2 1-3 I hear that Japan is running out of places where we can dump rubbish [trash/garbage]. So we have to be more serious about (the problem of) recycling resources. 捨 てる に throw away を 用 いても 減 点 はされない 1-4 They say [I hear] (that) it won't be long before we have no place to dispose of waste(s). So we must make still more serious efforts to recycle [reuse] our resources. 2-1 The tendency for young people not to read (many) books is nothing new. I remember the same thing being said twenty years ago, when I was a university student. 2-2 The tendency of young people not to read very much is not a thing [a phenomenon/something] which has begun only recently. I remember hearing the same thing (said) when I was a college student twenty years ago. 3-1 It is (the) most important to develop [form] the reading habit when you are young. For you can get delight and lessons from reading. 3-2 Nothing is more important than to get [learn] the habit of reading in your youth, for you can derive both pleasure and lessons from reading. 4-1 People who have once known the pleasure of reading books (tend to) try to find books (which are just) fit [suitable] for them by what we should [could] call a reading instinct, even if they are left to themselves. 4-2 Once you have found the pleasure of reading, you (will) look [seek] for such books as you should read, guided [led] by, as it were [so to speak], an instinct for reading [the instinct to read], even if you are left to yourselves. as=( 疑 似 ) 関 係 代 名 詞 : 先 行 詞 に such が 付 くと as を 関 係 代 名 詞 として 用 い るのは 基 本 知 識 such books as you should read 5-1 In America, many college students work part-time [as part-time workers]. For example [instance], they work as waiters or waitresses and earn a considerable amount of money as [by means of] tips. 5-2 Many university students in America have a part-time job [part-time jobs]. They work as waiters or waitresses, for example, and earn considerable money by getting [receiving] tips. -2-
4 Some professional writers have as many books in their own studies as we have [do] in our school libraries. (study= 書 斎 ) 7-1 History is said to be a dialogue between the past and the present. But it is not easy to understand the true meaning of this saying. 7-2 It is said that history is a dialogue between the past and the present. However, its true meaning is difficult to realize. 8-1 It seems that the Japanese are eager only to sell Japanese [their] goods to foreign countries. They should tell (the) people living there more about the Japanese and the Japanese culture that have produced those goods. 8-2 Japanese people seem interested only in exporting our products to other countries. We should talk more to people in other countries about ourselves and our culture that have created these products. 先 行 詞 が 人 と 事 物 の 両 方 のときの 関 係 代 名 詞 は that であることを 忘 れずに 9-1 Misunderstanding often arises in our conversation. [In our conversation often arise misunderstandings.] If what we hint (at) is not understood by the person we are talking with [to], we assume that we are disregarded [ignored]. rise と arise を 混 同 しないように In our conversation often arise misunderstandings. は( 広 義 の) 場 所 方 向 の 副 詞 句 + 完 全 自 動 詞 + 主 語 の 倒 置 構 文 だが, 自 然 に 出 てくるのでなければ 用 いる 必 要 はない 9-2 We often misunderstand each other in our conversation; if what we imply [suggest] is not understood, we assume that we are neglected. neglect は ignore [disregard] と 異 なり, 故 意 に 無 視 するわけではないが, 日 本 語 からは, そのどちらであるかの 判 断 はつかない 10-1 Nowadays we very often see new museums everywhere, but the quality of what are [is] exhibited there is surprisingly poor [bad/low] These days newly built museums very often catch our eye everywhere. To my surprise, however, the artistic value of the works (which are) displayed in [at] them is terrible [very low]. -4-
