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1 学 位 論 文 内 容 の 要 旨 論 文 提 出 者 林 淑 蕙 (リン スウ フェィ) 論 文 題 名 クリスティナ ロセッティ 研 究 ヴィクトリア 朝 女 性 詩 人 として 大 学 生 の 頃 から 取 り 組 んできたヴィクトリア 朝 女 性 詩 人 クリスティナ ロセッティの 詩 集 歌 を 歌 おう( Sing Song ) は 素 朴 な 表 現 と 言 葉 遊 びに 満 ちていて 児 童 文 学 への 魅 力 的 な 橋 渡 しもしてくれた その 後 ロセッティ 研 究 を 続 ける 中 で フェミニスト 批 評 理 論 に 基 づく 種 々の 解 釈 に 出 会 い 特 に 彼 女 の 代 表 作 でもある 子 鬼 の 市 場 ("Goblin Market") 王 子 の 行 進 ( The Prince s Progress ) 父 親 の 子 供 に 対 する 不 当 行 為 ("The Iniquity of the Fathers upon the Children") などの 長 編 詩 についてのフェミニズム 的 視 点 からの 解 釈 に 強 い 印 象 を 受 けた これらの 良 く 知 られたロセッティ 成 熟 期 の 長 編 詩 については 多 様 な 側 面 からすでに 色 々 論 じられているが 彼 女 の 初 期 の 作 品 についてはあまり 考 察 されてお らず この 論 文 では 先 ず 初 期 作 品 にロセッティ 研 究 の 上 で 重 要 な 要 素 がうかがえることを 論 じた つまり 詩 人 の 初 期 詩 作 品 を 研 究 することでその 詩 人 の 創 作 過 程 を 明 らかにするこ とができるのであり これはロセッティの 初 期 作 品 集 少 女 時 代 の 作 品 集 ( Juvenilia ) に も 当 てはまる この 作 品 集 は 彼 女 の 若 い 頃 の 読 書 体 験 や 詩 作 習 慣 への 貴 重 な 洞 察 を 与 えて くれ 同 時 にこの 詩 人 の 思 想 や 感 情 を 簡 明 に 表 現 する 方 法 を 示 してくれる また この 論 文 では 前 述 した 子 鬼 の 市 場 王 子 の 行 進 など 詩 人 の 成 熟 期 の 代 表 的 物 語 詩 については フェミニスト 批 評 的 な 視 点 から また 古 典 的 な 妖 精 物 語 の 女 性 主 人 公 との 比 較 によっ て 論 じている イギリスでは19 世 紀 ヴィクトリア 朝 から20 世 紀 初 頭 にかけて 女 権 拡 大 運 動 (フェミ ニズム) が 社 会 的 にも 大 きなうねりとなり 文 学 の 世 界 でもブロンテ 姉 妹 エリザベス ブラウニング ジョージ エリオット( 女 性 作 家 のペンネーム)などが 輩 出 したが ロセッテ ィもその 一 人 であった ロセッティは その 抒 情 詩 宗 教 詩 子 供 のための 童 謡 詩 さら には 代 表 的 な 長 編 詩 を 通 して 女 性 詩 人 の 立 場 から 当 時 の 女 性 の 置 かれた 社 会 状 況 につい ての 見 解 を 表 現 しようとしたのだ 例 えば 代 表 作 子 鬼 の 市 場 では 当 時 の 社 会 状 況 に 於 ける 女 性 の 苦 闘 というテーマが 二 人 のヒロインの 姉 妹 関 係 ('sisterhood') という 観 点 か ら 描 かれている さらにはヴィクトリア 朝 時 代 における 女 性 の 自 立 という 問 題 が 長 編 詩 で は 扱 われていることを 論 じている 以 下 本 論 文 における 各 章 の 要 旨 を 簡 単 に 述 べておきたい 序 論 (Introduction) 本 論 の 研 究 目 的 と ロセッティとその 家 族 ( 兄 も 有 名 な 詩 人 姉 は 修 道 女 に)の 伝 記 的 な 側 面 を 述 べている 第 1 章 少 女 時 代 の 作 品 集 優 しき 愛 は 不 滅 ( Juvenilia Poems Sweet Love Shall Never Die )

