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1 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS YAMAKAWA Hideya Listen to What the Bandits Have to Say! : Voices from the Post- Liberation Suppression Campaign in Guangxi XU Youwei Philip BILLINGSLEY Logic

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32 A Study of the Shrine-Expansion Policy of the Japanese Government-General of Korea in the Light of the Policy for Reproduction and Reformation of Village Rites in Gangwon-Do AONO Masaaki In 1936, the Japanese Government-General of Korea reorganized the colony s shrine system. This reorganization was carried out for two purposes: first, to promote some of the main shrines to the status of Kokuhei-shohsha, which ranked sixth among nationally-supported shrines; and second, to increase the overall number of shrines as a way of mobilizing Korean people to carry out the Government-General s policies. In this paper I examine principally the second of the two above-mentioned purposes, seeking to clarify the nature of thisshrine policy, which sought to make use of the traditional agricultural rites carried out in villages in Korea. Concretely, I analyze how the policy for reproduction and reformation of village rites attempted to create shrines by making use of village rites in the region of Gangwon-Do.

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51 Verestchagin V. Painter Soldier Traveler. Autobiographical Sketches translated from the German and the French by F. H. Peters, M. A. With illustrations after drawings by the author. Vol. 12 London. Bentley and son Vol. 336 p., portr., 50ill. Vol p., 27ill.

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53 p. 352 pp pp. 29 pp , No

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55 Khram Khrista Spasit el ya Vasilli Vasil evich Vereshchagin pp

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57 Who is / was Vasily Vereschagin? KUNIMATSU Natsuki Vasily Vereschagin was a Russian artist known for such outstanding paintings as Shipka-Sheinovo, Apotheosis of War, and Doors of Tamerlane. Among them, the most famous tableau is his Apotheosis of War which shows a deserted post-war battlefield where only pyramids of skulls remain; the sky is a perfect blue where flocks of hungry crows gather. This painting became a peaceful symbol against militarism. But Vereschagin was also a soldier. Though he graduated from Navy officer training school, he refused a commission because he wanted to study fine arts. He participated in the Russo-Turkish Wars both as a soldier and as a painter, was wounded, and was awarded a medal. Heroic soldier-militarist vs. anti-militarist painter is this paradox is difficult to solve or not difficult? In any case, Vereschagin died in the naval battles of the Russo-Japanese War. Vereschagin called himself a traveler, and in fact he travelled all over the Orient : Turkestan, India, the Balkans, Palestine, China and Japan. His great journeys were for painting, and at the same time for research on Orientology and cultural anthropology. Orient-wide traveler vs. artist of realism: there is no contradiction there. However, Vereschagin only sketched or did etudes during his travels, completing his drawings at one of his ateliers in Munich and Moscow. Vasily Vereschagin has / had yet another face: he was also a writer. Autobiography, reportage, records of travels, novels- Vereschagin s work covered almost every genre of literature. His final work was the text and drawings for a series called The Patriotic War of 1812 against Napoleon. He worked not only at writing but also at drawing, held exhibitions for them, and

58 published an illustrated book. Here the painter Vereschagin was probably harmonious with the writer. Yet, Vereschagin s life remains an enigma. Did he visit Japan twice or only once? If twice, why are there no documents in Russia about his first visit? We might also ask, why was Vereschagin never awarded the Nobel Prize?

59 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS YAMAKAWA Hideya I The recent breakthrough in the field of generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem ips Cells guided by Professor Yamanaka Shinya in Kyoto University has dramatically changed the landscape of stem cell science at a stroke. It opened the door to generating alternative sources of pluripotent cells from patients without fear of immune-rejection and circumvented the ethical controversy and restrictions regarding the generation of ES cells from human embryos. The impact of this new technology is unfathomable. Human being has finally stepped into the innovational age of life-replication technology. I mean the lifereplication technology of primeval and creative life beyond the human nature. Now I remember a fact that at the back of this technology there was a longstanding matrix of thought which has fostered our traditional view of life and death and which has activated humankind s ineradicable desire for the immortality. I call this matrix of thought the meta-physics, because it is a crystalline structure resulted from the primitive thought which has developed from humankind s perennial and innate horror of physical destruction. Here I re- KeywordsiPS cell, the meta-physics, European metaphysics, Eros, the identity of philosophy

60 member an impressive scene at Plato s Phaedo 77D where Socrates based on the theory of Forms refers to the horror in question, calls it a childish fear, he says ironically: when the soul goes out from the body, the wind will really blow it away and scatter it. It is a notable fact that the meta-physics in question casts its anchor deeply in the perennial belief that life is not to be separated from death so that they are to be in one dimensional relation. Based on such a tenacious and inflexible belief this primitive meta-physics has grown keeping pace with the development of humankind s civilization. It may sound paradoxically, but the development of science-technologies including armaments has been triggered by this meta-physics. Hoping a permanent peace people has in reality reinforced their fierce armaments races. As Chuang-tzu said, aiming at the abolition of warfare people became to advocate the pacifism in the same ring with warmongers. It is also a noteworthy fact that the core of traditional metaphysics around the topic of Time and Eternity too has grown based on this primitive meta- Physics. Thus two kinds of metaphysics are originally isomorphic and in the proximity of blood. II I remember here an unforgettable scene of Nikos Kazantzakis epic Odyssey, where Death makes his appearance and lies beside Odysseus in comradely embrace, Throwing his bony arms across the archer s chest, He and his boon companion slowly sank in sleep.

