11 1 J.P. Holdren, 1991, Population and the energy problem. Population and Environment12: , and personal communication (1998). 2 J. Holdren and P. Ehrlich, 1974, Human population and the global environment, American Scientist 62: ; P. Ehrlich and A. Ehrlich, 1990, The Population Explosion, Simon and Schuster, New York. 3 G.C. Daily, A.H. Ehrlich, and P.R. Ehrlich, 1994, Optimum human population size. Population and Environment 15: P.R. Ehrlich, et al., 1997, No middle way on the environment. The Atlantic Monthly280 (6): World Resources Institute, 1998, World Resources , Oxford University Press, Oxford. 6 G. Daily and P. Ehrlich, Socioeconomic equity, sustainability, and Earth s carrying capacity. Ecological Applications 6(4): Holdren, G. Daily and P. Ehrlich, Population, sustainability, and Earth s carrying capacity. BioScience 42: W. Catton, 1980, Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change, University of Illinois Press, Urbana IL. 10 Ehrlich and Ehrlich, See chapter 2 and the references in it. 11 For a fine overview of some of the critical trends, see R. Naylor, Energy and resource constraints on intensive agricultural production, Annual Review of Energy ; and N. Myers, 1995, Ultimate Security: The Environmental Basis of Political Stability, W.W. Norton, New York. 12 See, e.g., H. Colby, F. Crook, and S.-E. Webb, 1992, Agricultural Statistics of the People s Republic of China, , Statistical Bulletino. 844, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington DC; M. Imhoff et al., Monsoon flood boundary delineation and damage assessment using space-borne imaging radar and Landsat data, Photogrammatic Engineering and Remote Sensing 53: See also pp of Ehrlich, Ehrlich, and Daily, For an overview, see chapter 6 of P. Ehrlich, A. Ehrlich, and G. Daily, 1995, The Stork and the Plow, Putnam, New York. 14 E.g., P. Gleick (ed.), Water in Crisis, Oxford University Press, New York, and The World s Water, Island Press, Washington DC; M. Reisner, Cadillac Desert, Viking, New York; S. Postel, Water for agriculture: Facing the limits, Worldwatch Paper 93, Worldwatch Institute, Washington DC; S. Postel, G. Daily, and P. Ehrlich, 1996, Human appropriation of renewable fresh water, Science 271: Ehrlich, Ehrlich, and Holdren, 1977, chapters 3, 4, 6, and 11; N. Myers, 1979, The Sinking Ark, Pergamon Press, New York; P. Ehrlich and A. Ehrlich, 1981, Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species, Random House, New York; E. Wilson (ed.), 1988, Biodiversity, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.; P. Ehrlich and E. Wilson, 1991, Biodiversity studies: science and policy, Science 253: ; E. Wilson, 1992, The Diversity of Life, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; J. Lawton and R. May (eds.), 1995, Extinction Rates, Oxford University Press, Oxford; S. Pimm, G. Russell, J. Gittleman, T. Brooks, 1995, The future of biodiversity, Science 269: ; E. Hoyt, 1988, Conserving the Wild Relatives of Crops, IUCN, Gland and Rome; C. Fowler and P. Mooney, 1990, Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity, University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 9
12 16 E.g., L. Oldeman, V. Van Engelen, and J. Pulles, The extent of human-induced soil degradation, Annex 5 of Oldeman et al., World Map of the Status of Human-Induced Soil Degradation An Explanatory Note (rev. 2nd. ed.), International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC), Waginengen, Netherlands; R. Repetto, 1994, The Second India Revisited: Population, Poverty, and Environmental Stress over Two Decades, World Resources Institute, Washington DC ; G. Daily, 1995, Restoring value to the world s degraded land, Science 269: ; National Research Council, Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture, Board on Agriculture, Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington DC. 17 P. Vitousek, et al., Human domination of Earth s ecosystems. Science 277: N. Myers, 1996, The world s forests: problems and potentials. Environmental Conservation23: D. Pauly, Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279: S. Postel, G. Daily, and P. Ehrlich, Human appropriation of renewable freshwater. Science 271: Daily, P. Vitousek, H. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. Melillo, Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecological Applications7: P. Vitousek, P. Ehrlich, A. Ehrlich, and P. Matson, 1986, Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis. BioScience 36: E.g., S. Buchmann and G. Nabhan, 1996, The Forgotten Pollinators, Island Press, Washington, DC; G. Nabhan and S. Buchmann, 1997, Services provided by pollinators. In G. Daily (ed.), Natures Services, Island Press, Washington, DC, pp Oldeman, et al., 1990; P. Ehrlich, A. Ehrlich, and G. Daily, Food security, population, and environment. Population and Development Review19:1, pp. 1-32; Daily, Postel, Daily, and Ehrlich, Vitousek et al., Ehrlich, Ehrlich, and Holden, 1977, Ecoscience; Population, Resources, Environment, W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco; Myers, 1979; Ehrlich and Ehrlich, 1981; Wilson, 1988; Ehrlich and Wilson, 1991; Wilson, 1992; Lawton and May, 1995; Pimm et al., 1995; P. Raven and J. McNeely, 1996, Biological extinction: its scope and meaning for life, in L. Guruswamy and J. McNeely (eds.), Their Seed Preserves: Strategies for Preserving Global Biodiversity, Duke University Press, Durham, NC. This is a conservative estimate; see, for example, R. May, 1988, How many species are there on Earth? Science 241:1448, 16 September. 29 G. Daily, ed., 1997, Natures Services: Their Nature and Value, Island Press, Washington, DC, in press. 30 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 1995, Summary for Policymakers, Working Group I, pp Although there has been some genuine scientific debate, much of this campaign has been outright disinformation (see P. Ehrlich and A. Ehrlich, 1996, Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-environmental Rhetoric Threatens Our Future, Island Press, Washington, DC; R. Gelbspan, The Heat is On, Perseus Books, Reading, MA. The most recent incident involved the circulation of a fake reprint designed to look like an article that had been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 32 J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, and J. Glascoe, 1998, Global climate data and models: a reconciliation. Science 281: T.R. Karl and R.W. Knight, 1998, Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity in the USA. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79: W. Stevens, 1998, As Alaska melts, scientists consider the reasons why. New York Times, 18 August. 35 E.g., S. Simonich and R. Hites, Global distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds. Science 269: Simonich and Hites, C. Edwards, The impact of pesticides on the environment, in D. Pimentel and H. Lehman (eds), The Pesticide Question: Environment, Ecnomics, and Ethics, Chapman & Hall, New York, pp ; T. Colborn and C. Clement (eds.), 1992, Chemically-induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection, Princeton Scientific Publishing, Princeton, NJ, chapters 6-9; for more details and references, see Ehrlich, Ehrlich, and Holdren, 1977, chapters 10 and 11; and Ehrlich and Ehrlich, E.g., J. Toppari, et al., Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 104 (suppl. 4): T. Colborn, J. Myers, and D. Dumanoski, Our Stolen Future, Dutton, New York; see also Colborn and Clements, 1992, especially chapters In , the Netherlands had average net imports of more than 3 million metric tons of cereals and 800,000 metric tons of pulses (peas and beans, including soybeans); World Resources Institute, World Resources , Oxford University Press, New York. 41 M. Wackernagel, 1993, How Big is our Ecological Footprint? A Handbook for Estimating a Community s Carrying Capacity, Discussion draft, Task Force on Planning Healthy and Sustainable Communities, Univer- 10
13 sity of British Columbia, Department of Family Practice, Mather Building, 5804 Fairview Avenue, Vancouver B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z3, 15 July. The Netherlands ecological footprint or appropriated carrying capacity is defined as the aggregate land (and water) area in various categories required by the people in a region a) to provide continuously all the resources they presently consume, and b) to absorb continuously all the waste they presently discharge, using current technology (p. 10). 42 A steady flow of recent information has made ever more pertinent the 1996 warning of Colborn, Dumanoski, and Myers in Our Stolen Future. 43 P. Ehrlich, 1997, World of Wounds: Ecologists and the Human Dilemma, Ecology Institute, Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany, chapter E.g., K. Arrow, et al., 1995, Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Science 268: P. Hawken, 1993, The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability, HarperCollins, New York; S. Schmidheiny, 1992, Changing Course: A Global Business Perspective on Development and the Environment, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 11
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