2 若 い 頃 のロセッティが 意 識 的 に 模 倣 しようとした 文 学 上 の 先 達 ( 伝 統 )とのかかわりを 探 るとともに 彼 女 のより 深 い 創 作 の 動 機 を 探 る これら 初 期 の 詩 を 研 究 することで 後 の 詩 人 の 成 熟 期 に 於 ける 表 現 方 法 の 萌 芽 もうかがえると 論 じている 第 2 章 歌 を 歌 おう 母 の 愛 と 理 想 家 族 のイメージ( Sing Song Maternal Love and the Image of an Ideal Family) 詩 集 歌 を 歌 おう の 詩 は 子 供 の 心 に 訴 える 音 やリズムを 持 つが その 内 容 は 子 に 対 す る 母 親 の 愛 をテーマに 理 想 の 家 族 像 を 描 く 詩 が 多 いと 論 じている 第 3 章 子 鬼 の 市 場 手 に 手 をつないで ( Goblin Market Joining Hands to Little Hands ) ロセッティの 傑 作 子 鬼 の 市 場 では 呪 文 のような 繰 り 返 しのリズムと 豊 かなイメージ で 子 鬼 と 姉 妹 の 出 会 いとその 呪 術 的 世 界 からの 姉 妹 愛 (sisterhood) による 救 済 を 描 い ていると 論 じている 第 4 章 王 子 の 行 進 眠 り の 意 味 ("The Prince's Progress" the Meaning of Sleep) ロセッティのもう 一 つの 傑 作 王 子 の 行 進 と 妖 精 物 語 の 古 典 眠 り 姫 における 二 人 の 王 子 を 比 較 して 女 性 作 家 と 男 性 作 家 による 違 いを 指 摘 する 加 えてヒロインの 眠 り の 意 味 についてフェミニスト 批 評 の 視 点 から 論 じている 第 5 章 父 親 の 子 供 に 対 する 不 当 行 為 女 らしさからフェミニズムへ( The Iniquity of the Fathers upon the Children from Femininity to Feminism) ここではヴィクトリア 朝 の 理 想 の 家 族 愛 と 姉 妹 関 係 (sisterhood) というテーマをフェ ミニスト 批 評 の 視 点 で 解 釈 し 一 人 の 依 存 的 な 若 い 娘 が 自 立 した 大 人 の 女 性 に 変 容 する 過 程 を 描 いたものと 論 じている 結 論 (Conclusion) この 論 文 ではロセッティをヴィクトリア 朝 の 女 性 詩 人 として またファンタジィの 児 童 文 学 を 描 く 女 性 作 家 として 捉 え 彼 女 の 初 期 作 品 から 成 熟 期 の 作 品 に 至 るまでその 時 代 に おける 女 性 の 置 かれた 立 場 と 役 割 を 女 性 の 視 線 で 描 いた 詩 人 としてフェミニズム 的 視 点 から 論 じている

3 SUMMA RY TITL E: A Study of Christina Rossetti: As a Victorian Poetess Writer: Shu-Hui LIN ( 淑 蕙 林 ) The Aim of the Research As I was attracted by the rhyme and rhythm of verses, I chose Christina Rossetti s Sing Song not only as the subject of my graduation paper but also for amusing my daughter who was at the time only three. That was what started me on studying Rossetti s poems. Sing Song is filled with simple expressions and amusing wordplay which lead into the gaily fantastical realm of children s literature. In the further course of my research of Rossetti s work, I encountered the interpretation based on feminist theory, especially the various possible readings of longer poems such as Goblin Market, The Prince s Progress and The Iniquity of the Fathers upon the Children. Many aspects of these better known poems have been discussed from contrasting points of view for many years now. I followed previous scholars in my reading of these mature pieces, but I also found the imp ortant elements to consider in Rossetti s earlier poems. Studying earlier works may lead us to probe into an author s learning process. This is certainly true of Rossetti s Juvenilia, as her brother William called her earliest poems, which give a valuable insight into her early reading and writing habits, and thus into the decep tively simple ways in which she expresses her thoughts and sensations. In my overall thesis, I focus on feminist viewpoints on Rossetti s poetry and esp ecially on comp arisons with female figures in fairy tales. It was not until the eighteenth century that women s rights started to be seriously considered, and when this hap pened, it was in 1

