ ント 的 なメンバーシップ プログラム を 作 って 子 どもも 大 人 も 惹 きつけて [YouTube URL] いく 計 画 だ と Golden Spike 社 は 説 明 また 集 めた 資 金 は 新 着 離 船 と 宇 宙 服 デザイン 開 発 にも 投 じる Space.com の 記 事 *2 によると *2http://www.space.com/19795-private-moon-travel-crowdfunding.html?cid=dlvr.it Wed, Feb 13, 2013, 6:47 AM ET (1147 GMT) プロトン 打 上 げ 異 常 はターボポンプのベアリングのせい Proton launch anomaly blamed on turbopump bearing Investigators have blamed a turbopump bearing failure for the premature shutdown of a Proton upper stage in December, International Launch Services (ILS) announced Tuesday. The company said "a combination of adverse conditions", not specified in the release, damaged a bearing in the oxidizer side of the turbopump powering the engine in the Briz-M upper stage. That bearing failed during the fourth engine burn of the upper stage, shutting the engine down several minutes early and leaving the rocket's payload, the Yamal-402 satellite, in a lower-than-planned transfer orbit. Engineers were able to maneuver the spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit using its own thrusters. The completion of the investigation clears the way for the Proton to return to commercial service with the launch of the Satmex 8 satellite in March. Related Links: Space News article Spaceflight Now article ILS press release February 13, 2013 at 5:05 PM blog.al.com/breaking/ By Lee Roop 9

10 元 NASA 長 官 のマイク グリフィンは 商 業 宇 宙 市 場 に 冷 や 水 を 浴 びせ それから 解 決 策 を 提 示 Former NASA administrator Mike Griffin throws cold water on commercial space market, then offers solution would be able to go on without government investment. Griffin wants America to build a permanent base on the moon. Such a base multiplies the logistical challenges by a factor of 10 over the station, he said, and it would require long-term services ranging from life support to housing. "That market is 10 times larger and 10 times longer than the space station," he said, and it could support a space industry. Another issue facing commercial space is engineering and safety standards, Griffin Former NASA administrator Michael Griffin at the Shelby Center for Science and Technology at the University on Alabama in Huntsville in (File photo) HUNTSVILLE, Alabama - Former NASA Administrator Mike Griffin told a commercial space conference here Wednesday that there is no significant commercial space market and won't be anytime soon. "Commercial space" now, he said, "is really just a name for a different government procurement method." Griffin, a persistent critic of President Obama's space program, said the current system consists of companies such as SpaceX operating with "government as their venture capitalist." SpaceX is getting "something approaching 90 percent" of its funding from the government, he said. Griffin, who headed NASA during the second administration of former President George W. Bush, has fought Obama since the president announced his space vision in The president wanted access to low-earth orbit and the International Space Station provided by commercial companies, while NASA focused on new technologies. To do that, Obama's first NASA budget as president proposed killing NASA's Constellation program - a program Griffin headed - while giving more funding to companies such as SpaceX. Congress balked, and the two sides compromised on start-up subsidies for commercial space while NASA builds a rocket for deep space misisions. "The International Space Station is not a big enough or long-lasting enough market" for those commercial companies, Griffin said, even if the station's life is extended to 2028, as NASA now plans. It wouldn't be a good market even if one company could capture it exclusively, he said, because "the rate of return on investment is unfavorable as opposed to market alternatives. The wise investor would not put his money into it." But Griffin said there is a way to generate the kind of commercial space market he would support. In his model, companies would sell services to the government as needed, but said. Without set standards and codes, the industry "won't be insurable without government indemnification." "How do you handle the issue of recovery from a disaster?" Griffin asked. "In commercial spaceflight, we don't know the answer to that yet. If we can't find the answers, we will not have a commercial spaceflight industry that is anything more than an alternative means of government procurement, and that's not