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1 文 挿 入 問 題 のアプローチ 文 挿 入 問 題 は 君 たちはパラグラフリーディングを 身 につけ ているのかね? という 大 学 側 から 受 験 生 の 皆 さんに 対 する 挑 戦 状 だと 中 澤 は 勝 手 に 解 釈 しています 1パラグラフ パラグラフ1アイ デア 抽 象 から 具 体 この 原 則 を 用 いるのが 文 挿 入 問 題 の 対 処 法 の 基 本 です この 基 本 に 基 づいた 対 処 法 を 以 下 に 述 べます (1) 空 所 及 び 選 択 肢 を 無 視 し 本 文 全 体 を 読 む まずは 空 所 を 無 視 し 本 文 全 体 を 読 むことです その 際 1 各 段 落 のトピック2 各 段 落 の 主 張 を 取 ること 段 落 の 横 の 余 白 にメモをしておくと 良 いでしょう もっとも メモをするというのは 文 挿 入 問 題 だけでなく あらゆる 入 試 長 文 に 取 り 組 む 際 にやって 欲 しいことです 文 章 を 読 み 終 わる 頃 には 全 体 の 内 容 を 忘 れてしまう という 相 談 をよく 受 けます 中 澤 も 忘 れてしまいます( 年 齢 を 重 ねた 今 となっては この 忘 却 度 は 酷 いものです dementia か と 思 うくらいです ) 忘 れないためにはメモを 取 る 些 細 なことですが この 些 細 な 作 業 が 必 ず 皆 さんの 助 けとなりま す (2) 選 択 肢 を 精 読 する 全 体 を 読 み 終 わったら 選 択 肢 を 精 読 し 訳 します (3) 各 選 択 肢 が 何 について 述 べているものなのかを 考 える 精 読 した 選 択 肢 について これは 何 の 話 をしているもの なのか? を 考 えます (4) 各 選 択 肢 に 書 かれている 内 容 は どの 段 落 で 述 べられている のかを 考 え 答 えを 導 き 出 す 最 後 に 1パラグラフ1アイデア の 原 則 の 利 用 です 1パラグラフ1アイデア の 原 則 通 りに 考 えると 各 パラ 1

2 グラフの 空 所 に 入 る 文 に 書 かれている 内 容 は そのパラグラ フで 扱 われているトピックと 関 係 があるものだけになります ね 例 を 挙 げてみましょう 以 下 の 空 所 に 入 るのに 適 切 なもの を 選 んでください 例 題 西 宮 市 は 素 晴 らしい 街 である 交 通 の 便 がよく 梅 田 にも 三 宮 にも すぐに 出 ることが 可 能 である また 宮 水 と 呼 ばれるおいしい 湧 き 水 から 作 る 日 本 酒 は 相 当 美 味 である ( ) 教 育 熱 が 高 く 西 宮 北 口 は 塾 銀 座 と 呼 ばれ 数 々の 塾 や 予 備 校 が 並 ぶ 兵 庫 県 は 東 大 合 格 者 数 が 奈 良 県 に 次 いで 日 本 で2 位 であるのだが 西 宮 市 はその 原 因 の 一 端 を 担 っていると 思 われる 1 大 阪 市 内 はうるさく ごちゃごちゃしている 2 沖 縄 は 海 が 綺 麗 で 食 べ 物 がうまく 中 澤 は どうやったら 沖 縄 に 移 住 できるのか を 考 えている 3 西 宮 市 には 甲 子 園 球 場 が 存 在 し 阪 神 戦 が 行 われる 日 は 活 気 で 満 ち 溢 れる 4 奈 良 県 は うまい 物 無 し と 言 われる 奈 良 漬 け が 有 名 であるが 奈 良 の 人 間 はそんなものは 食 べないと 言 われて いる ただ 昔 は 奈 良 に 都 があったにも 関 わらず そのこと を 偉 そうに 言 わないあたりが 京 都 の 人 間 と 違 って 好 感 の 持 てるところである こんな 問 題 なら 答 えはすぐに 分 かるでしょう? 基 本 的 には これと 同 じように 考 えれば 良 いのです 上 記 の 手 順 以 外 に 代 名 詞 をうまく 活 用 するということも 頭 に 入 れておいて 下 さい あと パラグラフリーディングを 行 うため には ディスコースマーカー の 暗 記 は 必 要 です まだ 覚 えて いない 人 は 一 刻 も 早 く 覚 えてしまいましょう 2

