History of Sustainable Energy Policies and Development of Green Energy Technologies in Japan

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1 Technology Marketing: knowing internal environment and conducting SWOT analysis Prof. K. FUKUYO, MOT, Yamaguchi Univ.

2 Internal Environment Before making new products or services, you should know the internal environment, too You should understand the capability of your company / organization Typical scheme to understand the internal environment (capability / nature of the company / organization) is a value chain model 新 たな 商 品 を 作 る 前 に, 内 部 環 境 も 知 る 必 要 がある まず, 自 分 の 企 業 組 織 の 能 力 を 知 ること 内 部 環 境 を 理 解 するための 典 型 的 な 枠 組 みとして バ リューチェーン モデルがある

3 Value chain Primary activities Inbound logistics Operation s Outbound logistics Sales Services Input costs Support activities Firm infrastructure Human resource management Technology development Procurement Output value

4 Primary activities Inbound Logistics 購 買 物 流 Operations オペレーション Outbound Logistics 出 荷 物 流 Sales 販 売 Services サービス Getting orders from customers Purchasing, socking, distributing materials Making products or services by using materials Stocking and providing the products / services Promoting and selling products / services Maintaining and fixing products / services Appropriate quantity, quality, and cost; Catching calls from customers Quality and quantity; Costs of manufacturing Inventory adjustment; Quick and safe delivery Encourage customers to by the products / services Claim management

5 Importance of primary activities The primary activities are ordinary works They are not special works However, if your company conduct primary activities worse than the rivals, your company lose the competition Your company should conduct each of primary activities better than the rivals 主 活 動 は 通 常 業 務 であり, 特 別 なことではない しかし,ある 企 業 が 主 活 動 をライバルよりもうまくこなせない 場 合,その 企 業 は 競 争 に 負 ける 企 業 は 各 主 活 動 をライバルよりもうまくこなしていく 必 要 があ る

6 Don ts in outbound logistics Don t package your products poorly Too much packaging is not required But it is required to package your products in order to prevent damage Don t be late for delivering your products to your customers Late delivery loses your customers trust Don t forget to have enough products on hand If there s no products in your shops, you will lose business chance 製 品 の 包 装 に 気 を 配 ること 納 期 に 注 意 十 分 な 在 庫 を 持 つこと

7 Don ts in services Don t forget service supports after you provide your products / services If you sell cars, you should conduct maintenance supports for your customers You will get money from the maintenance supports and selling spare parts Don t leave claims from your customers You will lose the customers trust You cannot get important information to improve your products 納 品 後 のサポートを 忘 れないこと 顧 客 からの 苦 情 を 放 置 しないこと

8 Support activities Firm infrastructure Organizational structure, control systems, company culture, etc. Human resource management Employee recruiting, hiring, training, development, and compensation Technology Technologies to support value-creating activities Procurement Purchasing inputs such as materials, supplies, and equipment 支 援 活 動 には 次 のものが 挙 げられる 企 業 インフラ, 人 材 資 源 管 理, 技 術 開 発, 調 達

9 Technology affects primary acts. For inbound logistics Transportation Material handling and storage Communications Operations Process Materials Machine tools Material handling Packaging Maintenance Design Testing 購 買 物 流 輸 送 材 料 の 搬 送 貯 蔵 意 思 伝 達 オペレーション プロセス 材 料 加 工 機 械 材 料 搬 送 包 装 保 守 設 計 試 作

10 Technology affects primary acts. Outbound Logistics Transportation Packaging Communications Sales Media (TV / Internet, etc.) Communications Service Communications 出 荷 物 流 輸 送 包 装 意 思 伝 達 販 売 情 報 媒 体 意 思 伝 達 サービス 意 思 伝 達

11 Value chain analysis: primary acts. Primary activities 主 活 動 Inbound logistics Issue Impact / implications Comments / actions Operations Outbound logistics Sales Services

12 Value chain analysis: support acts. Support activities 支 援 活 動 Firm infrastructure Human resource management Technology Issue Impact / implications Comments / actions Procurement

