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1 参 考 文 献 それぞれのページ 数 は 日 本 語 版 の 本 文 に 対 応 しています PART 1 あなたは まだ ギブ&テイク で 人 生 を 決 めているのか 21 扉 の 引 用 :Samuel L. Clemens (aka Mark Twain), At the Dinner to Joseph H. Choate, November 16, 1901," in Speeches at the Lotos Club, ed. J. Elderkin, C. S. Lord, and H. N. Fraser (New York: Lotos Club,1911), ダニー シェーダーとデビッド ホーニックのエピソード:デビッド ホーニックへの 個 人 取 材 (January 30 and March 12, 2012) ダニー シェーダーへの 個 人 取 材 (February 13, 2012). 27 どのくらい 与 え どのくらい 受 けとるのが 望 ましいと 考 えるか:Edward W. Miles, John D. H atfield, and Richard C. Huseman, "The Equity Sensitivity Construct: Potential Implications for Worker Performance,"Journal of Management 15 (1989): 親 密 な 人 間 関 係 ではたいていの 人 がギバーとして 振 る 舞 う:Margaret S. Clark and Judson Mills, "The Difference between Communal and Exchange Relationships: What It Is and Is Not," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19 (1993): ( 脚 注 ) 人 びとがギバー テイカー マッチャーを 使 い 分 けている:Alan P. Fiske, Structures of Social Life: The Four Elementary Forms of Human Relations (New York: Free Press, 1 991). 30 エンジニアリングの 世 界 :Francis J. Flynn, "How Much Should I Give and How Often? T he Effects of Generosity and Frequency of Favor Exchange on Social Status and Productivi ty," Academy of Management Journal 46 (2003): ベルギーの 医 学 生 :Filip Lievens, Deniz S. Ones, and Stephan Dilchert, "Personality Scal e Validities Increase Throughout Medical School," Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009): 販 売 員 も 例 外 ではない:Adam M. Grant and Dane Barnes, "Predicting Sales Revenue" (w orking paper, 2011). 31 ギバーはテイカーに 比 べて 収 入 が:Timothy A. Judge, Beth A. Livingston, and Charlice H urst, "Do Nice Guys--and Gals--Really Finish Last? The Joint Effects of Sex and Agreeable ness on Income, "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (2012): 犯 罪 の 被 害 者 になるリスクは 二 倍 :Robert J. Homant, "Risky Altruism as a Predictor of C riminal Victimization, "Criminal Justice and Behavior 37 (2010): 人 への 影 響 力 も:Nir Halevy, Eileen Y. Chou, Taya R. Cohen, and Robert W. Livingston, "Status Conferral in Intergroup Social Dilemmas: Behavioral Antecedents and Consequenc es of Prestige and Dominance," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (2012): ねた 36 成 功 したテイカーは 妬 まれやすく:Eugene Kim and Theresa M. Glomb, "Get Smarty Pan ts: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization," Journal of Applied Psychology 95 (201 0): 勝 つのは 簡 単 だ:ランディ コミサーへの 個 人 取 材 (March 30,2012) 37 リンカーンのエピソードについては 基 本 的 にドリス カーンズ グッドウィンの 素 晴 らしい 著 書 リンカン にもとづいている: リンカン ( 平 岡 緑 訳 中 央 公 論 新 社,2011 年 ) 1

2 42 ほかのどの 政 治 家 よりも 人 気 があった:Max J. Skidmore, Presidential Performance: A Com prehensive Review (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2004). 43 歴 史 政 治 学 心 理 学 の 専 門 家 :Steven J. Rubenzer and Thomas R. Faschingbauer, Perso nality, Character, and Leadership in the White House: Psychologists Assess the Presidents (Dulles, VA: Brassey's, 2004), マラソンでは 大 いに 役 立 つ: チップ コンリーへの 個 人 取 材 (February 24, 2012) 46 チームで 仕 事 を 行 なっている:Paul Osterman, "Work Reorganization in an Era of Restruc turing: Trends in Diffusion and Effects on Employee Welfare," Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53 (2000): ; and Duncan Gallie, Ying Zhou, Alan Felstead, and F rancis Green, "Teamwork, Skill Development and Employee Welfare," British Journal of In dustrial Relations 50 (2012): サービス 部 門 が 拡 大 するにつれて:Adam M. Grant and Sharon K. Parker, "Rede signing Work Design Theories: The Rise of Relational and Proactive Perspectives," Academy of Ma nagement Annals 3 (2009): ファイナンシャルアドバイザーの 成 功 :スティーブ ジョーンズへの 個 人 取 材 (July 13, 2011) ピーター オデットへの 個 人 取 材 (December 12, 2011 and January 19, 2012) 52 もっとも 大 切 な 価 値 だと 答 えた: Shalom H. Schwartz and Anat Bardi, "Value Hierarchie s across Cultures: Taking a Similarities Perspective," Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32 (2001): テイカーになる 傾 向 が 強 い:Dale T. Miller, "The Norm of Self-Interest," American Psychol ogist 54 (1999): ビジネススーツを 着 せただけで: Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks, "Protestant Relational Ideology: The Cognitive Underpinnings and Organizational Implications of an American Anomaly," R esearch in Organizational Behavior 26 (2005): および "Protestant Relational Ideolo gy and (In)Attention to Relational Cues in Work Settings," Journal of Personality and Soci al Psychology 83 (2002): を 参 照 のこと 55 テイカーに 食 い 物 にされる:Robert H. Frank, Passions Within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions (New York: W. W. Norton, 1988), xi オデッセウスの 鎖 (ロバート H フランク サイエンス 社 1995 年 ) PART 2 名 刺 ファイル と フェイスブック を 見 直 せ 61 扉 の 引 用 :Coretta Scott King, The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: New market Press, 2008), 17 キング 牧 師 の 言 葉 (コレッタ スコット キング 編 日 本 基 督 教 団 出 版 局 1993 年 ) 62 エンロンのエピソード:Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind, The Smartest Guys in the R oom: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron (New York: Portfolio, 2004), Mimi S wartz and Sherron Watkins, Power Failure: The Inside Story of the Collapse of Enron (Ne w York: Crown, 2004) エンロン 内 部 告 発 者 (ミミ シュワルツ シェロン ワトキンス ダ イヤモンド 社 2003 年 ) Judy Keen, "Bush, Lay Kept Emotional Distance," USA Today, F ebruary 26, 人 脈 には 主 に 三 つのメリット:Brian Uzzi and Shannon Dunlap, "How to Build Your Net work," Harvard Business Review December (2005): 53-60; and Ronald Burt, Structural Hole s: The Social Structure of Competition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995) 競 争 の 社 会 的 構 造 (ロナルド S バート 新 曜 社 2006 年 ) 2

3 68 リンクトインの 設 立 者 :Reid Hoffman, "Connections with Integrity," strategy+business, M ay 29, テイカーに 好 印 象 を 抱 く:Mitja D. Back, Stefan C. Schmukle, and Boris Egloff, "Why Ar e Narcissists So Charming at First Sight? Decoding the Narcissism-Popularity Link at Zero Acquaintance, "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (2010): 利 己 的 な 目 的 を 追 求 し:Serena Chen, Annette Y. Lee-Chai, and John A. Bargh, "Relation ship Orientation as a Moderator of the Effects of Social Power," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80 (2001): ; and Katherine A. DeCelles, D. Scott DeRue, Joshua D. Margolis, and Tara L. Ceranic, "Does Power Corrupt or Enable? When and Why Power Facilitates Self-Interested Behavior," Journal of Applied Psychology 97 (2012): つうちょう 71 最 後 通 牒 ゲーム:Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, "Fairness and the Assumptions of Economics, "Journal of Business 59 (1986): S285-S 評 判 情 報 を 共 有 する:Matthew Feinberg, Joey Cheng, and Robb Willer, "Gossip as an Effective and Low-Cost Form of Punishment," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (2012): 2 5; and Matthew Feinberg, Robb Willer, Jennifer Stellar, and Dacher Keltner, "The Virtues of Gossip: Reputational Information Sharing as Prosocial Behavior," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (2012): ネットワーク 自 体 に 利 益 を 追 求 する ことはできない:Wayne E. Baker, Achieving Succes s Through Social Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Netwo rks (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000), 19 ソーシャル キャピタル (ウェイン ベイカー ダイヤモンド 社 2001 年 ) 74 コンピュータ ハードウエアおよびソフトウエア 企 業 の:Arijit Chatterjee and Donald C. H ambrick, "It's All about Me: Narcissistic Chief Executive Officers and Their Effects on Com pany Strategy and Performance," Administrative Science Quarterly 52 (2007): フェイスブックのプロフィールを:Laura E. Buffardi and W. Keith Campbell, "Narcissism and Social Networking Websites," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (2008): テイカーを 見 つけるのにSNSを:ハワード リーへの 個 人 取 材 (December 11, 2011) 83 リンクトインでつながっていた:Jessica Shambora, "Fortune's Best Networker," Fortune, February 9, 2011, accessed January 26, 2012, -best-networker/. 83 アダム リフキン:アダム リフキンへの 個 人 取 材 (January 28, 2012) ジェシカ シャンボ ラへの 個 人 取 材 (February 9, 2012) レイモンド ルーフへの 個 人 取 材 (February 16, 2012) イゴサ オモイグイへの 個 人 取 材 (March 14, 2012) 106 マイルズでの 取 材 (May 9, 2012) ブ ライアン ノルガードの 談 話 ( アダム リフキンのウェブサイト( グレアム ス ペンサーのウェブサイト( 87 ギブ アンド テイクの 関 係 を 利 用 :Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Pers uasion (New York: HarperBusiness, 2006) 影 響 力 の 武 器 (ロバート B チャルディーニ 誠 信 書 房 第 2 版 2007 年 ) 87 受 けとるまえに 与 えるほうがよい:Keith Ferrazzi and Tahl Raz, Never Eat Alone: And Other Secrets to Success, One Relationship at a Time (New York: Crown Business, 2005), 22 一 生 モノの 人 脈 力 (キース フェラッジ タール ラズ 武 田 ランダムハウスジャパン 年 ) 88 見 返 りに 何 か 欲 しがっている:ダン ワインスタインへの 個 人 取 材 (January 26, 2012). 89 この 人 にどんなことをしてあげられるだろうか?:Guy Kawasaki interview with Warren C ass, accessed May 14, 2012, 3