5 [ 和 文 英 訳 ( 英 作 文 ) 標 準 ~ 応 用 篇 ] 11~ この 地 域 の 住 民 は 工 場 の 煙 突 からはき 出 される 煙 や 自 動 車 の 排 気 ガスに 絶 えず 悩 まされている 煙 突 からはき 出 される 煙 煙 突 からの 煙 排 気 ガス=exhaust [exhaust gas/exhaust fumes] 12. はたして 科 学 が 人 間 を 幸 福 にするものであるかどうかが, 最 近 しばしば 問 題 にさ れているが,これに 対 して 自 信 を 持 って 答 えるのはけっして 容 易 ではない はたして= 疑 問 の 強 調 / 本 当 に, 実 際 に 問 題 にされる 論 じられる/ 問 われる 13. 私 たちはできるだけ 他 人 の 意 見 を 尊 重 すべきである だが 同 時 にまた, 必 ずしも それに 盲 従 することはない だが 同 時 にまた=だが 同 時 に=だが 一 方 では 盲 従 する 鵜 呑 みにする 14. 日 本 人 は 冬 が 寒 い, 夏 が 暑 いとしじゅう 文 句 を 言 いながらも, 日 本 の 風 土 に 断 ち 切 れぬ 愛 着 を 感 じている しじゅう 文 句 を 言 う の 時 制 は? 断 ち 切 れぬ 愛 着 強 い[ 深 い] 愛 着 15. 人 前 で 話 をしたり,ものを 書 いたりしてみればわかるように, 自 分 の 思 うことを 表 現 するのは 母 国 語 であっても 容 易 ではない まして 外 国 語 ではなおさらだ 人 前 で=in public 人 前 で はどこにかかるのか? 解 答 例 11-1 People [Those] who live in this district are always troubled by the smoke from the factory chimneys [emitted by the factories] and the exhaust gas of the cars The inhabitants of this area are always afflicted by [always suffer from] the smoke which the chimneys of the factories give off and the exhaust which the automobiles give off Nowadays [These days] it is often discussed [it often comes into question] whether or not science really makes people [human beings] happy, but it is not easy at all to answer this question with confidence. -5-
6 12-2 Recently the problem has often arisen [has often been raised] whether science can bring happiness to humankind or not. However, it is no easy matter to answer this problem confidently We should respect [regard] others' opinions as much as we can. But at the same time, We don't necessarily have to follow them blindly We should have [show] as much respect [regard] as possible for others' views. On the other hand, We need not swallow them The Japanese are deeply [greatly] attached to the climate of their (own) country, though they are always complaining that (in Japan) winter is too cold and summer (is) too hot While we Japanese are always complaining about winters being very cold and summers (being) very hot (in Japan), We feel to [for] the Japanese climate a strong attachment which we cannot break off If you speak in public or write something, you will find it difficult to express your thoughts (ideas) even in your mother tongue, still [much] more in a foreign language As you (will) find if you speak in public or do some writing, it is not easy to express what you think even in your native language, still less [let alone] in foreign languages. As= 非 限 定 用 法 の 関 係 代 名 詞 の 働 き; 先 行 詞 は it is not 以 下 の 主 節 の 内 容 cf. It is not easy to express what you think even in your native language, still less in foreign languages, which you (will) find [=and you (will) find it] if you speak in public or do some writing. しかし, わかるように という 日 本 語 に 縛 られて as を 使 わなければいけない わけではない -6-
7 [ 和 文 英 訳 ( 英 作 文 ) 標 準 ~ 応 用 篇 ] 16~ 私 は 意 味 のよく 分 からない 単 語 が 出 てきたら, 必 ず 辞 書 を 引 いて 調 べています 単 語 が 出 てきたら= 単 語 に 出 会 ったら, 単 語 を 見 つけたら 辞 書 を 引 いて 調 べています= 辞 書 で 調 べています= 辞 書 を 引 いています 17. 外 国 語 を 学 んでいる 人 なら 誰 でも,どんなに 大 きな 辞 書 であっても 単 語 に 関 する すべての 疑 問 に 答 えることはできないことが 遅 かれ 早 かれわかるものだ 遅 かれ 早 かれ=sooner or later 18. お 年 寄 りや 女 性 だからといって 車 の 運 転 が 下 手 と 決 まっているわけではないが, 両 者 のドライバーとしての 評 判 はあまりよくない 19. 日 本 でも 喫 煙 に 対 する 否 定 的 態 度 が 一 般 的 になっている これはひとつには,い わゆる 受 動 的 喫 煙 が, 非 喫 煙 者 の 健 康 に 害 を 与 えかねないことがわかったから である 一 般 的 普 通, 当 たり 前 ひとつには 部 分 的 には/その 理 由 のひとつは 受 動 的 喫 煙 =passive smoking 20. ヨ-ロッパの 町 には 一 人 で 静 かにものを 考 えられる 空 間 があります それは 教 会 です 町 がどんなにうるさくても, 教 会 の 扉 を 開 ければ,そこには 沈 黙 の 世 界 があ ります 静 かにものを 考 える= 瞑 想 する, 沈 思 黙 考 する, 熟 考 する 空 間 = 場 所 解 答 例 16-1 When I come across a word whose meaning I don't know (very) well, I always look it up in the dictionary [check it in the dictionary] Whenever I find a word whose meaning I am not sure of, I (always) consult the [my/a] dictionary I make it a rule to consult a dictionary every time I find a word whose meaning I don't understand very well Anyone who studies [learns] a foreign language will sooner or later realize [find] that no matter how large a dictionary is, it cannot answer all the questions about words. -7-