61 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS Life and Death are the Dual-Others one another. They are absolutely uncrossing dimensions. However if you take a paper strip and give it a half-twist and join the ends of strip together to form a loop, then your eyes running on the surface of strip will shift naturally into the reverse. Here the obverse is no other than the reverse. LIFE DEATH Once Wittgenstein in Tractatus logico-philosophicus said: Der Tod ist kein Ereignis des Lebens. Den Tod erlebt man nicht. Despite of these famous words on the impossibility of personal experience of death, in the topological world of the stripthe life should be in continuous succession to the death. Thus the two contradictory dimensions can be unified into one-dimensional relation. However, where and how does the fusion in question take place? What is the identity of half-twistmanipulation? It is EROS the ineradicable desire for the immortality. Diotima in Plato s Symposium informs young Socrates of a fact that EROS the attendant and minister of Aphrodite 203C is of immortality 207. III Since the dawn of civilization we, human beings, have fostered a winding and

62 labyrinthine thought which aimed at immortality. There is a strange legend related to Cretan royal family. King Minos was ashamed of abull-headed monster Minotaur borne by his wife Pasiphae who mated with a white bull sent by Poseidon, so that he commanded the architect Daedalus to construct a labyrinthine structure in order to enclose this terrible monster. The structure was a cave-like chamber whose passageways were so winding that those unfamiliar with them had difficulty in making their way out. In this labyrinth the Minotaur was maintained devouring the youths who were sent from Athens. Then the Athenians were forced by Minos to send every year seven boys and seven girls to be victims of the Minotaur. Theseus who participated in the party of victims succeeded in killing Minotaur with the assistance of Ariadne, a daughter of Minos. She gave him aball of thread, and Theseus fastened it to the door when he went into the chamber, so that after killing the Minotaur he could make his way out by pulling in the thread hand over hand. Ariadne s ball of thread was firstly unwound, and then it was wound again. Theseus moved firstly in close to death and then came back alive. Thus life and death are supposed to be connected by a mysterious thread. They believe that the world structure consisting of life and death are originally to be continuous and in one dimensional. According to this traditional belief the birth, the death and the rebirth are to be in the unitary relation with each other. We must not forget that behind this belief there is an ominous impetus appealing to someever-living originallife. IV The impetus in question is so aged and primordial that we cannot ascertain its

63 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS origin, whereas I surmise that Neanderthal man in the late Pleistocene epoch, who offered flowers to the dead, held a vague idea of the other world. And according to Carl Kerenyi, we can definitely discern the traces of the Birth- Death-Rebirth scheme BDR scheme in Mesopotamians and Babylonians who left magical labyrinthine patterns of the world which were modeled after intestines of the sacrificed beasts. But why did the idea of the other world make its appearance? We must not forget that the other world is a virtual reality and only a substitute of the eternal life. No matter how strong the impetus for the immortality, however, there is a decisive limit which hinders its full realization: a stark fact of individual s physical annihilation. With death human body stops to function; the apnea, the dilation of the pupil, the cessation of heart-beating come about in the first place and the irreversible cessation of the brain s function follows. Then the body begins to rot and finally a pile of white bones is left. The complete annihilation of individual s body has been usually symbolized with the white bone. The phrase memento mori has been connected with the image of a skeleton or white bone. Now let me recall the scene of Patroclus funeral in Iliad Book 23. There, urged by Patroclus ghost, Achilles gathered up the white bones of the gentle comrade into a golden urn, wrapped them in a double layer of fat, and placing the urn in the hut, he covered it with a soft linen cloth l In Ezekiel we read: Our bones are dry, our hope is gone, and we are cut off For the Hebrews the dry bone symbolized ultimate death. In Chinese culture too the situation was absolutely the same. The Chinese character death is a compound from the letters dai and, whereas

64 the means a human being and the means the small fragments of bone. According to the oldest Chinese dictionary Shuo wen jie zi the character means and means that the bones which constructed a total skeleton is subdivided into ultimate pieces after a human body has completely decomposed. Thus, living means that bones are arranged so organically that a total body can move freely. Ezekiel says: There was a rattling sound and the bones all fitted themselves together. As I watched, sinews appeared upon them, flesh clothed them, and they were covered with skin Thus irrespective of East and West, once, and till recently, the culminating point of death has been symbolized by the white bone. And based on the traditional BDR scheme the white bone has been conceived also as a turning point, whereat the re-birth in the other world took place. However, with the progress in medical sciences and technologies this turning point gradually begins to be reduced. Reduction of death starts. In the place of the white bone the body s rotting, in the place of rotting the stopping of the heart s beating and in the place of the stopping of the heart s beating the irreversible cessation of the brain-function began to be regarded as the real death. In corresponding to this process human death became step by step invisible and in each time a revised turning point made its appearance afresh. It is a noteworthy fact that this reduction process of death from the visible to the invisible is parallel with the development of civilization, and the latter is usually evaluated as a decisive proof of the victorious development of science and technology against the barbarous way of living; therefore also as the

65 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS victory of human civilization against nature. Here, if we may regard civilization as something anti-natural, then the victory of human civilization against nature may be regarded as the victory of what is anti-natural over what is natural. Of course, it is not always self-evident what is natural and what is anti-natural. As Plotinus said, it may be the case that all things which human psyche grasps, at the moment of the grasping, necessarily become anti-natural. Against this argument, however, there may be a counter argument purporting that the same human glance itself, including an extremely artificial and anti-natural practice like the decoding of the genetic code and especially the generation or production of induced pluripotent stem ips cell, should be regarded as a replication which is approaching to the origin of primevallife beyond human nature. V In the reference to the generation technology of ips cell I have said that such a technology is to be called replication technology of primeval life beyond human nature, because it is aiming to replicate the primordial state of cells which can mature into a variety of different cell types. The ips cells can be grown in the laboratory indefinitely and can be utilized in different practical ways; to identify and test new therapeutics, to be used as part of cell replacement therapy etc., which might invite us to investigate into some philosophical issues. In order to explain the circumstances I take up firstly the case of organ transplantation. There is a crux of the organ transplantation. It is safely attainable only if the immune-system of the individual organism can be suppressed. Every multicellular animal on earth, without exception, exists as a product of sexual