4 X8gk. 92 弱 いつながり:Mark Granovetter, "The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisi ted," Sociological Theory 1 (1983): 休 眠 状 態 のつながり とは:Daniel Z. Levin, Jorge Walter, and J. Keith Murnighan, "D ormant Ties: The Value of Reconnecting," Organization Science 22 (2011): ; and "Th e Power of Reconnection: How Dormant Ties Can Surprise You, "MIT Sloan Management Review 52 (2011): 人 脈 ネットワークを 行 き 交 うエネルギーの 流 れ:Rob Cross, Wayne Baker, and Andrew Pa rker, "What Creates Energy in Organizations?" MIT Sloan Management Review 44 (2003): 与 えることは 感 染 する:James H. Fowler and Nicholas A. Christakis, "Cooperative Behavior Cascades in Human Social Networks," PNAS 107 (2010): 一 貫 してギバーになった:J. Mark Weber and J. Keith Murnighan, "Suckers or Saviors? Consistent Contributors in Social Dilemmas," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95 (2008) 大 手 電 気 通 信 会 社 のエンジニア:Francis J. Flynn, "How Much Should I Give and How Often? The Effects of Generosity and Frequency of Favor Exchange on Social Status and P roductivity," Academy of Management Journal 46 (2003): PART 3 チームの 総 力 を 活 かせる 人 113 扉 の 引 用 :John Andrew Holmes, Wisdom in Small Doses (Lincoln, NE: The University Publishing Company, 1927) 114 ジョージ マイヤー:David Owen, "Taking Humor Seriously: George Meyer, the Funnie st Man behind the Funniest Show on TV," New Yorker, March 13, 2000; Simon Vozick-Lev inson, "For Simpsons Writer Meyer, Comedy Is No Laughing Matter," Harvard Crimson, J une 4, 2003; Eric Spitznagel, "George Meyer," Believer, September 2004; Mike Sacks, And Here's the Kicker: Conversations with 21 Top Humor Writers on Their Craft (Cincinnati: Writers Digest Books, 2009) ジョージ マイヤーへの 個 人 取 材 (June 21, 2012) ティム ロン グへの 個 人 取 材 (June 22, 2012) キャロリン オミネへの 個 人 取 材 (June 27, 2012) ドン ペ インへの 個 人 取 材 (July 12, 2012) 116 天 才 と 天 才 を 育 てる 人 :Liz Wiseman and Greg McKeown, Multipliers: How the Best Le aders Make Everyone Smarter (New York: HarperBusiness, 2010). 116 極 めてクリエイティブな 人 びと:Donald W. MacKinnon, "The Nature and Nurture of Cr eative Talent," American Psychologist 17 (1962): ; and "Personality and the Realizat ion of Creative Potential," American Psychologist 20 (1965): クリエイティブな 科 学 者 :Gregory Feist, "A Structural Model of Scientific Eminence," Ps ychological Science 4 (1993): ; and "A Meta-Analysis of Personality in Scientific and Artistic Creativity," Personality and Social Psychology Review 2 (1998): フランク ロイド ライト:Roger Friedland and Harold Zellman, The Fellowship: The Untold Story of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Taliesin Fellowship (New York: HaperCollins, 2007), 138; Ed de St. Aubin, "Truth Against the World: A Psychobiographical Exploration of Generativity in the Life of Frank Lloyd Wright," in Generativity and Adult Developmen t: How and Why We Care for the Next Generation, ed. Dan P. McAdams and Ed de St. A ubin (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1998), 402 and 408; Christophe r Hawthorne, "At Wright's Taliesin, Maybe the Walls Can Talk," Los Angeles Times, Septe mber 3, 2006; and Brendan Gill, Many Masks: A Life of Frank Lloyd Wright (New York: De Capo Press, 1998), 334 ライト 仮 面 の 生 涯 (ブレンダン ギル 学 芸 出 版 社 2009 年 ) 4

5 125 エドガー ターフェル:Joan Altabe, "Fallingwater Is Falling Apart," Gadfly Online, Feb ruary 18, 2002; また Hugh Pearman, "How Many Wrights Make a Wrong?" Sunday Times Magazine, June 12, 2005 も 参 照 のこと 126 心 臓 外 科 医 :Robert Huckman and Gary Pisano, "The Firm Specificity of Individual Per formance: Evidence from Cardiac Surgery," Management Science 52 (2006): 一 流 のアナリスト:Boris Groysberg, Linda-Eling Lee, and Ashish Nanda, "Can They Ta ke It with Them? The Protability of Star Knowledge Workers' Performance," Management Science 54 (2008): ; and Boris Groysberg and Linda-Eling Lee, "The Effect of Coll eague Quality on Top Performance: The Case of Security Analysts," Journal of Organizatio nal Behavior 29 (2008): しるし 130 頼 り 合 うことを 弱 さの 印 :MarYam G. Hamedani, Hazel R. Markus, and Alyssa S. Fu, "My Nation, My Self: Divergent Framings of America Influence American Selves, " Persona lity and Social Psychology Bulletin 37 (2011): グループ 全 体 が 恩 恵 を 受 ける:Nathan P. Podsakoff, Steven W.Whiting, Philip M. Podsak off, and Brian D. Blume, "Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizati onal Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis," Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009): ; and Philip M. Podsakoff, Scott B. MacKenzie, Julie B. Paine, and Daniel G. Bachrach, "Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Reserch," Journal of Management 26 (2000): 探 検 行 動 :ジェフ アシュビーへの 個 人 取 材 (July 9, 2012) ジョン カネンジーターへの 個 人 取 材 (July 13, 2012) 134 もはや 攻 撃 されることはない:Eugene Kim and Theresa M. Glomb, "Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization," Journal of Applied Psychology 95 (2010): 自 分 のスキルを 証 明 した:Sabrina Deutsch Salamon and Yuval Deutsch, "OCB as a Ha ndicap: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective," Journal of Organizational Behavior 27 (2006): 信 用 口 座 :Edwin P. Hollander, "Conformity, Status, and Idiosyncrasy Credit," Psycholo gical Review 65 (1958): ; また Charlie L. Hardy and Mark Van Vugt, "Nice Guys Finish First: The Competitive Altruism Hypothesis," Personality and Social Psychology Bull etin 32 (2006): も 参 照 のこと 136 まわりに 特 別 に 認 められてしまう:Adam M. Grant, Sharon Parker, and Catherine Collin s, "Getting Credit for Proactive Behavior: Supervisor Reactions Depend on What You Valu e and How You Feel," Personnel Psychology 62 (2009): ジョナス ソーク:David Oshinsky, Polio: An American Story (New York: Oxford Univ ersity Press, 2005), and 嫌 なオヤジ:Douglas Heuck, "A Talk with Salk Sheds Wisdom," Pittsburgh Quarterly, Winter あの 一 件 について 触 れた 極 めて 少 ないコメント:Academy of Achievement, "Jonas Salk int erview," May 16, 1991, accessed March 15, 2012, 0int-4, and Paul Offit, The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), ピーター ソーク:Luis Fábregas, "Salk's Son Extends Olive Branch to Polio Team," Pi ttsburgh Tribune, April 13, 責 任 のバイアス:Michael Ross and Fiore Sicoly, "Egocentric Biases in Availability and Attribution," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 (1979): 各 メンバーがしてくれたことについて 考 えてもらう:Eugene M. Caruso, Nicholas Epley, a nd Max H. Bazerman, "The Costs and Benefits of Undoing Egocentric Responsibility Assess ments in Groups," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17 (1995):

