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1 w Ü Ö Ó è The Regulation of Genetically Modified Cultivation in Hokkaido, Japan /April 2007 þ s þ «Ê HASHIMOTO Hiroyuki Director of Food Policy Division, Bureau of Food Safety Promotion Department of Agriculture, Hokkaido Government, Japan

2 Location Hokkaido is the northernmost of Japan s four main islands. Its latitude is between and north, almost similar to New York, London and Paris. Its longitude is between and east. 1

3 HOKKAIDO The Largest Food Producing Region in Japan Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishery in Hokkaido accounts for approximately 20 % of the total national supply. /Calorie-based food self-sufficiency rate in Hokkaido 1 1/ per day, per capita) /Calorie provided /Calorie produced A. /in Japan B. /in Hokkaido C. (B / A) /Contribution by Hokkaido 2,562 kcal 1,013 kcal 227 kcal 22.4% Major products that Hokkaido is No.1 in the nation in output 7.5% 61.6% 44.5% 79.3% 54.3% 100% /Rice 683 kt /Wheat 540 kt /Beans 147 kt /Potatoes kt /Onions 611 kt /Sugar Beets 4,201kt 46.6% 14.6% 48.6% 82.7% 75.8% 77.7% /Milk 3,860 kt /Beef 75 kt /Saury 99 kt /Kelps 114 kt /Scallops 401 kt /Salmons 198 kt 2

4 FOOD Key Industry in Hokkaido 41.1% 11.8% 7.8% Food industry accounts for 41.1 % of the total manufactured goods in Hokkaido in shipment value, far exceeding the national average of 11.8%. The shipment value of the food manufacturing industry in Hokkaido is No. 1 in the nation, accounting for 7.8% of the national share. /Ratio of shipment value of manufactured goods by industry /Other 30.4% 33.7% /Food products 5,262,648 / Million JPY /Metal products 5.3% /Steel 6.6% /Beverage, tobacco & feed 7.4% 8.8% /Petroleum & Coal products 7.9% /Pulp, paper & paper products /Source: Industrial Statistics (2004) 3

5 Opinion poll on Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) There were various opinions on GMO in the opinion poll, council and assembly discussions: ranging from a strong concern of eating to the importance of experimental research. Awareness of GM organisms and foods Not concerned 11.8% Not much concerned Fairly concerned 29.7% No answer 2.2% 3.4% Concerned 52.9% Awareness of experimental research of GM technology No answer 2.9% Others 2.9% 18.0% Should ban totally 41.6% 10.3% Accept vigorously 24.3% Accept with some restriction Accept research but suspend implementation Opinion poll in Hokkaido, July

6 the Hokkaido Food Safety and Reliability Ordinance Conservation of rich natural environment Fulfilling the role as food supply region Appropriate response to consumer needs Promotion of environmentally-safe agriculture þ s sÿü º The Hokkaido Food Safety and Reliability Ordinance (enacted in March 2005) s sÿþ d Establishing Hokkaido Food Brands, indicating Food from Hokkaido is Safe and Reliable 5

7 The Hokkaido Preventive measure Ordinance against Crossing by GM Cultivation The Ordinance sets the rules to carry out GM cultivation in an open system in Hokkaido under strict management, to prevent GMOs from crossing or commingling with common crops. Open system general cultivation (outdoor, commercial cultivation by farmers) Open system experimental cultivation outdoor, experimental research cultivation by research institutions License given by Governor Notification to to the Governor Objectives of the Ordinance GM Prevention of crossing or commingling between GM- and common crops Prevention of confusion in production and distribution GM Promotion of research using GM technology GM Prudent measures in commercial GM cultivation GMGM GM Strict rules to "coexist" GM and non-gm crops 6

8 /Growers Obligations 1: Employment of staff responsible 2: Appropriate maintenance of countermeasures against crossing or commingling 3: Archiving the data on handling and shipment of GMOs 4: Monitoring measures and following result reporting to the Governor 5: Measures for possible/actual crossing or commingling and following reporting to the Governor 7