3 1 次 の(A)~(C)の 各 文 を 入 れるのに 最 も 適 当 な 場 所 を 下 の 文 章 の(1)~(6)のうちからそれぞれ1つずつ 選 べ (センター 試 験 ) It has been said that nine out of ten people like chocolate and the tenth one is lying, but did you ever think about who gets the money you pay for your favorite chocolate? In fact, the farmer who grows the cocoa beans and the farmer whose cows give the milk get very little of the money you pay. Most of it goes to the companies which transport the raw materials, turn them into chocolate, then package, advertise and distribute it to stores. As a result, the cocoa and milk producers often live in very poor conditions. ( A ) Garstang, near Lancaster in England, is a town which encourages stores to sell Fairtrade goods; in fact, it calls itself The World s First Fairtrade Town. If you buy goods with the Fairtrade label, you can be sure that a reasonable part of the money you pay will go to the farmer who grows the raw materials from which your goods are made. For example, money paid for Fairtrade chocolate goes to cocoa farmers in Africa. People in Garstang became interested in Fairtrade 3

4 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 4

5 when they began to look for a way to help these farmers. The farmers complained that big chocolate companies were interested only in buying cocoa beans inexpensively, and not in whether the farmers had enough money to live. One group in Garstang decided to ( B ), making sure the farmers could keep as much of the profit as possible. The chocolate sold in stores in Garstang with a special Fairtrade logo on it was more expensive than ordinary chocolate, but 82% of local people said they were willing to pay extra if they knew the money was being used to help people in a poor country. Gradually, other goods came to be traded in this way. The next thing that happened was that local dairy farmers demonstrated in the center of Garstang. They wanted ( C ). They pointed out that, like the cocoa farmers in Africa, they also felt disadvantaged by an unfair trading system. They wanted more money for the milk their cows produced. As a result, Garstang has become a center not only for fair trade with poorer countries, but also for promoting locally produced goods. 5

6 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 6

7 ( A ) 1Farmers in England have started to grow their own cocoa. 2One small town in England is trying to change this situation. 3People take action in their local community to reduce the price of chocolate. 4There is very little that can be done to improve things. ( B ) 1buy cocoa directly from the farmers and make it into chocolate 2give money to poor African farmers who grow cocoa beans 3return the chocolate to the cocoa farmers in Africa 4supply cocoa beans to African farmers ( C ) 1to become involved in the Fairtrade movement 2to be paid more for the cocoa they produced 3to encourage chocolate consumption 4to reduce the price of their chocolate bars 7

8 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 8

9 2 Choose the most appropriate sentences from the following list (a ~ h) for the gaps in the text (25 ~ 31). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. ( 11 早 稲 田 ( 文 )) (a) However, most psychologists agree that children develop best in a caring family situation, and the ratio of institutional to foster care is much lower in most other developed countries. (b) However, there are not enough qualified staff to look after children in institutions, and the work tends to be low paid. (c) The document goes on to emphasize that there is no excuse for failing to provide the best possible care for children who have already been failed by their parents. (d) The former requires efforts on the part of the government, local authorities, civil society, and the media to raise awareness of the existence of Japan s most vulnerable children, and encourage people to do something about it. (e) There are a number of reasons, not the least of which are social and cultural factors. 9

10 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 10

11 (f) There are NPOs, such as the Anne Funds Project, that provide financial support in the form of loans for apartment rental set-up costs, to young people who reach the end of their term of institutional care. (g) This is why the number of children requiring care in Japan has risen rapidly in the past twenty years. (h) This last is inexcusable, given that many of the children in institutions have been removed from abusive families to provide them with a safer environment. An aspect of the Japanese welfare system that is quite different from that of many other developed countries is the way it deals with children whose parents cannot look after them. According to the latest survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a total of 41,602 children in Japan were not being cared for by their parents in Of these, 37,911 children were in institutional care, while 3,611 children were being looked after by 2,626 foster families. Of course, 11

12 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 12

13 institutions can provide good care. ( 25 ) In Sweden, for example, over 75% of children in care are in foster families, and most of those in institutional care are there because they have committed crimes rather than because their parents are unable to care for them. Why is the number of children in foster care so low in Japan? ( 26 ) The idea of taking an extra child into the family to provide care for him or her is just not imaginable for most Japanese families. Many families have the social, economic, cultural, and psychological resources to provide a child with a chance for a better life if they decided to do so, but the idea of fostering may never even occur to them, as it is so uncommon. Culturally, of course, there is one well-recognized form of fostering. This is to foster a child with a view to adoption to ensure succession of the family line, and 22% of foster families in Japan foster for this reason. The government is making moves to encourage the placement of more children in foster care. This is partly for practical reasons. The overall number of children in care has risen rapidly in recent years, and 13