6 144 ほかの 人 びとの 業 績 を 認 めるよう:Michael McCall, "Orientation, Outcome, and Other-Ser ving Attributions," Basic and Applied Social Psychology 17 (1995): 安 心 感 のある 環 境 :Amy Edmondson, "Learning from Mistakes is Easier Said Than Don e: Group and Organizational Influences on the Detection and Correction of Human Error," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 32 (1996): 5-28; and "Psychological Safety and Learn ing Behavior in Work Teams," Administrative Science Quarterly 44 (1999): イノベーションにおいて 主 要 な 役 割 :David Obstfeld, "Social Networks, the Tertius Iung ens Orientation, and Involvement in Innovation," Administrative Science Quarterly 50 (200 5): 視 点 のズレを 見 越 す:Loran F. Nordgren, Mary-Hunter Morris McDonnell, and George L oewenstein, "What Constitutes Torture? Psychological Impediments to an Objective Evaluati on of Enhanced Interrogation Tactics," Psychological Science 22 (2011): サンフランシスコのある 病 院 :Robert Burton, "Pathological Certitude," in Pathological Al truism, ed. Barbara Oakley et al. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), ; Nat alie Angier, "The Pathological Altruist Gives Till Someone Hurts," New York Times, Octobe r 3, 2011; and personal interview with Burton (February 23, 2012). 149 人 の 身 になって 考 える 方 法 :Adam M. Grant and James Berry, "The Necessity of Others Is the Mother of Invention: Intrinsic and Prosocial Motivations, Perspective-Taking, and C reativity," Academy of Management Journal 54 (2011): 独 自 の 贈 り 物 をしたがるのだろうか:Francesca Gino and Francis J. Flynn, "Give Them What They Want: The Benefits of Explicitness in Gift Exchange," Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47 (2011): たいていの 人 は 自 分 のものの 考 え 方 から 出 ることはなく:C. Daniel Batson, Shannon Early, and Giovanni Salvarani, "Perspective Taking: Imagining How Another Feels Versus Imagi ning How You Would Feel," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23 (1997): ブロッコリーよりクラッカー:Betty Repacholi and Alison Gopnik, "Early Reasoning abo ut Desires: Evidence from 14-and 18-Month-Olds," Developmental Psychology 33 (1997): " 153( 脚 注 ) 下 のきょうだい:Beatrice Whiting and John Whiting, Children of Six Cultures: A Psycho-Cultural Analysis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975) 六 つの 文 化 の 子 供 たち (ベアトリス B ホワイティング ジョン W M ホワイティング 誠 信 書 房 1978 年 ) David Winter, "The Power Motive in Women--and Men," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54 (1988): ; Frank J. Sulloway, Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives (New York: Vintage Books, 1997); and Paul A. M. V an Lange, Wilma Otten, Ellen M. N. De Bruin, and Jeffrey A. Joireman, "Development of Prosocial, Individualistic, and Competitive Orientations: Theory and Preliminary Evidence," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73 (1997): 驚 くべきことだが:de St. Aubin, 405. PART 4 荒 野 で ダイヤモンド を 見 つける 法 158 レジー ラブ: 個 人 取 材 (May 28, 2012) and Peter Baker, "Education of a President," New York Times, October 12, 2010; David Picker, "Amazing Ride Nears End for 'First Brot her' Reggie Love," ABC News, November 22, 2011; Jodi Kantor, "Leaving Obama's Shadow, to Cast One of His Own," New York Times, November 10, 2011; and Noreen Malone, "Ob ama Still Hasn't Replaced Reggie Love," New York Magazine, February 16, C J スケンダー:C J スケンダーへの 個 人 取 材 (January 16 and April 30, 2012), ベス トレインハムへの 個 人 取 材 (May 4, 2012) マリー アルクーリへの 個 人 取 材 (May 5, 201 2) デビッド モルツへの 個 人 取 材 (May 10, 2012) また Megan Tucker, "By the Book, Sort 6

7 of..." BusinessWeek, September 20, 2006; Kim Nielsen, "The Last Word: C. J. Skender, CP A," Journal of Accountancy, April 2008; Patrick Adams, "The Entertainer," Duke Magazine, March 4, 2004; and Nicki Jhabvala, "Road Trip: UNC," Sports Illustrated, November 8, イスラエル 国 防 軍 :Dov Eden, "Pygmalion without Interpersonal Contrast Effects: Whole Groups Gain from Raising Manager Expectations," Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (199 0): , and " Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Organizations," in Organizational Behavior: State of the Science, ed. J. Greenberg (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2003), 知 力 面 で 才 能 を 開 花 させる:Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, "Teachers' Expectan cies: Determinants of Pupils' IQ Gains," Psychological Reports 19 (1966): ; and Pyg malion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils' Intellectual Development (New York: Crown, 2003). 166 自 己 成 就 予 言 :Lee Jussim and Kent Harber, "Teacher Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: Knowns and Unknowns, Resolved and Unresolved Controversies," Personality a nd Social Psychology Review 9 (2005): 従 業 員 は 才 能 を 開 花 させた:D. Brian McNatt, "Ancient Pygmalion Joins Contemporary Management: A Meta-Analysis of the Result," Journal of Applied Psychology 85 (2000): こうした 人 の 可 能 性 を 信 じようとしない 態 度 は:Jennifer Carson Marr, Stefan Thau, Karl Aquino, and Laurie J. Barclay, "Do I Want to Know? How the Motivation to Acquire Relat ionship-threatening Information in Groups Contributes to Paranoid Thought, Suspicion Beh avior, and Social Rejection," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 117 (2 012): ; and Detlef Fetchenhauer and David Dunning, "Why So Cynical? Asymmetric Feedback Underlies Misguided Skepticism Regarding the Trustworthiness of Others," Psyc hological Science 21 (2010): ; また Fabrizio Ferraro, Jeffrey Pfeffer, and Robert I. Sutton, "Economics Language and Assumptions: How Theories Can Become Self-Fulfilling," Academy of Management Review 30 (2005): 8-24 も 参 照 のこと 171 新 米 会 計 検 査 官 :D. Brian McNatt and Timothy A. Judge, "Boundary Conditions of the Galatea Effect: A Field Experiment and Constructive Replication," Academy of Management Journal 47 (2004): 知 力 投 資 説 :Raymond Cattell, Abilities: Their Structure, Growth, and Action (New Yor k: Houghton Mifflin, 1971), and Intelligence: Its Structure, Growth, and Action (New York: Elsevier, 1987); また Frank Schmidt "A Theory of Sex Differences in Technical Aptitude and Some Supporting Evidence," Perspectives on Psychological Scinece 6 (2011): も 参 照 のこと 174 世 界 一 流 の 音 楽 家 科 学 者 アスリートを 対 象 に:Benjamin Bloom, Developing Talent in Young People (New York: Ballantine Books, 1985), コツコツとした 練 習 が 延 べ 一 万 時 間 :Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2008) 天 才! 成 功 する 人 々の 法 則 (マルコム グ ラッドウェル 講 談 社 2009 年 ) K. Anders Ericsson and Neil Charness, "Expert Performa nce: Its Structure and Acquisition," American Psychologist 49 (1994), 根 性 :Angela L. Duckworth, Christopher Peterson, Michael D. Matthews, and Dennis R. Kelly, "Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92 (2007): やる 気 を 甘 く 見 てはいけない:George Anders, The Rare Find: Spotting Exceptional Tale nt Before Everyone Else (New York: Portfolio, 2011), スチュ インマン:Wayne Thompson, Blazermania: This Is Our Story--The Official Hist ory of the Portland Trail Brazers (San Rafael, CA: Insight Editions, 2010); and "My Memor 7

8 ies of Stu Inman," NBA.com, 2007, accessed May 14, 2012, /My_memories_of_Stu_Inman html; Jack Ramsay, "Stu Inman was an Old-Scho ol Pro," ESPN, 2007, accessed May 14, 2012, 8; Steve Duin, "Stu Inman: The Ultimate Class Act," The Oregonian, January 30, 2007; M andy Major, "Dr. Ogilvie Was an Acclaimed Pioneer in Sports Psychology," Los Gatos Week ly Times, July 23, 2003; Chris Tomasson, "LaRue Martin's Story Proves One of Redemptio n, Success," AOL News, January 25, 2011, accessed May 14, 2012, /01/25/larue-martins-story-proves-one-of-redemption-success/; and "Ultimate Rebound: Dr aft Bust LaRue Martin Lands NBA Gig," AOL News, February 21, 2011, accessed May 14, 2012, Jerry Sullivan, "NBA Scouts Are Learning to Think Small," Los Angeles Times, Marc h 11, 1989; Stats LLC, "Stu Inman, Architect of Trail Blazers' Title Team, Dies at 80," As sociated Press, January 31, 2007; Rob Kremer, "Stu Inman, RIP" Blogspot, January 31, 20 07, accessed May 14, 2012, Dwight Jaynes, "Pioneer Blazer Won with Character," Portland Tribune, February 2, 2007; Tommi e Smith and David Steele, Silent Gesture: The Autobiography of Tommie Smith (Philadelp hia: Temple University Press, 2007), 84; Filip Bondy, Tip-off: How the 1984 NBA Draft Ch anged Basketball Forever (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2007), 114; Frank Coffey, The Pride of Portland: The Story of the Trail Blazers (New York: Everest House, 1980); Chris Ballard, Chuck Wielgus, Clark Kellogg, and Alexander Wolff, Hoops Nation: A Guide to A merica's Best Pickup Basketball (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004); ウェイン ト ンプソンへの 個 人 取 材 (May 14, 2012) 187 チームはドラフトした 選 手 を 解 雇 できなかった:Barry M. Staw and Ha Hoang, "Sunk Co sts in the NBA: Why Draft Order Affects Playing Time and Survival in Professional Baske tball," Administrative Science Quarterly 40 (1995): ; また Colin F.Camerer and Rob erto A. Weber, "The Econometrics and Behavioral Economics of Escalation of Commitment in NBA Draft Choices," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 39 (1999): も 参 照 のこと 188 それがなぜ そしていつ 起 こるか:Dustin J. Sleesman, Donald E. Conlon, Gerry McNam ara, and Jonathan E. Miles, "Cleaning Up the Big Muddy: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Determinants of Escalation of Commitment," Academy of Management Journal 55 (2012): カリフォルニア 銀 行 の 顧 客 が:Barry M. Staw, Sigal G. Barsade, and Kenneth W. Koput, "Escalation at the Credit Window: A Longitudinal Study of Bank Executives' Recognition and Write-off of Problem Loans," Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 飛 行 機 に 一 〇 〇 万 ドル( 約 一 億 円 )を 投 資 すべきか:Henry Moon, "The Two Faces of Cons cientiousness: Duty and Achivement Striving in Escalation of Commitment Dilemmas," Jou rnal of Applied Psychology 86 (2001): 失 敗 の 可 能 性 を 隠 し 続 けることができる:Bruce M. Meglino and M. Audrey Korsgaard, " Considering Rational Self-Interest as a Disposition: Organizational Implications of Other Or iention," Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004): ; and M. Audrey Korsgaard, Bruc e M. Megline, and Scott W. Lester, "Beyond Helping: Do Other-Oriented Values Have Broa der Implications in Organizations?" Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 人 は 自 分 よりも 他 人 のために 選 択 するとき:Laura Kray and Richard Gonzalez, "Differenti al Weighting in Choice Versus Advice: I'll Do This, You Do That," Journal of Behavioral D ecision Making 12 (1999): ; Laura Kray, "Contingent Weighting in Self-Other Decisi on Making," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 83 (2000): ; and Evan Polman and Kyle J. Emich, "Decisions for Others Are More Creative than Decisions 8