13 SWOT analysis You can get much information from the external (macro and micro) and internal (value chain) analyses In order to identify the key issues among the information, SWOT analysis is conducted Strength (of your company) Weakness (of your company) Opportunity (in the business environment) Threat (in the business environment) 外 部 分 析 と 内 部 分 析 によって 莫 大 な 情 報 が 得 られる そのなかで 最 も 重 要 な 問 題 を 特 定 するためにSWOT 分 析 が 実 施 される

14 Strength and weakness Strength and weakness are related to the internal environment of a company 強 み 弱 みは 企 業 の 内 部 環 境 に 関 わる(ライバルとの 相 対 比 較 によるが) Example: If your company can make a product at less than half the cost of the other company, that is strength of your company However, if a Chinese company make the same product at less than the cost of your company, that is weakness of your company Rival s product cost: $100 Strong Your product cost: $50 Weak Chinese product cost: $25

15 Opportunity and Threat Opportunity and threat are related to the external environment of a company Example Rise of oil prices will be threat for a fuel-inefficient-car company and opportunity for a fuel-efficient-car company 機 会 と 脅 威 は 外 部 環 境 に 関 わる 例 :エネルギー 価 格

16 Procedure of SWOT analysis Based on the results of external (macro- and microenvironment) analyses, describe the opportunity and threat to your company Based on the internal (value chain) analysis, describe the strength and weakness of your company Think how to change your weakness into strength Think how to change threat to your company into opportunity by applying your strength 外 部 環 境 分 析 に 基 づいて 機 会 と 脅 威 を 特 定 する 内 部 環 境 分 析 に 基 づいて 強 みと 弱 みを 特 定 する どのようにしたら 弱 みを 強 みに 変 えることができるか どのようにしたら 強 みを 生 かして 脅 威 を 機 会 に 変 えることがで きるか

17 Marketing flow Customer Who is your Customers Customers problem Customers needs Analyses Now you re here Business Environment Society, technology, economy, education Competition Stakeholders Your ability Technology, design Sales force Appeal power Company s Mission, Aims, Objectives Decision Making Planning Product Price Place Promotion Product / service launch Feedback / control Go back to the start

18 Decision making Based on the results of analyses (macro, micro, value chain, and SWOT) and together with the company s vision, mission, aims / policies, and objectives, you will make the decision and business plan Vision, mission, aims / policies, and objectives should be established before starting business (ideally) They should be revised when the business environment changes 外 部 環 境 分 析, 内 部 環 境 分 析,SWOT 分 析 の 結 果 とビジョ ン ミッション 等 とに 基 いて 事 業 計 画 を 決 定 する ビジネス 開 始 前 からビジョン,ミッション 等 が 確 立 されているこ と 望 ましい ビジネス 環 境 の 変 化 に 応 じてビジョン ミッション 等 を 作 り 直 す 必 要 がある

19 Marketing flow Customer Who is your Customers Customers problem Customers needs Business Environment Society, technology, economy, education Competition Stakeholders Your ability Technology, design Sales force Appeal power Company s Vision, Mission, Aims (policies), Objectives Analyses Decision Making Planning Now you re here Product Price Place Promotion Product / service launch Feedback / control Go back to the start

20 計 画 と 戦 略 と 戦 術 経 営 における 計 画 戦 略 戦 術 の 違 いは? 計 画 は 戦 略 は 戦 術 は K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

21 計 画 とは 事 業 計 画 販 売 計 画 中 期 計 画 など 時 間 によって 駆 動 される 月 日 に 発 売 月 までに 台 達 成 ある 時 点 での 予 測 に 基 づく 実 際 の 商 機 とは 関 係 が 無 い 突 然 の 経 済 環 境 の 変 化 に 対 する 判 断 がない 現 実 との 乖 離 が 著 しくなれば 修 正 廃 案 K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

22 戦 略 とは 経 営 戦 略 研 究 開 発 戦 略 など 長 期 的 な 利 益 の 安 定 的 成 長 を 図 ること 例 :10 年 で 売 り 上 げ 倍 増 K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