14 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 14

15 institutions are overflowing. A majority of the children in institutions has suffered abuse at the hands of their parents, and they need specialist care and support. ( 27 ) It must be clear to anyone that living in overcrowded institutions, in the care of low-paid staff, is not an ideal childhood for the most vulnerable children in Japan. Furthermore, many of the children who grow up in institutions some from birth receive little or no support once they turn eighteen. For many, university is not an option, and their chances to succeed in life are curtailed at this point too. Clearly, the child welfare system in Japan would benefit from reform, and many people in Japan are campaigning for change at various levels. There is pressure on government to change laws to make it easier to help children who are being abused by their families. There are many local support groups for foster parents. ( 28 ) The efforts of individuals and groups play a key role in improving current conditions. At the same time, the two major issues that really need to be tackled through much more wide-scale effort are the expansion of foster care 15

16 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 16

17 and the assurance that care provided in institutions is of consistently high quality. ( 29 ) As for the quality of institutions, the current situation is that the quality of accommodation and care varies widely, with institutions at one end of the spectrum providing a secure, supportive, sensitive environment for their children, while at the other end, understaffing, low morale, and even cases of child abuse are found. ( 30 ) The government, operating authorities, and management committees must therefore take much more drastic measures to ensure that all institutions are well-staffed, well-managed, and well-run. Japan is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This international agreement states that in all actions concerning children the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. ( 31 ) The strength of a government is reflected in the way it treats its most vulnerable citizens. 17

18 段 落 構 成 や 板 書 等 18

19 練 習 問 題 Choose the most appropriate sentences from the following list (a ~ h) for the gaps in the text (25 ~ 31). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. ( 09 早 稲 田 ( 文 )) (a) A large number of these students are mothers, and the risk of them dropping out is particularly high because of a lack of social and financial support. (b) Because higher education keeps women away from the job of parenting and develops their ability to make a living, gender role theory suggests the unfortunate viewpoint that students who continue studying after becoming mothers may not be considered as positively as women who quit school to care for their families. (c) Even in cases where fathers played a supportive role, the Good Mother Stereotyped affected women s feelings of acceptance. (d) This is very unfortunate considering the possible benefits to both mothers and children alike. (e) While most working mothers have to spend a large proportion of their time outside the home, students have flexible schedules, can 19

20 20

21 do some of their work at home, and may even be able to take complete courses online at home. (f) While research on working mothers has progressed significantly in recent years, many more studies still need to be done in order to get a more detailed, accurate picture of how the Good Mother Stereotype affects mothers in higher education. (g) Women should stay home and take care of the family. (h) Women who work are considered less caring and less able in the role of mother than those who stay home t0 take care of their children. According to gender role theory, society has stereotyped expectations of how men and women should act. Men should go out to make a living and support their family. ( 25 ) The cultural belief is that women should have children and spend time with them in order to be successful in their gender role. This concept arises from social and cultural forces that say all women should be mothers and that how good 21

22 22

23 a mother is can be measured by the number of children she has and the amount of time she spends with them. Such stereotypes can affect women engaged in university studies or other higher education. ( 26 ) This Good Mother Stereotype may make it difficult for a woman to return to her studies after having a baby, or may prevent her from completely adjusting socially even if she does return to school. The fastest growing group of students entering university as mature students is females in their 20s and 30s. As the population of young people decreases and the total number of students proceeding directly from high school to university drops, taking care of this group of females may be one of the most important tasks for the continued success of colleges and universities. ( 27 ) Many steps are being taken to retain this group in school, and attention is increasingly being given to the problem. One of the key areas of attention is social acceptance. Feeling accepted socially by teachers and fellow students is just as important as succeeding academically. Researchers have found that having the 23

24 24

25 support of fellow students is the most important factor for poor single-mother students to succeed. This is even more important than university services or support of the family or teachers. Some research also suggests that women judged their experience at school in relation to how well they were able to build relationships with others. The Good Mother Stereotype would be a clear barrier to returning to school after giving birth as well as to reaching graduation for those who do try. ( 28 ) Mothers who complete their studies are not only important models for their children, but also are more likely to be able to provide for their children s practical and psychological needs in the future. The Good Mother Stereotype has also been found to affect mothers who have jobs. ( 29 ) In one study of the effect of role satisfaction on feelings about a working mother, a mother who stayed at home and said she was satisfied to do so was judged to be a better mother and less selfish than a mother who said she was satisfied that she decided to go back to work. When such stereotypes exist, it is even harder for a mother to make the decision to return to work or to school. 25

26 26

27 Although the Good Mother Stereotype presents similar barriers to success in the workplace and in higher education, there are significant differences between the two situations. The role of a college student diverges from that of an employee, and their lifestyles, commitments and responsibilities are also different. ( 30 ) Similarly, whereas working may be looked upon as a long-term or even lifelong pursuit, going to school for a degree is a temporary stage of life, with a fixed end goal and a limited time span. Differences between the role of a student and the role of a worker are important to consider when examining the impact of gender role stereotypes at schools and how they affect student mothers. Such differences have an enormous impact on the ways in which mothers are able to negotiate family with work or study. ( 31 ) 27

28 28

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