what we're looking for." Griffin's analysis drew little push-back from an audience supposedly drawn by the possibilities of commercial space. Several questioners said they agreed with his analysis, and others raised other issues. But an afternoon panel emphasized another conference theme: There are other ways to go. For the second day in a row, suborbital tourist flights already planned by several companies were held up as a sign that the public's interest in space might pay if the price is right. "More than 500 people have already signed up" to take Virgin Galactic's planned suborbital flights, panel leader and Huntsville aerospace engineer Tim Pickens observed. Pickens stressed that North Alabama needs to take seriously the economic challenge posed by companies trying hard to drive down the cost of getting into space. If they succeed in places such as California, while Huntsville is tied to complicated and expensive systems, Pickens said that could threaten employment. The aerospace talent is here, Pickens said, but the area needs to be aware and responsive to what is happening across the industry. One thing happening is rapid change in satellite technology. Small, inexpensive satellites are opening up new possibilities and will offer more if the cost of getting them to space comes down. John London, small satellite technology program manager for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense command, sketched a possible scenario for the afternoon panel. Would a television station in Los Angeles buy its own small satellite if it could gain a market advantage by beaming live images not just from the 10

11 freeway, but from the other side of the world? It very well might, could develop. (Follow me on London said, and that's just one example of where new markets Feb. 13, 2013 finance.yahoo.com/news/ ノースロップ グラマン 製 造 の STSS 実 証 衛 星 のデータは 成 功 裏 に 弾 道 ミサイルのターゲットをライブでの 発 射 迎 撃 できるよう 指 示 Data From Northrop Grumman-Built STSS Demonstration Satellites Cue Successful Live-Fire Intercept of Ballistic Missile Target PACIFIC MISSILE RANGE FACILITY, Hawaii, Feb. 13, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Space-based sensors can expand the range and effectiveness of the U.S. Navy's Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) capabilities, a recent missile defense test has shown. Conducted Feb. 13 by the Navy and U.S. Missile Defense Agency (MDA), an Aegis "launch on remote" test used tracking data from the Space Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrators satellites to form a fire control solution for the missile interceptor. The satellites were built by Northrop Grumman Corporation (NOC) as prime contractor; Raytheon supplied the infrared sensor payloads for both satellites. The quality and accuracy of STSS-D tracking data were sufficient for a Navy Aegis guided missile cruiser to launch a Standard Missile-3 Block 1A interceptor "on remote" before the on-board radar's track could be used to launch the interceptor. "This test shows decisively that space-based sensors are a ballistic missile's worst nightmare," said Doug Young, vice president, missile defense and warning, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, Calif. "The mature technologies onboard both STSS-D satellites are demonstrating capabilities like continuous missile tracking that are possible only from the high ground of space." During the test, designated FTM-20, the satellites leveraged their low-earth orbit position to acquire and Missile Defense System to an Aegis cruiser at sea to quickly form a firing solution and launch the SM-3 1A interceptor. "Aegis launch on remote essentially expands the area an Aegis cruiser can defend by leveraging satellite data to engage the threat earlier. This is a true 'force multiplier' because it uses existing interceptors," said David Bloodgood, the company's STSS program manager. "The STSS-D satellites demonstrated that future low Earth Orbit space capabilities can be a force multiplier for existing missile defense systems." Both satellites participate in tests such as FTM-20 to demonstrate the ability of a space sensor to provide high-precision, real-time tracking of missiles and midcourse objects that enable closing the fire control loops with BMDS interceptors. They use sensors capable of detecting visible and infrared light to track missiles through their full course of flight. Lessons learned from these tests will inform future operational BMDS space capabilities. Northrop Grumman is a leading global security company providing innovative systems, products and solutions in unmanned systems, cybersecurity, C4ISR, and logistics and modernization to government and commercial customers worldwide. Please visit for more information. Contact: Bob Bishop (office) (mobile) track the missile target and deliver the data via the Ballistic February 13, By Amy Svitak 12 月 のプロトンの 失 敗 は 壊 れたターボポンプと 関 連 December Proton Failure Linked To Damaged Turbo Pump 11