66 reproduction by their parents. As a result of this, with the exception of monovular twins etc., no multicellular animals possess a completely identical genetic code. Natural selection gave them a self-protective mechanism. But the self or the individuality of an organism is a primary obstacle for the operation of transplantation. Without assimilation of the self of the donor s organ to the self of the recipient s body, the operation miscarries. Now the self of the donor s organ is, from the standpoint of the recipient, a non-self. Accordingly, without assimilation of the non-self to his / her owns self, the survival of the recipients cannot be expected. Thus, organ transplantation demands a homogeneous or trans-individual life. Therefore, the transplant in its ideal form may be regarded as a kind of equivalenttrans-individual exchange. VI The ips technology opened abreakthrough into this ideal. It succeeded in laying down a ship capable of casting its anchor at the port of primeval life, where one is free from cares for a wall of immune-rejection of individuality or self. We should remember here a fact that individuality or self is never the fundamental property of living things. It appears to be a mechanism resulted from the natural selection which aims above all at survival of the original life. Indeed, it might be rather the case that this original life s deep attachment to survival had made itself divide into the multicellular animals equipped with the mechanism of self. Now, it appears as if contemporary life science and technology have been carried away by the hidden aim of this ever living-originallife. Pay attention

67 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS to a fact that animals such as sponges or ascidians are basically immortal. A silkworm with its brain removed, i.e. a brain dead silkworm, can still cast off the skin, become a pupa and an imago. It can copulate, spawn and leave descendants. Then, people heave their sighs of envy: Why cannot we human beings do so? Thus, on the one hand sperm banks and egg banks have been established and on the other hand the exchange of brains, brain dead as ablood production tank and brain dead as surrogate mother etc. became the topics of gloomy conversation among people. The ips technology has not only strengthened the tone of these voices, but also transposed them from a mere vision to a reality. It enabled to procure the liquid of the immortallife-soul, the ambroton ichor, which when Aphrodite was wounded issued from her beautiful body Il. 339ff.. So it helped successfully to wipe out the other world, a mere virtual reality, seen from the scientific point of view. Thus Ariadne s ball of thread has been abandoned, and Ariadne herself was marooned at seashore of the island Naxos. However, behind this impetus EROS, there may be an unknown master who is ever living in the depths of eternallife. From mythological viewpoint the unknown master in question should be identified as Aphrodite who was born at foamy seashore of immortal life, at Pafos. But who knows her face? Nobody knows her real face. Citing Diotima s words in Plato s Symposium 211A, should we not say that in reality she never makes her appearance in the guise of a face or of hands or any other portion of the body? So, the call for immortality may rather be a voice uttered by ablank face without features. It seems to be transmitted from a deep darkness wherein tenuous things such as humanism or bioethics cannot cast their anchors.

68 VII In the face of such a primordial abyss, who on the earth does not shrink back? Plotinus, who is reported to be ashamed of him for being in the flesh, was seized once with such a feeling of panic II.4.10 On Matter. Pursuing downward the origin of the physical things, he says, one s soul should finally arrive at the darkness itself, the shapeless receptacle of all forms. There in the region of nothingness soul becomes eager to see a dark thing darkly. But distressed by not-being s indefiniteness it runs back hastily to its homeland, as if, Plotinus says, it were in fear of being outside the being and could not endure to stay for long in not-being. Plotinus utterance reminds us M. Heidegger s analysis of Dasein in Sein und Zeit, where Heidegger refers to the anxiety which brings Dasein to the realization of the authentic existence. By the way, in reality Plotinus refers to two kinds of matter; authentic and in-authentic ones; he defines the former as the intelligible and the latter as the sensible. In parallel with this distinction Plotinus distinguished between eternity and time. Based on fundamentally Plato s discourse in Timaeus 37D-38B where Plato defined time as the image of eternity, Plotinus identified eternity as the life of the divine Intellect and time as the life of Soul. It is a significant fact that Plotinus defined the common factor between eternity and time as life. The idea gave tremendous influence over the posterity, especially Christian thinkers including Boethius and St. Augustine, who have contributed to the formation of main road of European metaphysics. Now let me consider the relation between two metaphysics afresh. As I have previously suggested, European metaphysics is firmly based on

69 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS humankind s ineradicable desire for the immortality. To look at the matter from a different angle, however, the desire in question is possibly shared by every multicellular animal on the earth. Therefore the fundamental metaphysics in which whole humankind participates is never European metaphysics but the meta-physics, of which Neandelthal man in the late Pleistoceneepoch too might vaguely conceived. Thus the former is a mere sprout of the host plant meta-physics. Then the recent breakthroughs in the different areas of science and technology should be regarded as the straightforward developments based on the latter meta-physics. Therefore the contemporary life science and technology are not to be regarded as the legitimate children of the European metaphysics, but of the meta-physics. VIII At the moment, two conclusions are to be deduced from the above mentioned: 1 The European metaphysics is principally impotent to check the unexpected reckless driving of meta-physics, because it is isomorphic with the meta-physics. 2 The meta-physics is obedient to the call for immortality transmitted from the main ocean of life, which is beyond the area of human good and evil. The conclusion may be regarded as an unbearable one. But in reality it is the case. The meta-physics in question is the matrix of all civilizations developed on the earth. It is the indifferent foster parent of all lovely things such as