9 for the Self," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37 (2011): ボブ グロス:Wayne Thompson, "Bob Gross: Moving Without the Ball," NBA.com, acc essed May 14, 2012, html; Kyle Laggner, "Former Blazers' Forward Bobby Gross Leaves a Lasting Impr ession," Oregonian, December 17, 2008; and Jews in Sports profile, accessed May 14, 2012, それよりも 長 い 時 間 進 んで 働 く:Adam M. Grant, "Does Intrinsic Motivation Fuel the Prosocial Fire? Motivational Synergy in Predicting Persistence, Performance, and Productivi ty," Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (2008): デフ ジャム レコード:ラッセル シモンズへの 個 人 取 材 (June 26, 2012) Russell Simm ons and Chris Morrow, Do You: 12 Laws to Access the Power in You to Achieve Happines s and Success (New York: Penguin, 2008), ラッセル シモンズの 成 功 哲 学 (ラッ セル シモンズ クリス モロー フィルムアート 社 2009 年 ) 201 マイケル ジョーダン:Michael Leahy, When Nothing Else Matters; Michael Jordan's L ast Comeback (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005); Sam Smith, The Jordan Rules (New York: Mass Market, 1993); Jack McCallum, Dream Team: How Michael, Magic, Larry, Cha rles, and the Greatest Team of All Time Conquered the World and Changed the Game of Basketball Forever (New York: Ballantine Books, 2012); ESPN Chicago, "Charles Barkley C ritical of Jordan," March 1, 2012, accessed May 28, 2012, y/_/id/ /charles-barkley-michael-jordan-executive-not-done-good-job; and Rick Reilly, "B e Like Michael Jordan? No Thanks," ESPN, September 19, 2009, accessed May 28, 2012, h ttp://sports.espn.go.com/espn/columns/story?columnist=reilly_rick&id= ( 脚 注 )ディーン スミス: Bondy, Tip-off,3. 202( 脚 注 ) 才 能 のある 人 間 は 自 分 のことを 気 にかけてくれる 人 に 引 きつけられる:クリス グレ ンジャーへの 個 人 取 材 (June 26,2012). PART 5 パワーレス の 時 代 がはじまった 205 扉 の 引 用 :Theodore Roosevelt, "Letter to Henry R. Sprague," American Treasures of th e Library of Congress, January 26, デイブ ウォルトン:Hayes Hunt, "The King's Speech: A Trial Lawyer's Stutter," From the Sidebar, March 3, 2011 デイブ ウォルトンへの 個 人 取 材 (September 6 and December 15, 2011, and March 9, 2012) 212 成 功 とはいかに 人 に 影 響 を 与 えられるか:Daniel Pink, To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth About Moving Others (New York: Riverhead, 2012) 人 を 動 かす 新 たな3 原 則 (ダニエル ピンク 講 談 社 2013 年 ) 212 優 位 と 信 望 :Nir Halevy, Eileen Y. Chou, Taya R. Cohen, and Robert W. Livingston, "S tatus Conferral in Intergroup Social Dilemmas: Behavioral Antecedents and Consequences o f Prestige and Dominance," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (2012): 強 気 なコミュニケーション 法 がよしとされ:Susan Cain, Quiet: The Power of Introverts i n a World That Can't Stop Talking (New York: Crown, 2012) 内 向 型 人 間 の 時 代 (スーザ ン ケイン 講 談 社 2013 年 ) 217 ずっと 楽 に 自 分 の 弱 さを 表 に 出 す:M. Audrey Korsgaard, Bruce M. Meglino, and W. Scot t Lester, "Beyond Helping: Do Other-Oriented Values Have Broader Implications in Organi zations?" Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): ; and Michael C. Ashton and Ki beom Lee, "Empirical, Theoretical, and Practical Advantages of the HEXACO Model of Pers onality Structure," Personality and Social Psychology Review 11 (2007): を 参 照 のこ 9

10 と 218 プラットフォール 効 果 :Elliot Aronson, Ben Willerman, and Joanne Floyd, "The Effect o f a Pratfall on Increasing Interpersonal Attractiveness," Psychonomic Science 4 (1966): ; and Robert Helmreich, Elliot Aronson, and James LeFan, "To Err Is Humanizing--So metimes: Effects of Self-Esteem, Competence, and a Pratfall on Interpersonal Attraction," J ournal of Personality and Social Psychology 16 (1970): まぬか 219 かろうじて 最 下 位 を 免 れた:Robert H. Frank, "What Price the Moral High Ground?" S outhern Economic Journal 63 (1996): ビル グランブルズ: 個 人 取 材 (October 4, 2011) 221 話 す 喜 び: James Pennebaker, Opening Up: The Healing Power of Expressing Emotions (New York: Guilford Press, 1997), 3 オープニングアップ (J W ペネベーカー 北 大 路 書 房 2000 年 ) 224 売 上 トップの 眼 鏡 士 :キルデア エスコートへの 個 人 取 材 (August 23 and 28, 2011) and N ancy Phelps (August 23, 2011) 225 何 百 人 もの 眼 鏡 士 :Adam M. Grant and Dane Barnes, "Predicting Sales Revenue" (work ing paper, 2011). 226 交 渉 上 手 は:Neil Rackham, "The Behavior of Successful Negotiators," in Negotiation: R eadings, Exercises, and Cases, ed. R. Lewicki, B. Barry, and D. M. Saunders (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007) 交 渉 力 (ロイ J レビスキー ブルース バリー デイビッド M サンダース 日 本 経 済 新 聞 出 版 社 2011 年 ) 228 保 険 の 営 業 マン:Philip M. Podsakoff, Scott B. MacKenzie, Julie B. Paine, and Daniel G. Bachrach, "Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical a nd Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research," Journal of Management 26 (2000): 医 薬 品 の 営 業 マン:Carl J. Thoresen, Jill C. Bradley, Paul D. Bliese, and Jo seph D. T horesen, "The Big Five Personality Traits and Individual Job Performance Growth Trajecto ries in Maintenance and Transitional Job Stages," Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004): ( 脚 注 ) 女 性 向 けの 製 品 の 販 売 員 :Fernando Jaramillo and Douglas B. Grisaffe, "Does Cu stomer Orientation Impact Objective Sales Performance? Insights from a Longitudinal Mode l in Direct Selling," Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management XXIX (2009): 投 票 に 行 く 予 定 ですか:Anthony G. Greenwald, Catherine G. Carnot, Rebecca Beach, an d Barbara Young, "Increasing Voting Behavior by Asking People if They Expect to Vote," J ournal of Applied Psychology 72 (1987): いいようにされるのではないかと 心 配 になる:Marian Friestad and Peter Wright, "The Pe rsuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts," Journal of Consu mer Research 21 (1994): 1-31; Jack Brehm, A Theory of Phychological Reactance (New Yor k: Academic Press, 1966); and John Biondo and A. P. MacDonald Jr., "Internal-External Lo cus of Control and Response to Influence Attempts," Journal of Personality 39 (1971): 自 分 自 身 である:Elliot Aronson, "The Power of Self-Persuasion," American Psycholo gist 54 (1999): ( 脚 注 ) 意 図 について 尋 ねること:Patti Williams, Gavan Fitzsimons, and Lauren Block, " When Consumers Do Not Recognize 'Benign' Intention Questions and Persuasion Attempts, " Journal of Consumer Research 31 (2004): ドン レーン: 個 人 取 材 (December 16, 2011, and March 30, 2012) 234( 脚 注 ) 否 認 :Amani El-Alayli, Christoffer J. Myers, Tamara L. Petersen, and Amy L. Lystad, "I Don't Mean to Sound Arrogant, But... The Effects of Using Disclaimers on Perso 10