12 startup of the third burn causing damage to a bearing on the oxidizer side of the turbo pump, ILS said today. This ultimately resulted in the failure of the bearing during the fourth burn and caused the fourth burn of the Briz M to end about four minutes early, with subsequent separation of the spacecraft. The launch failure was the Russian rocket s third in 16 months. ILS said its own failure review board agreed Feb. 7 with the findings of a launch mishap investigation led by the Russian government. Built by Thales Alenia Space for Russian fleet operator Gazprom Space Systems, Yamal 402 was eventually maneuvered to its intended orbital position Jan. 8, though the effort depleted International Launch Services (ILS) says the Dec. 8, 2012 failure of a Proton rocket equipped with a Briz M upper stage has been traced to adverse conditions that caused damage to a bearing in the Briz M main engine turbo pump. The mishap led to the premature shutdown of the Briz M upper stage and the subsequent release of the Russian Yamal 402 satellite into the onboard fuel reserves and reduced the spacecraft s planned 15-year design life by four years. ILS says Proton will return to flight in March with the launch of the Satmex 8 satellite for Mexico. Scheduling of this mission and of the remainder of the ILS Proton near-term manifest for 2013 is currently being determined, the company said. wrong orbit. According to ILS, the most probable root cause of the failure was due to a combination of adverse conditions which affected the operation of the Briz M main engine during the Updated: February 13, :15pm By Carol Christian 米 議 員 : NASA エイムズ リサーチ センタは 中 国 と 秘 密 の 技 術 を 共 有 したかもしれない Congressmen: NASA's Ames Research Center may have shared secret technology with China Two congressman, including one from Texas, contend that NASA employees in California may have given technology secrets to other countries, including China. As first reported by Aviation Week, Rep. Lamar Smith, R-Texas, and Rep. Frank R. Wolf, R-Virginia, have charged in a letter to the FBI that senior NASA leadership may have been involved in leaking classified information to China and other countries. The charges involve the NASA Ames Research Center in California and apparently do not include operations in Houston. According to Aviation Week, the congressmen, who are chairmen of the two House committees with NASA oversight, also contend a federal criminal probe into the charges was dropped under political pressure. The Washington Times is reporting that the FBI has investigated the Ames Research Center for four years on the possible transfer of secret weapon-system technology to other countries, including China. Smith and Wolf cited unnamed sources accusing Ames Center employees of possibly violating International Traffic in Arms Feb. 13, By Joan Johnson-Freese, Theresa Hitchens NASA エイムズにコックス 委 員 会 の 再 来 Cox Committee Redux at NASA Ames 12

13 again become competitive in the export market. While die-hard Cox Committee supporters (still) tout the findings as justified and bipartisan, it has been discredited by the technical community. Further, a close reading of some Democratic committee members remarks echo skepticism at both the methodologies used and committee s apparent rush to judgment. Many analysts then and now saw it as a partisan ploy to jab at President Bill Clinton through his outreach policies to China, always an easy target in Washington. In the latest case, the "LADEE is using Pentagon-developed tech. specifically a bus, the basic satellite infrastructure that holds instrumentation as part of a cost-savings, why-reinvent-the-wheel strategy. It is old tech., otherwise the Dept. of Defense would not have made it available to NASA." Credit: NASA Just when it seemed that, after a long hiatus, sanity might be returning to Washington