70 skyscraping Gothic temples, Misa Solemnis resounding in chapels, hymns chanted by Angel-like boys and girls as well as of all terrible things such as germ weapon, Agent orange, and Depleted uranium ammunition which exterminate enemy and a large stock of nuclear bombs which are able to change our globe into a supernova in a flash. Keiji Nakazawa, the author of Hadashi no Gen Gen, the barefooted boy, who in the year 1966 lost his mother as one of the victim of atomic air raid in Hiroshima, still feels bitter against USA. He remembers even now vividly an unbelievable scene at crematory, where his mother s corpse was burned. There were no normal remains of bone except for only a handful white dust. When he saw it the fierce anger attacked him, and he groaned: Atom-bomb, a detestable creep! You have plundered even my mother s bone! But this is only one case among innumerable misfortunes showing vividly the brutal nature of nuclear weapon. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki hundreds of thousands people irrespective of the olds or babies were killed in a flash. However the fact is usually neglected flatly by appealing to the phrase Pearl Harbor, by the logic of legitimate self-defense. Since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, foolishly enough, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for testing or demonstration purposes under the slogan of SURVIVAL. And the meta- Physics in question is always called up and indifferently utilized by both camps of the strategists of nuclear deterrence as well as by the potentially suicidal terrorists possessing nuclear weapons who may feel they will be rewarded in a religious afterlife as martyrs. Thus the meta-physics becomes paradoxically a vehicle of death. However, as I have ascertained in the opening part of this paper, in the topological world of meta-physics life and death are to be one and

71 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS the same. This Heracleitean bitter phrase invites us to redefine the nature and role of philosophy in the age of life-replication technology afresh. Then, what is philosophy? I do not know. But I believe that I am able to show a scaffold on which philosophy in our era can be reconstructed. Philosophy as an act is, as Diotima in Plato s Symposium said, neither immortal nor mortal, in the selfsame day it is flourishing and alive at the hour when it is abounding in resource; at another it is dying. That is to say, philosophy as EROS the attendant of Aphrodite stands midway between life and death, between being and not-being. The between in question, namely the betweenness, is the fragile raft Plato, Phaedo 85E on which philosophy as a critical act must embark. Viewing from this dwelling spot of philosophy, I believe, we may narrowly but impartially identify a variety of life and death developed on our globe.

72 TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS YAMAKAWA Hideya Behind the recent breakthrough in the field of generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem ips cells there is a longstanding matrix of thought which has fostered our traditional view of life and death and which has activated humankind s ineradicable desire for the immortality. I call this matrix of thought the meta-physics, because it is a crystalline structure resulted from the primitive thought which has developed from humankind s perennial and innate horror of physical destruction. It is a notable fact that the meta-physics in question casts its anchor deeply in the perennial belief that life is not to be separated from death so that they are to be in one dimensional relation. Based on such a tenacious and inflexible belief this primitive meta-physics has grown keeping pace with the development of humankind s civilization.

73

74 Hartshorne, 1939, 59 areal differentiation Geography and Geographers uniform region nodal region

75 Johnston, 1991 : 4344 Hartshorne, 1939 functional region nodal region Ullman, 1953 Whittlesey, 1954

76 TVA Sauer, 1925

77 Hartshorne, 1939 Leighly, 1937 Hartshorne, 1939 Leighly, 1937 Whittlesey, 1929 sequent occupance

78 Thomas 1931

79 Leighly, 1937 Hartshorne, 1939 Annals of Association of American Geographers AAAG Whittlesey, 1939 AAAG areal differentiation

80 Whittlesey Hartshorne, 1939 Hettner, 1927 areal differentiation Chorology

81 Sequent occupance areal differentiation Hettner, 1927 May, 1970 James, areal likeness

82 a b d c e f af Whittlesey, 1954 Platt Platt, 1948a, Platt, 1948b

83 Platt, 1928 Platt, 1946 Taaffe, 1974 Ullman, 1953 complementarity intervening opportunity transferability Ullman, 1957 Ackerman, 1953, Philbrick, 1957

84 Ackerman, 1963 Berry, 1964 Berry, 1966 Platt, 1962 Ullman, 1953 Berry, 1964

85 Taaffe, 1974 Schaefer, 1953

86 GHQ Ackerman 60A Garrison 62A Schaefer 64A Edward Ullman Hartshorne Ackerman, E. A Regional research: emerging concepts and techniques in the field of geography. Economic Geography 29 : Ackerman, E. A Where is a research frontier? Annals of Association of American Geographers 53 : Berry, B. J. L Approaches to regional analysis: a synthesis. Annals of Association of American Geographers 54 : 211. Berry, B. J. L Essays on Commodity Flows and the Spatial Structure of the