11 n Perception," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (2008): 控 えめに 話 すことで:Alison R. Fragale, "The Power of Powerless Speech: The Effects of Speech Style and Task Interdependence on Status Conferral," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 101 (2006): ; また Uma R. Karmarkar and Zakary L. Tormala, "Believe Me, I Have No Idea What I'm Talking About: The Effects of Source Cert ainty on Consumer Involvement and Persuasion," Journal of Consumer Research 36 (2010): も 参 照 のこと 238 バートン ヒル: 個 人 取 材 (March 19, 2012) 239 カリフォルニア 州 の 心 理 学 者 が:Cameron Anderson and Gavin J. Kilduff, "Why Do Domi nant Personalities Attain Influence in Face-to-Face Groups? The Competence-Signaling Effe cts of Trait Dominance," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (2009): オランダの 心 理 学 者 によれば:Barbora Nevicka, Femke S. Ten Velden, Annebel H. B. de Hoogh, and Annelies E. M. Van Vianen, "Reality at Odds with Perception: Narcissistic Le aders and Group Performance," Psychological Science 22 (2011): 博 士 研 究 員 のアニー:アニーへの 個 人 取 材 (June 13, 2012) 242 自 分 に 権 威 がない 場 合 に 人 に 影 響 をおよぼすための:Katie A. Liljenquist, "Resolving the I mpression Management Dilemma: The Strategic Benefits of Soliciting Others for Advice" (P hd diss., Northwestern University, 2010); and Katie A. Liljenquist and Adam Galinsky, "T urn Your Adversary into Your Advocate," Negotiation (2007): 同 僚 上 司 部 下 に 影 響 をおよぼすための:Gary Yukl and J. Bruce Tracey, "Consequence s of Influence Tactics Used with Subordinates, Peers, and the Boss," Journal of Applied Ps ychology 77 (1992): ; and Gary Yukl, Helen Kim, and Cecilia M. Falbe, "Antecedent s of Influence Outcomes," Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (1996): 取 締 役 会 の 議 席 :Ithai Stern and James D. Westphal, "Stealthy Footsteps to the Board-r oom: Executives' Backgrounds, Sophisticated Interpersonal Influence Bahavior, and Board A ppointments," Administrative Science Quarterly 55 (2010): 知 識 のある 同 僚 にしょっちゅうアドバイスや 助 けを 求 めている:Arie Nadler, Shmuel Ellis, and Iris Bar, "To Seek or Not to Seek: The Relationship between Help Seeking and Job Pe rformance Evaluations as Moderated by Task-Relevant Expertise," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 33 (2003): 一 度 親 切 にしてくれた 人 は:Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Frankli n (New York: Dover, 1868/1996), 80 フランクリン 自 伝 (フランクリン 改 版 岩 波 書 店 年 ) 247 友 人 を 得 るための 基 本 ルールがあった:Walter Isaacson, "Poor Richard's Flattery," New Y ork Times, July 14, PART 6 与 える 人 が 気 をつけなければならないこと 249 扉 の 引 用 :Herbert Simon, "Altruism and Economics," American Economic Review 83 (1 993): 大 きな 成 功 を 収 めるギバーの 原 動 力 :Jeremy A. Frimer, Lawrence J. Walker, William L. Dunlop, Brenda H. Lee, and Amanda Riches, "The Integration of Agency and Communion i n Moral Personality: Evidence of Enlightened Self-Interest," Journal of Personality and Soci al Psychology 101 (2011): 病 的 な 行 為 :Barbara Oakley, Ariel Knafo, and Michael McGrath, eds., Pathological Altr uism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). 254 勉 強 できなかったりした:Vicki S. Helgeson and Heidi L. Fritz, "The Implications of Un 11

12 mitigated Agency and Unmitigated Communion for Domains of Problem Behavior," Journal of Personality 68 (2000): この 二 つが 完 全 に 別 個 の 動 機 :Adam M. Grant and David M. Mayer, "Good Soldiers and Good Actors: Prosocial and Impression Management Motives as Interactive Predictors of A ffiliative Citizenship Behaviors," Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009): ; Adam M. Grant and James Berry, "The Necessity of Others Is the Mother of Invention: Intrinsic an d Prosocial Motivations, Perspective-Taking, and Creativity," Academy of Management Jour nal 54 (2011): 73-96; and Carsten K. W. De Dreu and Aukje Nauta, "Self-Interest and Oth er-orientation in Organizational Behavior: Implications for Job Performance, Prosocial Beha vior, and Personal Initiative," Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009): 人 間 には 二 つの 大 きな 力 : 世 界 経 済 フォーラム 年 次 総 会 (ダボス 会 議 )でのビル ゲイツのス ピーチ (January 24, 2008) 255 オーバーブルック 高 校 :Steve Volk, "Top 10 Drug Corners," Philadelphia Weekly, May 2, 2007, and Ledyard King, "Program to Identify Most Dangerous Schools Misses Mark," US A Today, January 18, コンリー キャラハン: 個 人 取 材 (January 26, 2012) 258 職 務 バーンアウト 研 究 :Christina Maslach, Wilmar Schaufeli, and Michael Leiter, "Job Burnout," Annual Review of Psychology 52 (2001): コールセンター:Adam M. Grant, Elizabeth M. Campbell, Grace Chen, Keenan Cottone, David Lapedis, and Karen Lee, "Impact and the Art of Motivation Maintenance: The Effec ts of Contact with Beneficiaries on Persistence Behavior," Organizaitonal Behavior and Hu man Decision Processes 103 (2007): 53-67; Adam M. Grant, "The Significance of Task Signi ficance: Job Performance Effects, Relational Mechanisms, and Boundary Conditions," Journ al of Applied Psychology 93 (2008): ; Adam M. Grant, "Employees Without a Cause: The Motivational Effects of Prosocial Impact in Public Service," International Public Mana gement Journal 11 (2008): 48-66; and Adam M. Grant and Francesca Gino, "A Little Than ks Goes a Long Way: Explaining Why Gratitude Expressions Motivate Prosocial Behavior," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (2010): ギバーが 燃 え 尽 きるのは 与 えすぎたことよりも:Olga Klimecki and Tamia Singer, "Emp athic Distress Fatigue Rather Than Compassion Fatigue? Integrating Findings from Empat hy Research in Psychology and Social Neuroscience," in Pathological Altruism, ed. Barbara Oakley et al. (New York: Oxford Unversity Press, 2011), ; and Richard Shultz et al., "Patient Suffering and Caregiver Compassion: New Opportunities for Research, Practice, a nd Policy," Gerontologist 47 (2007): アニトラ カーステン:Ellen J. Langer, Mindfulness (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 19 89), 136 心 はマインド (エレン ランガー フォー ユー 1989 年 ) を 参 照 のこと 267 自 分 の 幸 せをかえりみず 与 え 続 ければ:Vicki S. Helgeson, "Relation of Agency and Comm union to Well-Being: Evidence and Potential Explanations," Psychological Bulletin 116 (199 4): ; Heidi L. Fritz and Vicki S. Helgeson, "Distinctions of Unmitigated Communion from Communion: Self-Neglect and Overinvolvement with Others," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75 (1998): ; and Vicki S. Helgeson and Heidi L. Fritz, "Unmi tigated Agency and Unmitigated Communion: Distinctions from Agency and Communion," J ournal of Research in Personality 33 (1999): ( 脚 注 )バランスを 保 てなかった 人 :Madoka Kumashiro, Caryl E. Rusbult, and Eli J. Fin kel, "Navigating Personal and Relational Concerns: The Quest for Equilibrium," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95 (2008): ( 脚 注 )ヘトヘトに 疲 れ 果 ててしまう:Mark C. Bolino and William H. Turnley, "The Per sonal Costs of Citizenship Behavior: The Relationship between Individual Initiative and Rol 12