23 戦 術 とは 個 々の 製 品 の 仕 様 価 格 決 定,プロモーションなど マーケティング ミックス(4P)のような 戦 略 は 実 際 には 戦 術 に 過 ぎない 製 品 のヒット 率 を 向 上 するような 策 ならば 戦 略 企 業 の 利 益 は 個 々の 戦 術 に 支 えられている K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

24 軍 事 上 の 戦 術 戦 略 戦 術 の 任 務 は 個 々の 戦 闘 にそれぞれ 形 を 与 えるこ とであり また 戦 略 の 任 務 はこれらの 戦 闘 を 使 用 す ることである 戦 術 : 戦 闘 の 形 成 に 関 わる 戦 略 : 戦 闘 の 意 義 に 関 わる 戦 術 においては 理 論 を 組 み 立 てる 困 難 が 戦 略 にお けるよりも 遥 かに 少 なく 済 むのである 方 法 は 戦 略 におけるより 戦 術 において 多 く 使 用 され るのである 方 法 とは 常 に 繰 返 されるものとして 選 び 出 された 手 続 き のことである クラウゼヴィッツ 戦 争 論 ( 篠 田 英 雄 訳 岩 波 文 庫 ) K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

25 戦 術 と 戦 略 の 違 い 戦 術 戦 略 非 属 人 的 再 現 性 のある 一 般 解 サイエンス 属 人 的 状 況 に 応 じた 特 殊 解 アート K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

26 戦 略 を 考 える 前 に そもそも, 企 業 や 組 織 の 持 っているミッション( 使 命 ),ビ ジョン( 将 来 像 )を 振 り 返 ること 例 : 鉄 道 の 会 社 がディスカウントストアを 経 営 するのは 意 味 のないこと ミッション ビジョンの 例 : 日 産 ビジョン 人 々の 生 活 を 豊 かに ミッション 私 たち 日 産 は, 独 自 性 に 溢 れ, 革 新 的 なクルマやサービスを 創 造 し, その 目 に 見 える 優 れた 価 値 を, 全 てのステークホルダーに 提 供 しま す それらはルノーとの 提 携 のもとに 行 っていきます K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

27 ミッション ビジョン 戦 略 目 標 戦 略 ミッション ビジョン 戦 略 目 標 1 戦 略 目 標 2 戦 略 目 標 3 戦 略 1 戦 略 2 戦 略 3 戦 術 1.1 戦 術 1.2 K. Fukuyo, Prof., Yamaguchi Univ. 2013

28 Vision and Mission Vision Vision is a short statement what the company wants to be Mission Mission is a short statement of what organization is It describes why it exists and what it does to achieve its vision It focuses on what benefit the company provides

29 Example of mission, etc. (SONY) Vision To create exciting new digital entertainment experiences for consumers by bringing together cutting-edge products with latest generation content and services Mission Sony is committed to developing a wide range of innovative products and multimedia services that challenge the way consumers access and enjoy digital entertainment By ensuring synergy between businesses within the organization, Sony is constantly striving to create exciting new worlds of entertainment that can be experienced on a variety of different products

30 Example of mission, etc. (HONDA) Company Principle (Mission Statement) Maintaining a global viewpoint, we are dedicated to supplying products of the highest quality, yet at a reasonable price for worldwide customer satisfaction. Management Policies Proceed always with ambition and youthfulness Respect sound theory, develop fresh ideas, and make the most effective use of time Enjoy work and encourage open communication Strive constantly for a harmonious flow of work Be ever mindful of the value of research and endeavor

31 Example of mission, etc. (Philips) Mission Improving people s lives through meaningful innovation Vision At Philips, we strive to make the world healthier and more sustainable through innovation Our goal is to improve the lives of 3 billion people a year by 2025 We will be the best place to work for people who share our passion Together we will deliver superior value for our customers and shareholders

32 Example of mission, etc. (SAP 1) Vision Consistently deliver high quality solutions focused on improving customer satisfaction Mission Research and develop new methods and standards. Proactively communicate and share knowledge. Apply the knowledge to enhance our products, processes and services. Continually monitor and improve our performance against set targets. Strive for prevention of failure, defect reduction and increased customer satisfaction.