4 particular connection with such issues of feminist movements, women s education, laws, women s welfare, women poets and writers, and so on. The social role of women was grad ually gained more attention from the late eighteenth century on, and this change of attitude then grew into the issue of general concer n in the middle of the nineteenth century. Many literary women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, most notably Elizabeth Barrett Browning, George Eliot, and Virginia Wo olf, were sharply sensitive to the unfair treatment of women in the social system as they found it, and protested against the problems that they felt were most vital to contemporary readers. Christina Rossetti is representative of her time. It was part of her intention to express views on he r social surroundings by means of her talent in lyric poetry, religious verses and nursery rhymes for child ren. In view of this general asp ect of her work, I will consider her attitudes not only focusing on the best known poems such as the Sing Song collection, Goblin Market, The Prince s Progress and The Iniquity of the Fathers upon the Children, but also paying due attention to the learning process already evident in her Juvenilia. As one literary genre I will concentrate on is fairy tales, which I will regard especially from the viewpoint of feminist criticism. Another clearly related genre is nursery rhymes, as represented by the fantastical Sing-Song collection. In her more ambitious poems Goblin Market, The Prince s Progress and The Iniquity of the Fathers upon the Children, Rossetti then calls on her readers to consider lif e in a fuller social context. The social issue of women s struggle is raised in Goblin Market, in which more emphasis is put on the ethic of sisterhood than is ever the case in fairy tales. More 2

5 generally still, in her major poems, Rossetti considers the transf ormations in women s social situations alongsid e the larger issue of women s independence in the Victorian period, while treating other more specializ ed themes, too. As already argued above, however, I also think it imp ortant to look into her earlier poems, the so-called Juvenilia, as demonstrating the learning process she passed through from childhood to maturity. follow. H ere is a more detailed preview of the contents of the chapters to Introduction I introd uce my purpose of this research. And I make a brief explanation of the biography of Christina Rossetti s family members. Chap ter One: Juvenilia Poems Sweet Love Shall Never Die. I explore not only the literary heritage that Rossetti consciously imitated, but also something of her deeper and less conscious motivations. Although less importance is usually attached to these early poems, I do not approve of this view, I think it is interesting to probe in the earliest poems for the earliest signs of Rossetti s later mature modes of expression. Chap ter Two: Sing Song Maternal Love and the Image of an Ideal Family. Rossetti applies her imaginative capabilit ies to a wholehearted appeal to the minds of children. Words such as ding a ding and ding a dong are full of vocal fun and the child comes to enjoy the rhythmical play of repeating them aloud while altering the voice to strengthen or weaken the sound. But apart from an attraction for children, Sing 3

6 Song also reveals an imaginary and poetical world that preoccup ies the writer herself. Here, I will analyze the rhymes amusing qualities and Rossetti s fantastic imagination. Chap ter 3: Goblin Market : Joining Hands to Little Hands In this chapter I come to grips with Goblin Market, which is generally acknowledged as the masterpiece of Rossetti s poetry. The poem excites a strong curiosity. Incantatory and amusing repetitions of words arrest readers attention and allure readers into trying to discover what the mysterious context is about. Are these word games just attractive as displays of rhythmical in cande sce nce, or is some thing else also implied? In all of her works Christina Rossetti devotes her rich imagination to the creation of a fantastic parallel world, but she disp lays this skill to its fullest in Goblin Market. Chap ter Four: The Prince s Progress The Meaning of Sleep Here, I focus on two types of Princesses, as found in The Sleep ing Beauty in the Wood and The Prince s Progress. By comparing the two, we can see the difference in view between a female writer s persp ective and the more traditional male one. Additionally I consider the meaning of sleep in fairy tales in general, and attempt to extract a lesson for the new way of lif e which was becoming required of a Victorian woman. In Chapter Five: The Iniquity of the Fathers upon the Children : From Femininity to Feminism In this chapter, I read one of Rossetti s longer poems from two comp arative viewpoints representing, on the one sid e, the ideals of physical and ideal family love among Victorians and, on the other, a feminist view of sisterhood. More particularly, I try to explore how a 4

7 young girl, in the course of her growth process, learns to overcome the conflicts inherent in traditional social convention and to live independently. In other words, the aim here is to examine how a girl transf orms from a dep endent being into an ind epend ent woman. Conclusion In this thesis, I have tried to read Rossetti as a poetess and as a woman writer of children s literature in the Victorian age. And I have discussed her works from a point of view of feminist criticism in order to arrive at a view of women s roles in that society. 5

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