87 Indian Economy. Illinois: Department of Geography, University of Chicago. Hartshorne, R The nature of geography. Annals of Association of American Geographers 29: R. Hartshorne, R Perspective on the Nature of Geography. Washington, D. C.: Association of American Geographers. R. Hettner, A Die Geographie: ihre Geschichte, ihre Wesen und ihre Methoden. Breslau: F. Hart. A.. James, P. E Toward a further understanding of the regional concept. Annals of Association of American Geographers 42 : James, P. E Introduction: the field of geography. In James, P. E. and Jones, C. F. eds. American geography: inventory and prospect. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press Johnston, R. J Geography and Geographers Fourth Edition. London: Edawrd Arnold. Leighly, J Some comments on contemporary geographic method. Annals of Association of American Geographers 27 : May, J. A Kant s Concept of Geography and its Relation to Recent Geographical Thought. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. J. A.. Philbrick, A. K Principles of areal functional organization in regional human geography. Economic Geography 33 : Platt, R. S A detail of regional geography: Ellison Bay community as industrial organism. Annals of Association of American Geographers 18 : Platt, R. S Problems of our time. Annals of Association of American Geographers 36 : 143. Platt, R. S. 1948a. Determinism in geography. Annals of Association of American Geographers 38 : Platt, R. S. 1948b. Environmentalism versus geography. American Journal of

88 Sociology 53 : Platt, R. S The rise of cultural geography in America. In Wagner. P. L. and Mikesell, M. W. eds. Readings in Cultural Geography Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sauer, C. O The morphology of landscape. University of California Publications in Geography 22: Schaefer, F. K Exceptionalism in geography: a methodological examination. Annals of Association of American Geographers 43 : Taaffe, E. J The spatial view in context. Annals of Association of American Geographers 64 : 116. Thomas, L. F The sequence of areal occupance in a section of St. Louis, Missouri. Annals of Association of American Geographers 21 : Ullman, E. L Human geography and area research. Annals of Association of American Geographers 43 : Ullman, E. L Geography as spatial interaction. In International Linkages : Proceedings of Western Committee on Regional Economic Analysis Berkley: Social Science Research Council. Ullman, E. L American Commodity Flow. Seattle : University of Washington Press. Whittlesey, D Sequent occupance. Annals of Association of American Geographers 19 : Whittlesey, D Major agricultural regions of the earth. Annals of Association of American Geographers 26 : Whittlesey, D A foreword by the editor. Annals of Association of American Geographers 29 : Whittlesey, D The regional concept and the regional method. In James, P. E. and Jones, C. F. eds. American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press

89 The Concept of Region in American Geography NOJIRI Wataru American geography of the 19 th century suffered a major backlash due to the influence of environmental determinism. However, with the dawn of the 20 th century, area studies became a major field. Yet even when much regional elements were broken down into detail and presented in terms of distribution, the difficulty remained of categorizing areas into objective, uniform regions. To address this difficulty, a variety of methodologies were developed regarding the concept of region. Sauer s Morphology of Landscape 1925 marked the beginning of this movement, followed by the concept of sequent occupance, defined by Whittlesey This concept addressed the succession and transition of the cultural landscape over the course of developments such as the hunter-gatherer society of indigenous peoples; the immigration of farmers; the formation of villages; industrialization; and urbanization. In contrast, Hartshorne 1939 was influenced by Hettner 1927 in Germany, proposing the concept of areal differentiation, which in turn had a dramatic impact on the field of geography in the United States in the 1940s and 50s. This topographical methodology cited differences in distribution of various aspects of the earth s surface including weather patterns, geomorphology, soil, resources, etc., and also explained the spatial relationship between them. The issue here was that interpretations were made based on differences in specified phenomena between places. In other words, regions were conveniently interpreted in a way that suited the specific index that was chosen. This

90 meant rejection of the kind of geography that emphasizes the morphological aspect of the cultural landscape. Further, it was concluded that it was not necessary to limit research topics to visible landscapes; the new way of thinking emphasized the importance of choosing an event that would facilitate significant change arising from differences in location, or an event that had the potential to facilitate a change in other phenomena. However, while this type of methodology tends to emphasize the diversity of different regions, it also tends to close the door to generalization. James 1952, 1954 asserted the need to pay attention to areal likeness, an approach that enables comparison between regions. In addition, Whittlesey 1954 categorized regions into uniform regions and nodal regions for purposes of study. The uniform region is characterized by specified indices, standards and definitions such as the Corn Belt and the Cotton Belt. In contrast, nodal regions are those that have a specific focal point; that is, a certain structure is expected of this central area, including the flow and circulation of people and information emanating from a specific focal point. Depending on different standards, such as commutable zone and consumer catchment area, one can identify a diverse array of nodal regions. As noted above, studies in the field of geography in the United States, particularly in the post-world War II period, showed a deepening interest in clarifying the hierarchy and behavior of nodal and functional regions and regional interaction, paving the way toward system theory research on regional function systems. As part of this series of movements, Berry 1964 attempted to develop a fusion of the topographical or factorial ecology methodology and quantitative geography, applying multivariable analysis to regional data. Keywords : landscape, areal differentiation, uniform region, nodal region, functional region

91 Alexander Bain, Dixon 1999 ; Dixon 2001 ; Dixon 2003 : Chap. 5 Bain 1904 Flesher 1986 Habu 2002 Alexander Bain

92 J. S. John Stuart Mill, Bain 1855 Bain 1859 Bain 1868 Bain 1904

93 C. Goodwin 2012 E. Chung & Hyland 2012 G. Benjafield 2010E. Pickren & Rutherford 2010D. Greenwood 2009 Mind

94 Shiraev 2011 : 289 J. Murray 1983 : 120 T. H. Leahey 1980 Leahey 1980 Thomson 1968 J. C. Flugel & West 1964 : 6566

95 William James, James McCosh, James Sully, James Mark Baldwin, Dixon 2003 : 228 II

96 Gardiner et al Oatley 2009 Gardiner et al Bain

97 Warren 1921 repertory emotion Japan Society for Research on Emotions emotions emotion Emotion APA Cognition & Emotion Psychology Press Motivation and Emotion Springer