13 e Overload, Job Stress, and Work-Family Conflict," Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (200 5): ( 脚 注 )その 人 が 書 くものにまで 表 れる:James Pennebaker, The Secret Life of Pronouns: What Our Words Say About Us (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2011), バラバラに 与 えること:Sonja Lyubomirsky, Kennon Sheldon, and David Schkade, "Purs uing Happiness: The Architecture of Sustainable Change," Review of General Psychology 9 (2005): ソフトウエアエンジニア:Leslie A. Perlow, "The Time Famine: Toward a Sociology of W ork Time," Administrative Science Quarterly 44 (1999): ショーン ハガーティ: 個 人 取 材 (April 26, 2012) 272 六 十 代 半 ばのオーストラリア 人 男 性 :Timothy D. Windsor, Kaarin J. Anstey, and Bryan Rodgers, "Volunteering and Psychological Well-Being among Young-Old Adults: How Much Is Too Much?" Gerontologist 48 (2008): 学 べることが 減 っていった:Jonathan E. Booth, Kyoung Won Park, and Theresa M. Glo mb, "Employer-Supported Volunteering Benefits: Gift Exchange Among Employers, Employe es, and Volunteer Organizations," Human Resource Management 48 (2009): 与 えることによって 気 力 が 回 復 するのは:Netta Weinstein and Richard M. Ryan, "When Helping Helps: Autonomous Motivation for Prosocial Behavior and Its Influence on Well-Be ing for the Helper and Recipient," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (2010): ( 脚 注 ) 与 えたことで 元 気 になっても 必 ずしも 本 人 がすぐにそれを 感 じるわけではない: Sa bine Sonnentag and Adam M. Grant, "Doing Good at Work Feels Good at Home, But Not Right Away: When and Why Perceived Prosocial Impact Predicts Positive Affect," Personnel Psychology 65 (2012): 消 防 士 と 寄 付 金 集 めのオペレーター:Adam M. Grant, "Does Intrinsic Motivation Fuel th e Prosocial Fire? Motivational Synergy in Predicting Persistence, Performance, and Producti vity," Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008): 燃 え 尽 き 防 止 の 強 力 な 特 効 薬 :Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben, "Sources of Social Suppor t and Burnout: A Meta-Analytic Test of the Conservation of Resources Model," Journal of Applied Psychology 91 (2006): 消 防 士 は 燃 え 尽 きはじめると:Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben and Wm. Matthew Bowler, " Emotional Exhaustion and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Motivation," Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (2007): テンド アンド ビフレンド( 世 話 し 味 方 する) 反 応 :Shelley E. Taylor, "Tend and Befr iend: Biobehavioral Bases of Affiliation Under Stress," Current Directions in Psychological Science 15 (2006): ; また Bernadette von Dawans, Urs Fischbacher, Clemens Kirsc hbaum, Ernst Fehr, and Markus Henrichs, "The Social Dimension of Stress Reactivity: Acu te Stress Increases Prosocial Behavior in Humans," Psychological Science 23 (2012): も 参 照 のこと 280 医 療 従 事 者 :Dirk van Dierendonck, Wilmar B. Schaufeli, and Bram P. Buunk, "Burnou t and Inequity Among Human Service Professionals: A Longitudinal Study," Journal of Occ upational Health Psychology 6 (2001): 43-52; and Nico W. Van Yperen, Bram P. Buunk, an d Wilmar B. Schaufeli, "Communal Orientation and the Burnout Syndrome Among Nurses, " Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22 (1992): 気 力 がなくなるようなつらい 作 業 :Elizabeth Seeley and Wendi Gardner, "The 'Selfl ess' and Self-Regulation: The Role of Chronic Other-Orientation in Averting Self-Regulatory Dep letion," Self and Identity 2 (2003):

14 282 ユタ 州 :Jon Huntsman, Winners Never Cheat (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008) 賢 いバカ 正 直 になりなさい (ジョン M ハンツマン 英 治 出 版 2006 年 ) S teve Eaton, "Huntsmans Urge Strong Work Ethic," KSL, May 8, 収 入 と 寄 付 金 との 関 係 :Arthur C. Brooks, Who Really Cares (New York: Basic Books, 2 006), "Does Giving Make Us Prosperous?" Journal of Economics and Finance 31 (2007): ; and Gross National Happiness (New York: Basic Books, 2008). 286( 脚 注 ) 人 は 裕 福 になるにつれ:Paul K. Piff, Michael W. Kraus, Stéphane Côté, Bonnie Hayden Cheng, and Dacher Keltner, "Having Less, Giving More: The Influence of Social Cl ass on Prosocial Behavior," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99 (2010): 二 〇 ドルを 自 分 のために 使 った 人 と ほかの 人 のために 使 った 人 の:Elizabeth W. Dunn, La ra B. Aknin, and Michael I. Norton, "Spending Money on Others Promotes Happiness," Sci ence 319 (2008): 倫 理 的 満 足 感 :James Andreoni, William T. Harbaugh, and Lise Vesterlund, "Altruism i n Experiments," in New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd ed., ed. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008). 287 最 近 の 神 経 科 学 の 証 拠 :William T. Harbaugh, Ulrich Mayr, and Daniel R. Burghart, "N eural Responses to Taxation and Voluntary Giving Reveal Motives for Charitable Donations, " Science 316 (2007): ; and Jorge Moll, Frank Krueger, Roland Zahn, Matteo Par dini, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, and Jordan Grafman, "Human Fronto-Mesolimbic Networks Guide Decisions about Charitable Donations," PNAS 103 (2006): 二 十 四 歳 以 上 のアメリカ 人 :Peggy A. Thoits and Lyndi N. Hewitt, "Volunteer Work and Well-being," Journal of Health and Social Behavior 42 (2001): うつ 病 が 減 少 した:Yunqing Li and Kenneth F. Ferraro, "Volunteering and Depression i n Later Life: Social Benefit or Selection Processes?" Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46 (2005): 実 際 長 生 きすることが 確 認 されている:Marc A. Musick, A. Regula Herzog, and Ja mes S. House, "Volunteering and Mortality Among Older Adults: Findings from a National Sample," Journal of Gerontology : Social Sciences 54B (1999): S173-S180; and Stephanie L. Brown, Randolph M. Nesse, Amiram D. Vinokur, and Dylan M. Smith," Providing Social Support May Be More Beneficial Than Receiving It: Results from a Prospective Study of M ortality," Psychological Science 14 (2003): 赤 ん 坊 にメッセージ:Tiff any M. Field, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Olga Quintino, Saul Sch anberg, and Cynthia Kuhn, "Elder Retired Volunteers Benefit from Giving Massage Therap y to Infants," Journal of Applied Gerontology 17 (1998): 幸 福 感 が 人 をより 長 時 間 がんばらせ:Sigal G. Barsade and Donald E. Gibson, "Why Do es Affect Matter in Organizations?" Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (2007): 36-59; Sonja Lyubomirsky, Laura King, and Ed Diener, "The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success?" Phychological Bulletin 131 (6): ; and Timothy A. Judge, Carl J. Thoresen, Joyce E. Bono, and Gregory K. Patton, "The Job Satisfaction--Job Performance Relationship: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review," Psychological Bulletin 127 (2001): を 参 照 のこと PART 7 気 づかいが 報 われる 人 人 に 利 用 されるだけの 人 290 冒 頭 のエピソード:ジェーソン ゲラーへの 個 人 取 材 (December 14, 2011) リリアン バウ アーへの 個 人 取 材 (January 15, 2012) ピーター オデットへの 個 人 取 材 (December 12, 2011, and January 19, 2012) 291 大 手 コンサルティング 企 業 に 勤 める 三 千 六 百 人 の:Diane M. Bergeron, Abbie J. Shipp, Ben 14

15 son Rosen, and Stacie A. Furst, "Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Career Outcome s: The Cost of Being a Good Citizen," Journal of Management (forthcoming) 296 犯 罪 の 被 害 者 になりやすいかどうか:Robert Homant, "Risky Altruism as a Predictor of C riminal Victimization," Criminal Justice and Behavior 37 (2010): 瞬 時 の 判 断 :Malcolm Gladwell, Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (N ew York: Back Bay Books, 2007) 第 1 感 (マルコム グラッドウェル 光 文 社 2006 年 ) Nalini Ambady and Robert Rosenthal, "Half a Minute: Predicting Teacher Evaluations fro m Thin Slices of Nonverbal Behavior and Physical Attractiveness," Journal of Personality a nd Social Psychology 64 (1993): 愛 想 のよさ :Lauri A. Jensen-Campbell, Jennifer M. Knack, and Haylie L. Gomez, " The Psychology of Nice People," Social and Personality Psychology Compass 4 (2010): ( 脚 注 ) 脳 をスキャンした:Colin G. DeYoung, Jacob B. Hirsh, Matthew S. Shane, Xenop hon Papademetris, Nallakkandi Rajeevan, and Jeremy R. Gray, "Testing Predictions from P ersonality Neuroscience: Brain Structure and the Big Five," Psychological Science 21 (2010): その 人 の 性 格 とは 無 関 係 : 思 いやり と 礼 儀 正 しさ の 区 別 については Colin G. DeYou ng, Lena C. Quilty, and Jordan B. Peterson, "Between Facets and Domains: 10 Aspects of the Big Five," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93 (2007): 思 いや り は 愛 想 のよさ より 誠 実 さ や 謙 虚 さ に 強 く 結 びついているということについては Michael C. Ashton and Kibeom Lee, "Empirical, Theoretical, and Practical Advantages of t he HEXACO Model of Personality Structure," Personality and Social Psychology Review 11 (2007): 愛 想 のよさ と ギバーの 価 値 観 の 違 いについては Sonia Roccas, Lilach Sagiv, Shalom H. Schwartz, and Ariel Knafo, "The Big Five Personality Factors and Perso nal Values," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2002): を 参 照 のこと 298 マイク ホーマー:ダニー シェーダーへの 個 人 取 材 (February 13, 2012) グレッグ サン ズへの 個 人 取 材 (March 5, 2012) 匿 名 の 教 え 子 への 個 人 取 材 (February 28, 2012). 299 他 人 を 正 確 に 判 断 できる:Dawne S. Vogt and C. Randall Colvin, "Interpersonal Orientat ion and the Accuracy of Personality Judgments," Journal of Personality 71 (2003): ギバーもだんだんと 個 人 差 や:Harold H. Kelley and Anthony J. Stahelski, "The Infere nce of Intentions from Moves in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game," Journal of Experimental S ocial Psychology 6 (1970): ; また Nancy L. Carter and J. Mark Weber, "Not Pollya nnas: Higher Generalized Trust Predicts Lie Detection Ability," Social Psychological and Pe rsonality Science 1 (2010): も 参 照 のこと 303 ペアの 半 分 は 赤 の 他 人 で 残 りの 半 分 は 交 際 中 のカップル:William R. Fry, Ira J. Fireston e, and David L. Williams, "Negotiation Process and Outcome of Stranger Dyads and Datin g Couples: Do Lovers Lose?" Basic and Applied Social Psychology 4 (1983): リッチの 考 えていることを 推 察 する:E. Gil Clary, Mark Snyder, Robert D. Ridge, Peter K. Miene, and Julie A. Haugen, "Matching Messages to Motives in Persuasion: A Functio nal Approach to Promoting Volunteerism," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 24 (1994): を 参 照 のこと 306 求 職 者 を 思 いやったせいで:Adam D. Galinsky, William W. Maddux, Debra Gilin, and Judith B. White, "Why It Pays to Get Inside the Head of Your Opponent: The Differential Effects of Perspective Taking and Empathy on Negotiation," Psychological Science 19 (200 8): 協 力 的 なパートナーと 働 くときは 協 力 的 :Paul A. M. Van Lange, "The Pursuit of Joint O utcomes and Equality in Outcomes: An Integrative Model of Social Value Orientation," Jou 15