in at least one small area the U.S. International Trafficking in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export controls the politics of fear once again seem to be re-emerging regarding ITAR and China. In 1998 it was the Select Committee on U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People s Republic of China, known as the Cox Committee after its chairman, U.S. Rep. Christopher Cox (R-Calif.). Now the China threat drum is apparently being used to go after NASA Ames Research Center Director Simon P. Pete Worden for alleged ITAR violations. The counterproductive results of the Cox Committee to U.S. national security are still being dealt with. The counterproductive fallout from this latest witch hunt is not difficult to anticipate. The 1998 Cox Committee report presented findings of an imminent threat to U.S. national security, based on dubious claims of China stealing vital U.S. nuclear secrets and being given assistance for its missile program by U.S. aerospace companies through lax adherence to ITAR. The result was the imposition of draconian, byzantine regulations on the U.S. satellite industry. Consequently, U.S. satellite companies began losing sales, and other countries were motivated to develop their own satellite industries, beyond the reach of U.S. controls. In other words, the United States took careful aim and shot itself in the foot when countries took their satellite business elsewhere, and it ended up with less control of dual-use space technology than it had prior. It was not until the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (NDAA 2013) that commercial satellites were removed from the ITAR list, hopefully allowing the U.S. satellite industry to Republican chairmen of the two House committees with NASA oversight publically charged in letters to the FBI director on Feb. 8 that personnel at the agency s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, Calif., may have been involved in leaking classified information to China, with the tacit or direct approval of the senior leadership, and that a federal criminal probe into the matter was dropped due to political pressure. The technology in question relates to a propulsion system originally developed for missile defense applications, and then adapted for NASA s Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). LADEE is a robotic mission to study the lunar surface scheduled for launch next summer. Apparently, an Ames employee gave a PowerPoint presentation on LADEE with Chinese and other foreign officials present. The relevant questions then seem to break down as follows: Was there an ITAR violation? Did this violation result in the transfer of technology valuable to other countries, specifically the Chinese? Was political pressure exerted to stop a probe of an ITAR violation resulting in injury to U.S. national security? What will be the result of further pursuance of this matter? Each of these questions deserves consideration. First, there may well have been an ITAR violation. ITAR is an outdated and cumbersome set of regulations designed during the Cold War to keep sensitive technology from the Soviet Union and its allies. The U.S. and its allies all identified the same country as the enemy, everyone agreed on what was sensitive, and most often the U.S. had a monopoly on the sensitive technology in question. In a globalized world, none of those premises holds true. China works with most other countries in the world; the U.S. is the outlier when it comes to rejecting space cooperation with China. Night goggles sold through mail-order catalogs were on the ITAR list. Business techniques on how to identify problems in systems, such as something called the Ishikawa Fishbone Diagram 13