98 Emotion Review Sage emotion emotion emotion The emotion and the will affective Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience Springer Social Cognitive and Affectiove Neuroscience Oxford University Press Journal of Affective Disorders Elsevier emotional affective affection affect affection passion soul mind affection passion appetite

99 Dixon 2003 : Chap. 2 affection passion passion Dixon 2003 passion Descartes, Les passions de l ame emotion passion affection emotion passion affection emotion Dixon 2003 : Chap. 1 emotion feeling feeling Warren 1922 ; Gardiner et al emotion feeling emotion feeling

100 feeling Feeling feel emotion sentiment Adam Smith, The theory of moral sentiments sentiment emotion sentiment

101 anger anger rage fury wrath

102 Bain 1855 : 7 Thomas Reid, Thomas Brown, Sir William Hamilton, Bain 1864 : 7 ; Bain 1868 : ; Bain 1902 : Bain 1868 : 669 Jones Quain, William Sharpey, Sensation, Intellect, Emotion, and Volition Bain 1855 : 8 ; Quain 1848 : clxxxvi Feeling Bain 1855 : 1

103 Warren 1921

104 David Hartley, Hartley 1749 emotion emotion emotion feeling Chap. II, Sect. I. Of the Sense of Feeling affection Chap. III. Containing a particular Application of the foregoing Theory to the Phaenomena of Ideas, or of Undestanding, Affection, Memory, and Imagination. Sect. III. Of the Affections in general Imagination, Ambition, Self-interest, Sympathy, Theopathy, and the Moral Sense Chap. IV. Of the Six Classes of intellectual Pleasures Pleasure and Pain Love Hatred Action Desire Aversion Hope Fear Joy Grief Recollection

105 Hartley 1749 : Bain 1904 : 46 Brown 1822 passion affection emotion emotion Dixon 2003: Chap. 4 immediate, retrospective, prospective

106 cheerfulness and melancholy LII wonder LIII languor beauty and its opposite sublimity the ludicrous feelings distinctive of vice and virture love and hate sympathy pride and humility LIII LIII-LVII LVII LVIII LIX LIX-LXI LXI-LXII LXII anger LXIII gratitude LXIII simple regret and gladness LXIV desire of remorse and its opposite our own continued existence pleasure action society knowledge LXIV LXV LXVI LXVI LXVII LXVII power ambition LXVIII avarice LXIX-LXX the affection of others glory the happiness of others evil to others LXX LXX-LXXI LXXII LXXII Dixon 2005 : Chap. 5 Bain 1859 : 84

107 did not fully peruse Bain 1904 : 46 Bain 1865 : 606 James Mill, Mill, James 1869 Mill, James 1870 Mill, James 1869 Bain 1859 : 200, 218, 306, 307, 314 Mill, John Stuart 1967 Mill, John Stuart 1873 : Chap. 4 Mill, John Stuart 1873 : Chap. 6

108 Dugald Stewart, Bain 1904 : 44 Stewart 1828 Of our instinctive principles of action Of desires Esteem Emulation, Speriority Of our Affections

109 the Affections of Kindred, Friendship, Patriotism, Pity to the Distressed Hatred, Jealousy, Envy, Revenge, Misanthropy resentment anger Bain 1859 : 25 William Paley, Natural theology, or, Evidences of the existence and attributes of the deity, collected from the appearances of nature Paley 1799 Bain 1859 : 26 Paley 1799 : 22

110 Thomas Chalmers, Bain 1904 : 58 Bain 1904 : 69 Dixon 2003 : Dixon 2003 : 155 Chalmers 1833 constitution emotion Part II, Chap. II Part II, Chap. III Intellect Emotions Will Thomas Hobbes,

111 Bain 1859 : 153 Hobbes 1658 affectus Hobbes 1658, Chap. 12 Leviathan Hobbes 1651 William Whewell, Whewell 1845 Bain 1859 : appetites, affections, mental desires, moral sentiments, reflex sentiments love anger gratitude resentment malice man in society, intercourse of men memory and imagination good, hope, fear safety selfpreservation security iberty having familiy society, civil society mutual understanding superiority knowledge being loved esteem our own approval

112 Adam Smith, Smith 1759 Bain 1859 : 302 Hume 1739 Bain 1904 : 30 Of pride and humility compassion volition Hume 1739 : 438

113 Characters vent Wonder Terror Tender emotion Benevolent Affections Sorrow

114 Irascible emotion Sympathy and imitation Ideal emotion Aesthetic emotions emotion s simple emotions Bain 1859 : 207

115 George Ramsay, Ramsay 1848 passive active Joy Cheerfulness Grief Mirth Weariness Ennui Wonder Beauty Sublimity The ludicrous emotions Immediate Retorospective Sympathy and Antipathy Pride and Humility Remorse Shame Solitary or Self-regarding Active Emotions Ambition Desire of Wealth Desire of Reputation, of Fame, or Glory Curiosity or Desire of Knowledge Desire of Life, or of Continued Existence

116 Social Active Emotions Benevolent Emotions Love Pity Malevolent Emotions Hatred Malice William Lyall, Lyall 1855 The philosophy of the emotionslyall 1855 : Cheerfulness Melancholy Joy Sorrow Delight Wonder, Surprise and astonishment Admiration The emotion of the beautiful and the sublime

117 Love Friendship Patriotism Hatred Anger, resentment, envy, revenge, indignation Sympathy Philanthropy Generosity, or kindness, and gratitilde Desire Transition from the emotional to the moral part of our nature emotion s