16 rnal of Personality and Social Psychology 77 (1999): ; また Jennifer Chatman and Sigal Barsade, "Personality, Organizational Culture, and Cooperation: Evidence from a Busi ness Simulation," Administrative Science Quarterly 40 (1995): も 参 照 のこと 308 しっぺ 返 し :Martin A. Nowak and Roger Highfield, SuperCooperators: Altruism, Ev olution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed (New York: Free Press, 2011), バブコックの 大 学 の 男 性 MBA 卒 業 生 :Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever, Women Don't Ask: The High Cost of Avoiding Negotiation-and Positive Strategies for Change (New Yo rk: Bantam, 2007) そのひとことが 言 えたら (リンダ バブコック サラ ラシェーヴァー 北 大 路 書 房 2005 年 ) Deborah A. Small, Michele Gelfand, Linda Babcock, and Hilary Get tman, "Who Goes to the Bergaining Table? The Influence of Gender and Framing on the I nitiation of Negotiation," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93 (2007): かなりの 譲 歩 もいとわない:Emily T. Amanatullah, Michael W. Morris, and Jared R. Cu rhan, "Negotiators Who Give Too Much: Unmitigated Communion, Relational Anxieties, an d Economic Costs in Distributive and Integrative Bargaining," Journal of Personality and S ocial Psychology 95 (2008): 収 入 の 不 利 益 :Timothy A. Judge, Beth A. Livingston, and Charlice Hurst, "Do Nice Guys-and Gals-Really Finish Last? The Joint Effects of Sex and Agreeableness on Inco me," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (2012): ( 脚 注 ) 女 性 は 男 性 よりギバーになりやすいのだろうか:Alice H. Eagly and Maureen Crow ley, "Gender and Helping Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Social Psychological Li terature," Psychological Bulletin 100 (1986): より 管 理 の 行 き 届 いた 状 況 下 :Bruce Barry and Raymond A. Friedman, "Bargainer Char acteristics in Distributive and Integrative Negotiation," Journal of Personality and Social Ps ychology 74 (1998): ( 脚 注 ) 第 二 の 要 因 :Lilach Sagiv, "Vocational Interests and Basic Balues," Journal of C areer Assessment 10 (2002): ; Idit Ben-Shem and Tamara E. Avi-Itzhak, On Work Values and Career Choice in Freshmen Students: The Case of Helping vs. Other Professio ns," Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (1991): ; Jeylan T. Mortimer and Jon Lorenc e,"work Experience and Occupational Value Socialization: A Longitudinal Study," American Journal of Sociology 84 (1979): ; and Robert H. Frank, "What Price the Moral H igh Ground?" Southern Economic Journal 63 (1996): 1-17 を 参 照 のこと 314 サミア ジャイン: 個 人 取 材 (December 16, 2011) 316 上 級 経 営 幹 部 百 七 十 六 人 :Hannah Riley Bowles, Linda Babcock, and Kathleen L. McGin n, "Constraints and Triggers: Situational Mechanics of Gender in Negotiation," Journal of P ersonality and Social Psychology 89 (2005): 本 人 に 代 わって 交 渉 する 責 任 を 引 き 受 けた 友 人 :Emily T. Amanatullah and Michael W. M orris, "Negotiating Gender Roles: Gender Differences in Assertive Negotiating Are Mediated by Women's Fear of Backlash and Attenuated When Negotiating on Behalf of Others," Jo urnal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (2010): 関 係 説 明 :Hannah Riley Bowles and Linda Babcock, "Relational Accounts: A Strate gy for Women Negotiating for Higher Compensation" (working paper, 2011). 325 二 八 の 研 究 :Carsten K. W. De Dreu, Laurie R. Weingart, and Seungwoo Kwon, "Influe nce of Social Motives on Integrative Negotiation: A Meta-Analytic Review and Test of Two Theories," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (2000): 第 二 の 天 性 :Brian R. Little, "Free Traits, Personal Projects and Idio Tapes: Three Tier s for Personality Research," Psychological Inquiry 7 (1996): ; and Free Traits and 16

17 Personal Contexts: Expanding a Social Ecological Model of Well-Being," in Person-Environm ent Psychology, 2nd ed., ed. W. Bruce Walsh, Kenneth H. Craik, and Richard H. Price (Ne w York: Guilford Press, 2000): PART 8 人 を 動 かし 夢 をかなえる ギブの 輪 329 扉 の 引 用 :Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (Kila, MT: Kessinger Publishi ng, 1759/2004), クレイグズリスト :Jenna Lloyd and Sherry K. Gunter, craigslist 4 Everyone (New Y ork: Pearson Education, 2008). 331 フリーサイクル :デロン ビールへの 個 人 取 材 (June 19, 2012) Richard Jerome, "Free for All," People, May 10, 2004; Deron Beal and S. James Snyder, "Power of One," Time, November 30, 2009; and Carol Brennan, "Deron Beal," Encyclopedia of World Biography, 人 びとが 交 換 システムに 参 加 する 動 機 :Robb Willer, Francis J. Flynn, and Sonya Zak, "S tructure, Identity, and Solidarity: A Comparative Field Study of Generalized and Direct Ex change," Administrative Science Quarterly 57 (2012): 純 粋 に 利 他 的 :C. Daniel Batson, "How Social an Animal? The Human Capacity for Car ing," American Psychologist 45 (1990): ; and C. Daniel Batson, Karen Sager, Eric G arst, Misook Kang, Kostia Rubchinsky, and Karen Dawson, "Is Empathy-Induced Helping Due to Self-Other Merging?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73 (1997): 人 は 根 本 的 に 利 己 的 :Robert B. Cialdini, Stephanie L. Brown, Brian P. Lewis, Carol Lu ce, and Steven L. Neuberg, "Reinterpreting the Empathy-Altruism Relationship: When One into One Equals Oneness," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73 (1997): ; and Jon K. Maner, Carol L. Luce, Steven L. Neuberg, Robert B. Cialdini, Stephanie L. Brown, and Brad J. Sagarin, "The Effects of Perspective Taking on Motivations for Helpin g: Still No Evidence for Altruism," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2002): 根 本 の 問 題 から 注 意 をそらす:Frans de Waal, The Age of Empathy (New York: Crown, 2009), 75 共 感 の 時 代 へ (フランス ドゥ ヴァール 紀 伊 國 屋 書 店 2010 年 ) 342 ウィキペディアに 執 筆 する:Oded Nov, "What Motivates Wikipedians?" Communications of the ACM 50 (2007): 60-64; see also Joachim Schroer and Guido Hertel, "Voluntary Enga gement in an Open Web-Based Encyclopedia: Wikipedians and Why They Do It," Media Ps ychology 12 (2009): あるコンサルタント:フィリップへの 個 人 取 材 (January 24, 2012). 346 互 いに 共 通 点 がありますから:Mark Levine, Amy Prosser, David Evans, and Stephen Re icher, "Identity and Emergency Intervention: How Social Group Membership and Inclusiven ess of Group Boundaries Shape Helping Behavior," Personality and Social Psychology Bulle tin 64 (2005): 共 通 のアイデンティティ:John F. Dovidio, Samuel L. Gaertner, Ana Validzic, Kimberly Matoka, Brenda Johnson, and Stacy Frazier, "Extending the Benefits of Recategorization: E valuations, Self-Disclosure, and Helping," Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 33 (19 97): もう 一 人 のアダム リフキンという 名 の 男 : パンダ アダム リフキンへの 個 人 取 材 (Janu ary 28, 2012) ハリウッド アダム リフキンへの 個 人 取 材 (February 2, 2012) 二 人 の 出 会 いについての 詳 細 は および 17