33 Example of mission, etc. (SAP 2) Policy Quality is the basic requirement for the satisfaction of our customers and the resulting competitiveness and economic success of SAP The Executive Board dedicates itself to the implementation and monitoring of the following principles: SAP employees shall work according to the Quality Management System applicable in their area SAP employees shall undertake all actions required to maintain a close cooperation with internal and external customers and partners, and a performance-oriented communication with its suppliers Continual improvement of our products, processes, and services coupled with innovation is at the center of our endeavors. To this end, SAP employees shall further optimize our organizational, operational, and technical processes. Quality Management shall support the business-oriented behavior of all parties involved Promoting employee satisfaction and quality awareness are major managerial functions in the entire company. Quality shall be an integrated element of daily business for everyone Integrity, excellence, partnership, innovation, and openness are required from all SAP employees to achieve the goals. They have to know the input requirements to comply with quality in their area. Internal education is provided to help SAP employees fulfill their tasks Quality goals are regularly defined, implemented, and monitored by responsible parties within the framework of our Quality Management Systems

34 Objectives You should embody mission/vision more specific Mission and vision are transformed into specific, measurable, aspirational, realistic, and time-bound objectives ミッション ビジョンをより 具 体 化 したものが 必 要 である それが 戦 略 目 標 戦 略 目 標 は, 具 体 的 かつ 測 定 可 能 なもの, 現 実 味 があ ると 同 時 に 向 上 心 があるもの,そして 時 間 の 制 約 を 備 え たものである

35 Specific, measurable We will develop a fuel-efficient vehicle is not a specific objective We will develop a fuel-efficient vehicle in 10 months is specific but not measurable We will reduce fuel consumption of a vehicle by 30 % in 10 months is specific and measurable

36 Aspirational, realistic We will develop a flying car is aspirational but not realistic We will develop a fuel-efficient vehicle is realistic but not aspirational We will develop a driverless car is aspirational and realistic Google is now developing a driverless car (which drives itself <<automatically>> and does not require a driver)

37 Time-bound Objectives should have time limits When it starts When it ends Timeless objectives will not ends It will fail

38 Decision making Results of Analyses External environment is like this Internal environment is like this Decision Making Your company s Vision Mission Aims / policies Objectives Based on the results of analyses, together with vision, mission, aims, policies, and objectives, you should decide what you should do

39 Marketing flow Customer Who is your Customers Customers problem Customers needs Analyses Business Environment Society, technology, economy, education Competition Stakeholders Your ability Technology, design Sales force Appeal power Company s Vision, Mission, Aims (policies), Objectives Decision Making Planning Now you re here Product Price Place Promotion Product / service launch Feedback / control Go back to the start

40 Planning In the planning stage, you should make plan for the following elements: Product Price Place Promotion These elements are often called Marketing mix 計 画 段 階 では,4つの P, 通 称 マーケティング ミック ス について 計 画 を 立 てなくてはならない

41 Product You should make a concrete / specific plan of product / services, which you offer to your customer Note People don t want products They want to solve their problem Example People don t want a computer They want to use the internet services So, people don t buy a computer, if there are cheaper devices to connect to the internet, such as mobile phones, tablet PC, etc.

42 Price How much will the customers pay for your products / services? Customer will not pay for your products themselves They will pay for the benefit which your products give

43 Place Place means how to provide your products / services at a place, which is convenient for consumers If you develop a good product but you cannot send it to your customers, you could not get any profit Logistics (transportation, packing, money-collecting, etc.) are vital for your business

44 Promotion Promotion consists of many activities, such as Advertising your products / services Informing benefit of your products / services to customers Sales promotions (discounts) Etc. Promotion is a type of communication

45 To concentrate on product Marketing mix is often called 4P s Each element of the marketing mix is important However, in this lecture, we concentrate on product Because this lecture is technology management and it has strong relationship with products / services 4Pの 要 素 はビジネスの 上 でいずれも 重 要 である 本 講 義 では 4P のうちの product に 注 目 する

46 Literature 1. Tony Curtis: Marketing for engineers, scientists and technologists, Wiley, Michael Porter: Competitive Advantage, Dave Needham: Business for Higher Awards, Heinemann,

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