14 (available through an Internet search), can be argued as valuable to enemies for improving their missile launch systems by tracing the source of their failures. Hence, referencing it on a PowerPoint slide at an international conference can be a potential ITAR violation. ITAR is ambiguous, far-reaching and badly in need of revision. A violation can be found in almost any contact with a foreign national where technology is discussed. Did a violation result in the transfer of technology valuable to other countries, specifically the Chinese? If it did, then prosecution should be pursued. That, however, seems unlikely. LADEE is using Pentagon-developed technology specifically a bus, the basic satellite infrastructure that holds instrumentation as part of a cost-savings, why-reinvent-the-wheel strategy. It is old technology, otherwise the Department of Defense would not have made it available to NASA. And the Chinese clearly already know how to do attitude control and orbit-change maneuvers. They have already sent probes to the Moon, they have demonstrated crewed rendezvous and docking and, yes, they have demonstrated anti-satellite capabilities. So it is doubtful that a PowerPoint presentation that may or may not have shown an artist s rendering of a classified bus would propel China a quantum leap ahead of the U.S. in space capabilities. Was political pressure exerted to stop a probe of an ITAR violation resulting in injury to U.S. national security? This is unknown. While Worden is a retired Air Force brigadier general with a reputation as a bureaucratic maverick that is, he can actually make things happen in spite of the bureaucracy it is unclear why he would be presumed to have much pull with the Justice Department. More likely, the Justice Department dropped whatever investigation it was conducting when it became clear that little or nothing of value was transferred, certainly nothing creating an imminent threat to U.S. national security, or worthy of a lengthy, expensive-to-the-taxpayer investigation. At this point, after the issue was apparently dismissed by the Justice Department, it is worth asking the question as to the motivation of the congressional inquiry. Certainly, anti-china sentiment is at play, but one cannot help but wonder also about the issue of partisanship that was clearly a factor in the Cox Committee inquiry. What will be the result of further pursuance of this matter? NASA, once known as the can do bureaucracy, is already lumbering to escape its more recent reputation as the place where innovation goes to die. Workshops titled Lost in Space? are being held to determine why the U.S. space programs seem to be floundering in comparison with other countries, and with its own legacy. Part of the problem is a seeming inability or unwillingness of those with oversight powers to see the world beyond the Cold War. Continued pursuance of red herrings such as these charges would further stifle NASA s ability to innovate, to work with others as the U.S. must to address critical issues like space debris and space traffic management, and to develop confidence-building measures critical toward establishing responsible spacefaring as the norm. NASA is already legislatively banned (at the behest of one of the House committee chairmen pursuing this alleged ITAR violation) from bilaterally working with or even communicating with China on space issues. Ignoring the country with the currently most active agenda makes no sense. If China is seen as a threat to U.S. security, then, as the old adage says, keep it close. Indeed, U.S.-Soviet space cooperation during the Cold War proved a successful model. If China is not a threat, then the U.S. should keep it close to learn more about its intentions and processes, and to have a better chance of influencing its activities. Would China have conducted its irresponsible anti-satellite test in 2007, doubling the amount of threatening space debris in orbit, if it had been allowed to participate in the international space station program as it had long sought to, and been refused by the United States? Maybe not. Worse yet, the congressional inquiry seems to suggest that the very presence of non-american scientists at Ames is somehow suspicious or threatening. Using ITAR to warn or punish individuals or organizations who see international cooperation in space as the only means of keeping space a sustainable environment for U.S. space assets critical to U.S. national security will undoubtedly again be counterproductive. It is better that U.S. policymakers recognize this fact now rather than waiting more than a decade, as it took to rectify the Cox Committee debacle. Joan Johnson-Freese is a professor of national security affairs at the Naval War College in Newport, R.I. The views expressed in this article are strictly her own and do not reflect the views of the U.S. government, the Department of Defense or the U.S. Navy. Theresa Hitchens is the director of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) in Geneva. The views expressed are strictly her own, and do not reflect the views of the United Nations or UNIDIR. 14