18 com/attic/local/denial.html を 参 照 のこと 353 自 分 自 身 を 連 想 させる:Brett W. Pelham, Matthew C. Mirenberg, and John T. Jones, " Why Susie Sells Seashells by the Seashore: Implicit Egotism and Major Life Decisions," Jo urnal of Personality and Social Psychology 82 (2002): ; John T. Jones, Brett W. Pel ham, Matthew C. Mirenberg, and John J. Hetts, "Name Letter Preferences Are Not Merely Mere Exposure: Implicit Egotism as Self-Regulation," Journal of Experimental Social Psyc hology 38 (2002): ; Brett W. Pelham, Mauricio Carvallo, and John T. Jones, "Implic it Egotism," Current Directions in Psychological Science 14 (2006): ; and Ernest L. Abel, "Influence of Names on Career Choices in Medicine," Names 58 (2010): 相 手 に 恋 心 を 抱 きがち:John T. Jones, Brett W. Pelham, Mauricio Carvallo, and Matthe w C. Mirenberg, "How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Js: Implicit Egotism and Interp ersonal Attraction," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87 (2004): キヴァ :Jeff Galak, Deborah Small, and Andrew T. Stephen, "Microfinance Decision Making: A Field Study of Prosocial Lending," Journal of Marketing Research XLVIII (201 1): S130-S ( 脚 注 ) 多 くの 解 釈 :Uri Simonsohn, "Spurious? Name Similarity Effects (Implicit Egotis m) in Marriage, Job, and Moving Decisions," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101 (2011): 1-24; Leif D. Nelson and Joseph P. Simmons, "Moniker Maladies: When Names Sabotage Success," Psychological Science 18 (2007): ; Ernest L. Abel and Michael L. Kruger, "Symbolic Significance of Initials on Longevity," Perceptual and Motor Skills 10 4 (2007): ; and "Athletes, Doctors, and Lawyers with First Names Beginning with ` D` Die Sooner," Death Studies 34 (2010): 71-81; and Nicholas Christenfeld, David P. Phillip s, and Laura M. Glynn, "What's in a Name: Mortality and the Power of Symbols," Journal of Psychosomatic Research 47 (1999): 特 異 な 共 通 性 :Marilynn B. Brewer, "The Importance of Being We: Human Nature and Intergroup Relations," American Psychologist 62 (2007): ; and Kennon M. Sheldon and B. Ann Bettencourt, "Psychological Need-Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being within Social Groups," British Journal of Social Psychology 41 (2002): エネルギー 消 費 :Jessica M. Nolan, P. Wesley Schultz, Robert B. Cialdini, Noah J. Gold stein, and Vladas Griskevicius, "Normative Social Influence Is Underdetected," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (2008): ; P. Wesley Shultz, Jessica M. Nolan, Rob ert B. Cialdini, Noah J. Goldstein, and Vladas Griskevicius, "The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms," Psychological Science 18 (2007): ; and Hunt Alcott, "Social Norms and Energy Conservation," MIT Center for Energy and Environ mental Policy Research (working paper, 2009). 361 常 に 助 け 合 い:Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (London: Murray. 1871) 人 間 の 進 化 と 性 淘 汰 Ⅰ (チャールズ R ダーウィン 文 一 総 合 出 版 1999 年 ) 363 ギバーを 過 小 評 価 している:Francis J. Flynn and Vanessa K. B. Lake (now Bohns), "If You Need Help, Just Ask: Underestimating Compliance with Direct Requests for Help," Jo urnal of Personality and Social Psychology 95 (2008): 助 け 合 いの 輪 :Wayne Baker and Adam M. Grant, "Values and Contributions in the Reciprocity Ring" (working paper, 2007). 366 自 分 の 評 判 が 上 がる:Dan Ariely, Anat Bracha, and Stephan Meier, "Doing Good or Doi ng Well? Image Motivation and Monetary Incentives in Behaving Prosocially," American Ec onomic Review 99 (2009): ほかの 人 に 結 果 を 見 られる 会 議 :Harry M. Wallace and Roy F. Baumeister, "The Perfor 18

19 mance of Narcissists Rises and Falls with Perceived Opportunity for Glory," Journal of Per sonality and Social Psychology 82 (2002): 人 目 があるところではあえてエコロジー 製 品 を:Vladas Griskevicius, Joshua M. Tybur, an d Bram Van den Bergh, "Going Green to Be Seen: Status, Reputation, and Conspicuous Co nservation," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (2010): 銀 行 の 窓 口 係 :Chun Hui, Simon S. K. Lam, and Kenneth K. S. Law, "Instrumental Va lues of Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Promotion: A Field Quasi-Experiment," Jour nal of Applied Psychology 85 (2000): 悪 い 先 例 をつくる:Harry Lewis, "The Freshman Pledge," Blogspot, August 20, 2011, ht tp://harry-lewis.blogspot.com/2011/08/freshman-pledge.html. 369 アイデンティティに 関 する 計 画 を 他 人 に 知 らせたこと:Peter M. Gollwitzer, Paschal Sheer an, Verena Michalski, and Andrea E. Seifert, "When Intentions Go Public: Does Social Real ity Widen the Intention-Behavior Gap?" Psychological Science 20 (2009): 逆 効 果 である:Sonya Sachdeva, Rumen Iliev, and Douglas L. Medin, "Sinning Saints a nd Saintly Sinners: The Paradox of Moral Self-Regulation," Psychological Science 20 (2009): 外 的 な 理 由 のせいにできる 場 合 :C. Daniel Batson, Jay S. Coke, M. L. Jasnoski, and Mic hael Hanson, "Buying Kindness: Effect of an Extrinsic Incentive for Helping on Perceived Altruism," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 4 (1978): 86-91; and Ziva Kunda and Shalom H. Schwartz, "Undermining Intrinsic Moral Motivation: External Reward and Self- Presentation," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (1983): わかりやすくいいかえている:E. M. Forster, Aspects of the Novel (New York: Penguin Classics, 1927/2005) 小 説 の 諸 相 (E M フォースター みすず 書 房 1994 年 ) 372 自 分 の 重 要 な 一 部 :Marcia A. Finkelstein, Louis A. Penner, and Michael T. Brannick, " Motive, Role Identity, and Prosocial Personality as Predictors of Volunteer Activity," Social Behavior and Peronality 33 (2005): ; Adam M. Grant and Jane E. Dutton, "Benefici ary or Benefactor: Are People More Prosocial When They Reflect on Receiving or Giving?" Psychological Science 23 (2012): ; and Adam M. Grant, "Giving Time, Time After Time: Work Design and Sustained Employee Participation in Corporate Volunteering," Aca demy of Management Review 37 (2012): 脚 注 フォーチュン 500 の 小 売 企 業 :Adam M. Grant, Jane E. Dutton, and Brent D. Ro sso, "Giving Commitment: Employee Support Programs and the Prosocial Sensemaking Pro cess," Academy of Management Journal 51 (2008): ひら PART 9 成 功 への 道 を 切 り 拓 く 人 たち 373 扉 の 引 用 :Marcus Aurelius, Meditations (New York: Random House, 2002), trans. Greg ory Hays, 55 自 省 録 (マルクス アウレリウス) 374 デリク ソレンソン: 個 人 取 材 (January 11, 2012) 377 知 能 の 高 い 交 渉 者 :Bruce Barry and Raymond A. Friedman, "Bargainer Characteristics in Disributive and Integrative Negotiation," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 7 4 (1998): アクションのための 提 言 それぞれのページ 数 表 記 は PDFファイルのページ 数 に 対 応 しています 19

20 2 極 秘 任 務 :ジェイへの 個 人 取 材 (April 19 and May 10, 2012) ジェイのアシスタントへの 個 人 取 材 (May 3, 2012) 2 ジョブ クラフティング:Amy Wrzesniewski, Justin M. Berg, Adam M. Grant, Jennifer K urkoski, and Brian Welle, "Job Crafting in Motion: Achieving Sustainable Gains in Happin ess and Performance" (working paper, 2012). 4 調 査 によれば:Corporate Executive Board, "Creating an Effective Reward and Recognition Program," March 2006, accessed May 12, 2012, ninitiatives/rewardsandrecognition/docs/clc-rewards&recognition.pdf. 4 センドラブ:クリス コロシへの 個 人 取 材 (March 20, 2012) 5 人 の 話 に 耳 を 傾 けたい:ジム キグリーへの 個 人 取 材 (August 23, 2011) 5 ゲットレイズド:マット ワラートへの 個 人 取 材 (February 8, 2012) 5 サービススペース:ニプン メータへの 個 人 取 材 (March 23, 2012) 6 人 助 けに 奮 闘 する: ザ カインドネス オフェンシブ についての 取 材 は 創 設 者 のデビッ ド グッドフェロー ベニー クレーン ジェームズ ハンター ロブ ウィリアムズに 対 し ロ ーレンス ルメール マット スティーブンスによって 行 なわれた (March 3, 2012) また ライ アン ガルシアに 対 する 取 材 は バレンティノ キムによって 行 なわれた (March 20, 2012) 6 BNI:アイバン マイズナーへの 個 人 取 材 (January 31, 2012) 7 助 け 合 いの 輪 をつくるきっかけ:Wayne Baker and Cheryl Baker, "Paying It Forward: How Reciprocity Really Works and How You Can Create It in Your Organizaiton," University o f Michigan, winter 2011, accessed May 14, 2012, wsletter/ /baker-paying.html. 20

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