118

119 W. emotion feeling

120 Spencer 1860 evolution Bain 1865 : 133

121 The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex The expression of the emotions in man and animals The principles of psychology

122 Gratitude fear anger self-worth

123 approbation, admiration, praise W. H. irascible emotion emotion of anger

124

125 Cardno 1956 ; Mischel 1966 ; Young 1970 : Chap. 3 Rylance 2000 : Chap. 5 Revue d Histoire des Sciences Dupont & Forest 2007a; Clauzade 2007 ; Becquemont 2007 ; Dupont 2007 ; Forest 2007 ; Dupont & Forest 2007b Bain 1904 : ; Dupont & Forest 2007b Habu 2002 Psychology: The cognitive powers 1886 Psychology: The motive powers; emotions, conscience, will 1887 The human mind: A textbook of psychology 2vols., 1892 Handbook of psychology I: The senses and the intellect; II: Feeling and will 1891 James Alexander Bain, Mental and moral science. A compendium of psychology and ethics. London: Longman, Green and Co., 1868 Mental science Moral science Mental science

126 passion passion passion Mental science CiNii feeling emotion James Ward, Christian Wolf Immanuel Kant Quain s anatomybain 1855: 8 Bain 1864 : 8 ; Bain 1868 : 8

127 Thomas Browne Life and collected works of Thomas Brown Bristol: Thoemmes Thomas Brown: Selected philosophical writings Exeter: Imprint Academic Dixon 2003 : 155 James Mill: A biography. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1882 Dugald Stewart, Biographical memoirs, of Adam Smith, LL. D., of William Robertson, D. D., and of Thomas Reid, D. D.: Read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Now collected intoone volume, with some additional notes. Edinburgh: George Ramsay and Company, 1811

128 Bain 1859 : 288 Billig 2005 Essays Bain 1904 : 44 Hume Essays refusedbain 1904 : 442 On the study of character, including an estimate of phrenology. London: Parker, Son, and Bourn, 1861 Young 1970 : Chap. 3; Flesher 1986 : George Combe, The constitution of man considered in relation to external objects. Edinburgh: John Anderson jun. and London: Longman & Co., 1828 Bain 1904 : 2728

129 Bain, Alexander 1904, Autobiography. London: John W. Parker and Son Bain, Alexander 1859, The emotions and the will. London: John W. Parker and Son Bain, Alexander 1865, The emotions and the will. 2nd ed. London: Longmans Green, and Co. Bain, Alexander 1875, The emotions and the will. 3rd ed. London: Longmans Green, and Co. Bain, Alexander 1899, The emotions and the will. 4th ed. London: Longmans Green, and Co. Bain, Alexander 1855, The senses and the intellect. London: John W. Parker and Son Bain, Alexander 1864, The senses and the intellect. 2nd ed. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green Bain, Alexander 1868, The senses and the intellect. 3rd ed. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Bain, Alexander 1902, The senses and the intellect. 4th ed. New York: D. Appleton and Company Brown, Thomas 1822, Lectures on the philosophy of the human mind. In 3vols. Andover: Mark Newman Chalmers, Thomas 1833, On the power wisdom and goodness of god as manifested in the adaptation of external nature to the moral and intellectual constitution of man. In 2vols. London: William Pickering Hartley, David 1749, Observations on man, his frame, his duty, and his expectations Two Volumes in One: Facsimile reproduction with an introduction by

130 Theodore L. Huguelet. Gainesville, Florida: Scholars Facsimiles & Reprints, 1966 Hobbes, Thomas 1651, Leviathan or the matter, forme, & power, of a common-wealth ecclesiasticall and civill. London: Andrew Crooke Hobbes, Thomas 1658, Elementorum philosophiae sectio secunda de homine. Londini: Andr. Crooke Hume, David 1739, A treatise of human nature: Being an attempt to indroduce the experimental method of reasoning into moral subjects. Book II. Of the passions. London: John Noon Lyall, William 1855, Intellect, the emotions, and the moral nature. Edinburgh: Thomas Constanble and Co.; London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co. McCosh, James 1882, Psychology: The motive powers: Emotions, conscience, will. New York: Charles Scribner s Sons Mill, James 1869, Analysis of the phenomena of the human mind: A new edition with notes illustrative and critical by Alexander Bain, Andrew Findlater, and George Grote: Edited withe additional notes by John Stuart Mill. In two volumes. London: Longmans Green Reader and Dyer Mill, John Stuart 1873, Autobiography. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer Mill, John Stuart 1967, Mill on Bentham and Coleridge with an introduction by F. R. Leavis. London: Chatto & Windus F. R. Paley, William 1799, The principles of moral and political philosophy. The 12th ed. London: R. Faulder Quain, Richard, & Sharpey, William eds. 1848, Elements of anatomy, by Jones Quain, M. D. fifth edition. In two volumes. London: taylor, Walton, and Maberly Ramsay, George 1848, Analysis and theory of the emotions with dissertations on beauty sublimity and the ludicrous. Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black; London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans Smith, Adam 1759, The theory of moral sentiments. London: A. Millar; Edinburgh:

131 A. Kincaid and J. Bell Spencer, Herbert 1860, Bain on Theemotions and the will, in Essays: Scientific, political, & speculative. Vol. 1 London: Williams & Norgate, 1891, pp First published in The Medico-Chirurgical Review for January, 1860 Stewart, Dugald 1828, The philosophy of the active and moral powers of man. In 2 vols. Edinburgh: Adam Black; London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green Whewell, William 1845, The elements of morality, including polity. In 2 vols. London: John W. Parker Becquemont, Daniel 2007, Les de Bain face la des localisations de Jackson et de Ferrier, Revue d Histoire des Sciences, 602: Benjafield, John G. 2010, A history of psychology. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Billig, Michael 2005, Laughter and ridicule: towards a social critique of humour. London: Sage Cardno, J. A. 1956, Bain and physiological psychology, Australian Journal of Psychology, 7 : Chung, Man Cheung, & Hyland, Michael E. 2012, History and philosophy of psychology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Clauzade, Laurent 2007, De la science de l esprit du : Alexander Bain et la psychologie des individuelles, Revue d Histoire des Sciences, 602: Dixon, Thomas 1999, Theology, anti-theology and atheology: From christian passions to secular emotions, Modern Theology, 153: Dixon, Thomas 2001, The psychology of the emotions in Britain and American in the Nineteenth century: The role of religoius and antireligious commitments,

132 Osiris, 16 : Dixon, Thomas 2003, From passions to emotions: The creation of a secular psychological category. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Dupont, Jean-Claude 2007, Sources et implications physiologiques du discours psychologique chez Bain, Revue d Histoire des Sciences, 602: Dupont, Jean-Claude, & Forest, Denis 2007a, Alexander Bain : L esprit et le cerveau, Revue d Histoire des Sciences, 602: Dupont, Jean-Claude, & Denis, Forest 2007b, Indications bio-bibliographiques sur Alexander Bain , Revue d Histoire des Sciences, 602: Flesher, Mary Mosher 1986, Human nature surpassing itself: An intellectual biography of the early life and work of Alxander Bain , A dissertation presented to the Graduate Committee of Lehigh University Flugel, J. C., & West, Donald J. 1964, A hundred years of psychology : Part V: revised by Donald J. West. London: Gearld Duckworth Forest, Denis 2007, Bain et les centralistes de l action et de la conscience d agir, Revue d Histoire des Sciences, 602: Gardiner, H. M., Metcalf, Ruth Clark, & Beebe-Center, John G. 1937, Feeling and emotion: A history of theories. New York: American Book Company Greenwood, John D. 2009, A conceptual history of psychology. New York: McGraw- Hill Goodwin, C. James 2012, A history of modern psychology. 4th ed. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons A.BAIN 39 : A.BAIN 41 : Habu, Yoshimasa 2001, Alexander Bain s empirical psychology as introduced to Japan of the new age Meiji era, 61 :

133 Habu, Yoshimasa 2002, Academic life of Alexander Bain: Integration of ideas towards modern psychology, 37 : Leahey, Thoma Hardy, 1980, A history of psychology: Main currents in psychological thought. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Mischel, Theodore 1966, Emotion and motivation in the development of English psychology: D. Hartley, James Mill, A. Bain, Journal of the History of Behavioral Sciences, 2 : Murray, David J. 1983, A history of Western psychology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall Oatley, Keith 2009, Emotions: A brief history. Malden: Blackwell Pickren, Wade E., & Rutherford, Alexandra, 2010, A history of modern psychology in context. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Rylance, Rick, 2000, Victorian psychology and British culture Oxford: Oxford University Press

134 2 Shiraev, Eric 2011, A history of psychology: A global perspective. Los Angels: Sage 47 : Thomson, Robert 1968, The Perican history of psychology. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books Warren, Howard C. 1921, A history of the association psychology. New York: Charles Scribner s Son Young, Robert M. 1970, Mind, brain and adaptation in the nineteenth century: Cerebral localization and its biological context from Gall to Ferrier. Oxford: Oxford University Press

135 The Construction of Alexander Bain s Theory of Emotion HONMA Eio In this paper I examine the special features of the construction of Alexander Bain s theory of emotion by comparing it with other theories prevalent before the mid-nineteenth century. In Section 1, I outline Bain s life and the history of the publication of his well-known textbook The Emotion and the Will. In Sections 2 and 3, I consider the varying estimations of Bain s work especially his theory of emotion in the history of psychology. In Section 4, I discuss the Japanese translations of words related to emotion, and in Section 5, I clarify the origin of Bain s three divisions of the mind and the influence of his theory in Japan. From Section 6 to 9, finally, I examine the construction of the part of emotion in psychology books written during Bain s day and before.

136 Listen to What the Bandits Have to Say! : Voices from the Post- Liberation Suppression Campaign in Guangxi XU Youwei Philip BILLINGSLEY One of the principal claims to legitimacy of the post-1949 Communist Party of China CPC regime was its elimination of the ubiquitous bandit gangs that had come to characterize the country, particularly since the breakdown of central authority following the revolution of With the conclusion of the nationwide suppression campaigns in the date varied according to province and region bandits became the epitome of evil, one of the many symbols of the bad old days that were constantly hauled out to justify the CPC s ruthless grip on power. 1 Buffeted by incessant political campaigns during the 1950s and early 1960s, most Chinese people did not have a lot of time to spare for the subject of old China s bandits. To ensure that they did not forget entirely, cultural products such as the popular 1958 propaganda movie Heroes with the Hearts of Tigers Keywords 1. Post-1949 China 2. Bandit suppression 3. Propaganda 4. Guangxi

2002 2000 2007. 403425, 1970 145149 . 25 painter soldier traveler 1904. 11. 24. 137173 1958. 18421904 2 2 1972 396 18421904 1977 12 1982 184 81985 122151. 1988 29 cm22 c 1992 117 2000 31 cm22.5 cm

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