9 /System Ó æ Growers Open system general cultivation License ß½¼ Ÿ Test research Open systemexperimental cultivation ( ) Application (notification) Briefings () License (recommendation) à Governor úæ Target growers (for briefings) Those who grow common crops within the extent that the Governor regulates. Hearings Notification Opinions ( ) is for open experimental cultivation þ s sÿuy The Hokkaido Food Safety and Reliability Committee Studies preventive measures against crossing or commingling 15 Consists of 15 members including academic experts, consumers, producers etc. Commit Report Subcommittee(s) w Ü Ö ÃØ Þ GMO Session Studies preventive measures against crossing or commingling scientifically Consists of 6 researchers /Reviewing Ordinance The Ordinance is under review 3 years after enforcement, open for consideration of social and economic changes. 8

10 /Standard to prevent crossing or commingling The Ordinance stipulates that the following standard applies to the open GM cultivation, to prevent crossing or commingling. /By isolation distance GMOs Target plants /Distance to maintain Distance Conditions Rice Oryza sativa L. Minimum 300m Oryza sativa L. Minimum 52m Seedlings should be planted to ensure 2 weeks or more between the coming into ears period. Soy Bean Glycine max L.,Glycin soja Minimum 20m Glycine max L. Suger Beet Beta vulgaris Beta vulgaris Minimum 2,000m Corn Zea mays L.,Zea mays subsp.mexicana Minimum 1,200m Zea mays L. Rapeseed Brassica napus Brassica napus,brassica rapa Minimum 1,200m Measures taken include setting insect screens or others that prevent pollen scattering by insects. 9

11 Other measures (in case that the isolation distances cannot be secured) 1: To keep the distance as far as possible 2: To prevent pollen from generating and scattering 3: To stagger blooming periods /Countermeasures against commingling 1: Separation management of GM seed,seedlings and crops 2: Prevention of dropping during sowing, planting, and carrying 3: Exclusive use of equipments, washing and and cleaning 4: Installation of posted notification, showing the GMO field and off limit 5: Others 10

12 Experimental Research of crossing in Hokkaido ( ) 2008 Aiming to improve the safety precautions and preventive measures against crossing stipulated by the Ordinance Hokakdio Government conducts experimental researches of crossing from 2006 to Here are the intermediate results, and the final results will be issued in /Target crops for research (2007 ) 5 crops for which the isolation distances have been stipulated under the Ordinance: rice, soybean, corn, rapeseed and sugar beet (the experiment started in 2007) /Major research (1) /Experiments on crossing ( ) Investigated the crossing rate by DNA analysis of seeds after growing 2 kinds of non-gm crops (pollen parent, seed parent) at a certain distance and blooming times. /Rice 2 300m /Soy Bean 10m 20m /Corn 250 1,200m (2) /Survey of flower visiting insects Surveyed the insect flower visits by viewing, skimming and flower-picking during blooming period of soybeans and rapeseeds. 11

13 2006 /Findings as of m(1.136%),26m(0.529%),150m(0.068%),300m(0.024%) (Rice) Confirmed crossing at a distance of 2m (crossing rate of 1.136%), 26m (0.529%), 150m (0.068%) and 300m (0.024%) 10m(0.066%),20m(0.032%) 135m (Soybeans) Confirmed crossing at a distance of 10m (0.066%) and 20m (0.032%); and crossing with another pollen sources with the distance of more than 135m 250m(0.015%),600m(0.003%) (Corn) Confirmed crossing at a distance of 250m (0.015%) and 600m (0.003%) 12

14 The Hokkaido GMO Consensus Conference The Hokkaido GMO Consensus Conference was held to increase awareness on the situation of GMOs and The problems they present to citizens, and to collect their opinions. /State of GMO Consensus Conference /Participants ( local citizens GM experts (researchers on GM technology and others) /Past Schedule Nov. 25, 2006 Feb. 4, meetings with 40 hours discussion in total The final proposal was announced on March 19,

15 /Summery of the Citizen proposals 1) /From the viewpoint of safety and reliability Implementation of chronic toxicity tests beyond generation by long-term ingestion Promotion of the researches of influence on allergy GM Mandatory GM labeling to all food products including soy sauce and oil 2) /From the viewpoint of consumers and producers Negative to cultivation of GMO as consumers, research in a closed system should be continued Examination of GM cultivation in terms of the Hokkaido economy, such as energy and medical supplies 3) /GM cultivation in Hokkaido It describes both prudent opinions and positive opinions about GM cultivation. A place for thorough discussion is suggested to continue. Declaration by the Hokkaido Government to suspend commercial cultivation until a consensus is built among Hokkaido people. 14

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