15 Feb. 13, 2013 UPDATED FEB. 14, 1:02 EDT By Mike Gruss 衛 星 がミサイル 迎 撃 テストの 成 功 に 鍵 となる 役 割 を 演 じる Satellites Play Key Role in Successful Anti-missile Test increased flexibility. Stevison said he had great confidence the Navy could replicate the results for long-range missiles. Raytheon s Los Angeles-based Space and Airborne Systems Division built the main infrared tracking sensors on the STSS-D satellites. "STSS-D's unique vantage point in space allows the sensor payload to see the threat early in its trajectory and provide launch quality data sooner than nearly any other option," Bill Hart, vice president of space systems at Raytheon Space The Northrop Grumman-built STSS-D satellites aided the MDA in tracking a ballistic missle. Credit: Northrop Grumman artist's concept WASHINGTON Aided by data from a pair of experimental missile tracking satellites, a U.S. Navy cruiser launched an interceptor that destroyed a medium-range ballistic missile in a test over the Pacific Ocean Feb. 13, the U.S. Defense Department announced. The test marked the first time data from the Space Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrator (STSS-D) satellites was used to calculate a firing solution for an interceptor, according to Richard Lehner, a spokesman for the U.S. Missile Defense Agency (MDA). The target missile launched from the Pacific Range Missile Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, and was and Airborne Systems, said in a prepared statement. "We can give our naval warfighters extra time to analyze and respond, by providing target data before the ship can track the threat. That's a tremendous advantage." The STSS-D satellites were launched in January 2009 into what the MDA describes as a tandem low Earth orbit. By virtue of their ability to hand off data to one another, the satellites have demonstrated the ability to track target missiles from launch until atmospheric re-entry. The MDA hopes to develop a constellation of low Earth orbiting satellites as a cuing tool for its ground-based radars and targeting systems, but the program has foundered for lack of funding. In a prepared statement, David Bloodgood, STSS program manager at then recognized and tracked by the MDA s Northrop Northrop Grumman Aerospace of Los Angeles, said Grumman-built STSS-D satellites, the Pentagon said. Data from the satellites was then relayed to the USS Lake Erie, which is equipped with the sea-based Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System that includes the Raytheon-built Standard Missile-3 Block 1A interceptor. The interceptor launched from the ship, about 800 kilometers off the coast, and destroyed the target with the force of impact. In the press release, the Pentagon said the test opened the door for defense of larger areas. We re obviously very excited about the results, Mitch Stevison, Standard Missile-3 program director at Raytheon Missile Systems, Tucson, Ariz., said in an interview. This is a seminal moment in missile defense testing. It will change our way of thinking about missile defense. As the technology evolves, satellite-based tracking enhances missile defense capabilities with existing interceptors. The STSS-D satellites demonstrated that future low Earth Orbit space capabilities can be a force multiplier for existing missile defense systems, he said. Since flight testing began in 2002, the Aegis system has successfully intercepted targets 24 times in 30 attempts, the Pentagon said. This test further expands our confidence in the SM-3 s ability to engage targets using remote, netted sensor targeting, Wes Kremer, vice president of air and missile defense systems at Raytheon Missile Systems, said in a statement. Launching on remote is important because it extends the engagement range of the missile, allowing ships with the SM-3 to expand the battlespace and eliminate threats sooner. Stevison said, it will allow the Navy to cover a greater area with Feb. 13, By Brian Berger 三 菱 電 機 は 防 衛 の 作 業 への 入 札 参 加 再 開 が 認 められた Mitsubishi Electric Cleared To Resume Bidding for Defense Work 15

16 WASHINGTON One of Japan s largest defense contractors Mitsubishi Electric Corp. of Tokyo, told shareholders Feb. 13 that it is free to resume bidding on military contracts now that it has refunded the government 60 billion yen ($642 million) that it overcharged the Ministry of Defense for hardware and services delivered over the past decade. Mitsubishi admitted in early 2012 to overcharging the Ministry of Defense as well as the Cabinet Office Satellite Intelligence Center and the civilian Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) on a number of suspended from bidding on certain government contracts as a result. JAXA, the Cabinet Office Satellite Intelligence Center, and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology lifted Mitsubishi s suspension in mid-january after it repaid a total of 15 billion yen it had overcharged those agencies. Mitsubishi Electric is committed to strengthening its corporate ethics and compliance systems to prevent any recurrence and to restore public trust, the company said in a Feb. 13 press release. unspecified military and civilian contracts. Mitsubishi was Tue, Feb 12, 2013, 6:16 AM ET (1116 GMT) アトラスは 新 しいランドサット 衛 星 を 打 上 げ Atlas launches new Landsat satellite Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) spacecraft into a sun-synchronous orbit 79 minutes later. The Orbital Sciences-built spacecraft, weighing about 2,780 kilograms, is the latest in a series of earth sciences spacecraft dating back 40 An Atlas 5 rocket successfully placed the newest Landsat remote sensing satellite into orbit on Monday. The Atlas 5 rocket lifted off from Space Launch Complex 3 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, at 1:02 pm EST (1802 GMT) and released the years, and the first Landsat spacecraft since Landsat 7, launched in The spacecraft will be renamed Landsat 8 and handed over to the US Geological Survey for normal operations in about three months. Related Links: Spaceflight Now article SPACE.com article Lompoc (Calif.) Record article 2-a82e-001a4bcf887a.html AP article NASA press release Tue, Feb 12, 2013, 5:55 AM ET (1055 GMT) プログレスの 打 上 げ ISS にドッキング Progress launches, docks to ISS Soyuz rocket carrying the Progress M-18M spacecraft (designated Progress 50 by NASA) lifted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 9:41 am EST (1441 GMT) Monday, placing the spacecraft into orbit about nine minutes later. The Progress used an accelerated four-orbit approach to the station, compared to the traditional two-day approach, docking with the Pirs module at 3:35 pm EST (2035 GMT). The Progress is A Progress cargo spacecraft docked with the International Space carrying 2.9 tons of propellant, water, and other supplies for the Station on Monday, six hours after launching from Baikonur. A station. 16

17 Related Links: NASASpaceFlight.com article Spaceflight Now article CBS News article RIA Novosti article NASA statement 年 2 月 18 日 13 時 23 分 読 売 新 聞 露 湖 上 の 破 片 隕 石 と 確 認 鉄 含 有 率 8% 以 上 モスクワ= 緒 方 賢 一 露 中 部 ウラル 地 方 上 空 で15 日 に 爆 発 落 下 した 隕 石 いんせきに 関 し 露 科 学 アカデミー 専 門 家 は17 日 チェリャビ ンスク 州 の 湖 で 採 取 した 破 片 を 鑑 定 した 結 果 隕 石 のものと 確 認 と 明 らかに 今 回 の 現 象 解 明 につながるものとして 期 待 される 露 通 信 によ ると ビクトル グロホフスキー 氏 (ウラル 連 邦 大 )らの 調 査 チームは 州 都 チェリャビンスク 市 の 西 約 80km にあるチェバルクリ 湖 の 氷 上 に 開 いた 穴 の 周 囲 で 直 径 0 5~1cm の 黒 色 物 体 53 個 を 回 収 物 体 の 表 面 には 熱 で 溶 けた 跡 があった 化 学 的 分 析 の 結 果 鉄 含 有 率 が8% 以 上 で 地 球 上 物 質 とは 異 なることを 確 認 し 隕 石 破 片 と 結 論 づけた 隕 石 は 湖 にちなんで チェバルクリ 隕 石 と 命 名 される 年 2 月 17 日 チャイナネット[ 編 注 ] 単 に 瞬 間 のエネルギー 規 模?で 広 島 原 爆 と 比 較 するのはセンスがない 死 傷 者 数 被 害 持 続 期 間 等 の 面 で 違 いが 大 ロシアに 1 万 トンの 隕 石 落 下 威 力 は 広 島 原 爆 の 30 倍 露 のニュースサイト RUSNEWS の 報 道 によると NASA の 専 門 家 は 露 に 落 下 した 隕 石 のデータをまとめ 体 積 と 威 力 はこれまでの 推 定 規 模 を 大 幅 に 上 回 り 1945 年 に 広 島 に 落 とされた 原 爆 の 30 倍 に 相 当 す ると 分 析 NASA の 最 新 分 析 結 果 によると 隕 石 の 直 径 は 15m でなく 17m で 重 さは 1 万 トン(これまでの 分 析 では 7000 トン)に 達 する 専 門 家 は 5 カ 所 の 観 測 所 が 得 たデータを 基 に 隕 石 を 分 析 チェリャビンス 大 気 圏 に 突 入 してから 分 裂 するまで 32.5 秒 かかったことがわかった モ スクワ 時 間 2 月 15 日 7 時 20 分 露 ウラル 地 方 の 住 民 が 隕 石 落 下 を 目 撃 した 隕 石 は 煙 を 上 げながら 飛 行 し 閃 光 を 放 った 後 に 大 きな 音 をあげて 爆 発 した 落 下 地 点 から 近 いチェリャビンスクでは 巨 大 衝 撃 波 によって 家 屋 が 損 壊 し 約 20 万 平 方 m にわたってガラスが 割 れ 約 1200 人 が 負 傷 した ク 州 から 6500km 離 れた 米 アラスカの 観 測 所 が 得 たデータから 隕 石 が 年 2 月 17 日 09 時 04 分 読 売 新 聞 ヒューと 火 の 玉 ズドーン 雪 煙 ロシア 隕 石 17

18 2)は16 日 当 時 状 況 を 本 紙 に 証 言 した セレブリャコフさんは15 日 午 前 凍 った 湖 にドリルで 穴 を 開 け カワカマス 釣 りをしていた ヒューと いう 空 気 を 切 裂 くような 甲 高 い 音 に 驚 き 空 を 見 上 げると 火 の 玉 が 二 つ に 分 かれた 周 囲 の 静 寂 を 破 る ズドーン という 大 音 響 が 身 体 を 揺 さ ぶった 一 つは 数 百 m 先 の 湖 面 に 落 ち 氷 が 砕 けた 震 動 は 感 じなか った もう 一 つはさらに 遠 くへ 飛 去 った セレブリャコフさんは 飛 行 機 が 爆 発 した と 思 い 非 常 事 態 省 地 元 事 務 所 に 通 報 した ロシア 中 部 チェバルクリ 湖 で16 日 隕 石 破 片 が 落 下 した 所 を 警 備 する 警 察 官 ( 緒 方 賢 一 撮 影 ) チェバルクリ 湖 (ロシア 中 部 )= 緒 方 賢 一 露 中 部 チェリャビンスク 州 に 落 下 した 隕 石 いんせきの 被 害 は 16 日 夕 までに 負 傷 者 1183 人 損 壊 した 建 物 は 住 宅 や 教 育 施 設 を 中 心 に 約 4500 棟 に 拡 大 した 露 保 健 当 局 などが 発 表 猛 烈 な 速 さで 飛 んできた 物 体 が 落 ちた 瞬 間 結 氷 した 湖 面 から 数 m の 高 さまで 雪 煙 が 上 がった 最 大 被 害 が 出 た 州 都 チェリャビンスク 市 から 西 に 約 80km のチェバルクリ 湖 湖 面 に 隕 石 の 一 部 が 落 下 する 様 子 を 目 撃 した 溶 接 工 オレグ セレブリャコフさん(5 隕 石 爆 発 による 衝 撃 波 を 受 け 壁 や 屋 根 が 大 破 したチェリャビンスクの 亜 鉛 工 場 (16 日 緒 方 賢 一 撮 影 ) 年 2 月 16 日 20 時 22 分 読 売 新 聞 隕 石 の 重 さ 1 万 トンに 上 方 修 正 NASA ボストン( 米 マサチューセッツ 州 )= 中 島 達 雄 NASAは15 日 露 に 落 下 した 隕 石 いんせきについて 大 気 圏 突 入 前 の 大 きさは 直 径 17m 重 さは1 万 トンだったと 数 字 を 上 方 修 正 した 大 気 圏 突 入 時 の 空 気 振 動 を 観 測 する 空 振 計 のデータ 収 集 が 進 んだため 再 計 算 した それま では 直 径 15m 重 さ7000トンと 算 出 していたが 直 径 が13% 重 さ が43% それぞれ 大 きくなった 今 後 も 修 正 の 可 能 性 がある 隕 石 が 大 気 圏 に 突 入 してからばらばらに 分 解 されるまでの 時 間 は 32 5 秒 だ った 年 2 月 16 日 16 時 58 分 読 売 新 聞 露 の 隕 石 落 下 の 小 惑 星 か けが1 千 人 確 認 は 初 地 球 に 近 づく 天 体 を 監 視 する 日 本 スペースガード 協 会 の 高 橋 典 嗣 のりつぐ 理 事 長 によると 露 中 部 チェリャビンスク 州 に 落 下 した 隕 石 いん せきは 地 球 に 落 ちてきた 小 惑 星 と 考 えられる 地 球 軌 道 をかすめる える 高 橋 さんは 今 回 と 同 じレベルの 隕 石 落 下 は 数 十 年 に1 度 の 頻 度 で 起 きるが 市 街 地 に 落 ちることはまれで 1000 人 規 模 のけが 人 が 確 認 されたのは 初 と 話 す 小 惑 星 は1 万 個 近 く 見 つかっており うち 約 1300 個 が 直 径 1km を 超 :44 sankei.jp.msn.com/affairs/news/ 望 遠 鏡 での 発 見 困 難 NASA 明 るい 昼 間 の 空 から 飛 んできた 18

19 落 下 した 隕 石 の 連 続 写 真 =15 日 チェリャビンスク(AP) NASAは15 日 露 に 落 下 した 隕 石 について 大 気 圏 突 入 前 の 直 径 は 約 15m 重 さは 約 7 千 トンだったとの 推 計 を 発 表 小 惑 星 を 追 跡 し ていたにもかかわらず 接 近 する 隕 石 を 発 見 できなかったことについて 明 るい 昼 間 の 空 から 飛 んできたので 望 遠 鏡 で 発 見 するのは 非 常 に 困 難 だった と 説 明 今 回 落 下 した 隕 石 の 直 径 は 地 球 近 くを 通 過 した 小 割 合 で 落 下 するという NASA 研 究 者 は 隕 石 は 小 惑 星 の 軌 道 とは 反 対 の 方 向 から 飛 んできた 全 く 関 係 のない 出 来 事 だが 重 なって 起 きるとはなんという 偶 然 だ と 語 った 米 地 質 調 査 所 (USGS)も 衝 撃 波 とみられる 震 動 を 観 測 ただ 地 震 のマグニチュードに 相 当 するエネ ルギーの 大 きさは 算 定 できないとした ( 共 同 ) 惑 星 2012DA14 の3 分 の1 この 大 きさの 隕 石 は100 年 に1 個 の 年 2 月 16 日 14 時 36 分 読 売 新 聞 隕 石 は 直 径 15m 7 千 トンか 負 傷 1145 人 の 速 度 は 時 速 約 6 万 4000km とみられる 音 速 の 約 50 倍 だ NAS Aは このサイズでは 日 中 に 接 近 した 場 合 事 前 に 見 つけるのは 困 難 だとしている チェリャビンスク 州 で15 日 凍 結 した 貯 水 池 に 開 いた 穴 隕 石 落 下 が 原 因 とみ られている( 地 元 政 府 提 供 )=ロイター チェリャビンスク(ロシア 中 部 )= 緒 方 賢 一 ボストン( 米 東 部 )= 中 島 達 雄 露 中 部 チェリャビンスク 州 に 落 下 した 隕 石 いんせきの 被 害 は16 日 未 明 ( 日 本 時 間 同 午 前 )までに 負 傷 者 1145 人 損 壊 した 建 物 は 病 院 34 棟 を 含 む 計 2962 棟 に 拡 大 した 露 非 常 事 態 省 が 発 表 タ チェリャビンスク 州 で 見 つかった 隕 石 の 一 部 とみられる 破 片 地 元 政 府 が 公 開 し た=ロイター ス 通 信 が 同 州 警 察 当 局 の 話 として 伝 えたところによると 被 害 地 域 は 州 都 チェリャビンスク 市 を 中 心 に 同 市 西 方 約 100km のズラトウスト 南 方 約 130km のトロイツクなど 広 範 囲 に 及 んだ 同 州 は 被 害 総 額 を 約 10 億 ルーブル( 約 30 億 円 )と 試 算 NASAは15 日 この 隕 石 の 大 気 圏 突 入 前 の 大 きさが 直 径 約 15m 重 さは 競 技 用 50m プール の 水 3 杯 分 にあたる 約 7000トンだったとの 推 定 結 果 を 発 表 突 入 前 19

20 :17 sankei.jp.msn.com/science/news/ 多 数 の 負 傷 者 は 世 界 初 衝 撃 波 で 広 範 囲 に 被 害 のは 大 気 中 で 燃 尽 きて 流 星 になるが 大 きいものは 燃 残 って 地 表 に 落 下 する 隕 石 による 被 害 は 民 家 屋 根 に 落 ちたケースなどがあるが 人 的 被 害 は 約 60 年 前 米 で 隕 石 に 当 たった 人 の 報 告 が1 件 あるだけで けがの 有 無 は 不 明 国 立 天 文 台 は 明 確 な 負 傷 者 の 報 告 は 今 回 が 初 ではないか としている 隕 石 は 地 球 に 頻 繁 に 落 下 しており 直 径 1 0cm の 隕 石 は3~4 日 に1 回 同 1m の 大 きなものは 年 に1 回 ほど 落 ちるという 落 下 総 重 量 は 流 星 を 含 め1 日 当 たり25~100トンに 及 ぶ と 推 定 されているが 海 に 落 ちる 場 合 も 多 く 被 害 が 出 るのはまれだ 15 日 ロシア チェリャビンスク 州 に 落 下 する 隕 石 ビデオ 映 像 (AP= 共 同 ) 国 立 天 文 台 によると 地 球 には 多 くの 隕 石 (いんせき)が 落 下 している が 多 数 の 負 傷 者 が 出 たのは 記 録 に 残 る 範 囲 では 世 界 初 とみられる 大 きな 隕 石 が 高 速 で 大 気 に 突 入 した 際 に 衝 撃 波 が 生 じ その 影 響 で 隕 石 落 下 を 事 前 に 予 測 するのは 難 しく 2008 年 に 世 界 で 唯 一 の 成 功 例 があるだけで 今 回 も 予 測 されていなかった 16 日 に 地 球 に 接 近 する 小 惑 星 との 関 連 性 については 専 門 家 の 間 でも 見 解 が 分 かれてい る 空 気 が 振 動 して 広 範 囲 でガラスが 割 れたとみている 隕 石 は 太 陽 系 の 小 惑 星 などを 起 源 とする 小 天 体 で 岩 石 や 鉄 などが 主 成 分 宇 宙 空 間 を 漂 いながら 軌 道 を 変 えて 地 球 に 衝 突 する 場 合 がある ごく 小 さいも :08 sankei.jp.msn.com/science/news/ 過 去 の 隕 石 落 下 は? 界 最 古 の 隕 石 1908 年 ロシア シベリアの 上 空 で 大 爆 発 隕 石 か 彗 星 の 関 連 が 指 摘 されている 1920 年 ナミビアで 約 60トンの 隕 石 発 見 と 科 学 者 が 報 告 1954 年 米 アラバマ 州 民 家 の 屋 根 を 隕 石 が 突 破 り 女 性 がけが 1976 年 3 月 中 国 吉 林 省 の 平 原 に 多 数 の 隕 石 1992 年 12 月 島 根 県 の 民 家 に 約 6kg の 隕 石 が 屋 根 を 突 破 り 落 下 美 保 関 隕 石 と 呼 ばれる 15 日 ロシア チェリャビンスク 州 で 撮 影 された 隕 石 の 航 跡 (AP) 国 立 科 学 博 物 館 などによると 過 去 の 主 な 隕 石 落 下 は 次 の 通 り 約 6500 万 年 前 メキシコ ユカタン 半 島 に 巨 大 隕 石 が 落 下 恐 竜 の 絶 滅 を 招 いたとされる 861 年 現 在 の 福 岡 県 直 方 市 に 落 下 落 下 目 撃 の 記 録 の 残 る 世 1996 年 1 月 茨 城 県 つくば 市 周 辺 で 隕 石 二 十 数 個 を 回 収 1999 年 9 月 神 戸 市 北 区 民 家 に 屋 根 を 突 破 り 隕 石 が 落 下 2012 年 1 月 モロッコで 発 見 の 隕 石 が 火 星 からのものとNASAの 調 査 で 確 認 20

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