8 17-2 Whoever studies [is studying] a foreign language sooner or later finds out that (even) the biggest dictionary cannot answer every question (that he has [may have]) about words Any student [learner] of foreign languages sooner or later realizes that in a dictionary he cannot find all the answers to his (or her) questions about vocabulary however large the dictionary is [may be] Elderly people and women are not necessarily bad [poor] at driving, but neither of them has [enjoys] a very good reputation. them に 合 わせて have とするのは 略 式 表 現 18-2 Being old people or women does not always means being bad drivers [that they are bad drivers]. However, their reputation as drivers is not very good.... But neither (of them) is respected for their driving skills In Japan too, the negative attitude toward [to] smoking has become common. This is partly because it has been discovered that what is called "passive smoking" can harm [injure] the health of nonsmokers [non-smokers] Also in Japan, people take [show] a negative attitude toward smoking. In part, this is because they have found that what we call "passive smoking" can be harmful to the health of people who don't smoke In Japan as well (as in other countries), anti-smoking opinion is generally accepted. One of the reasons (for this) is that what is called "passive smoking" has been found to be likely to harm the health of those who don't smoke In European towns there are places where you can meditate [contemplate/ reflect] quietly by yourself. They are churches. However noisy the town is [may be], when you open the door of a [the] church, you (can) find a silent world (there) European towns have good places to think (about) something in peace alone. It is in churches. No matter how noisy the town is, there is a silent world if you open the door of a church. It is in churches (that you can think about something in peace alone). -8-
10 解 答 例 21-1 Mother used to say that goods of (high[good/excellent]) quality would always prove [turn out] (to be) economical after being used for many years My mother's favorite phrase [saying] was that goods of high quality would always pay (off) in the long run As [So] far as (the) spoken language is concerned, Japanese is not at all difficult (to learn). The proof [evidence] (of this) is that many of the foreigners who have come to Japan become well [quite] able to have [be engaged in] (a) daily conversation (with Japanese people) in a year or so As far as (the) spoken Japanese is concerned, it is by no means hard to learn. As (a) proof of this, many foreigners who come to Japan become good at (carrying on) an ordinary [everyday] conversation after living here for one year It is not particularly difficult for children to learn to speak a foreign language, whether (it is) English or Chinese, as fluently as (its) native speakers. But it is very hard for adults to do so, if (it is) not completely impossible A child can easily learn to speak a foreign language, whether it is English or Chinese, as fluently as a native speaker. For adults, however, this is extremely difficult though it might not be altogether impossible When we have nothing to do, we often watch television (in order) to kill time. Without knowing it, we are given more information through [by] the mass media than we can absorb When there is nothing to do, we often pass the time by watching TV. The mass media provide us with more information than we can digest [assimilate], though we are not aware [conscious] (of it) It is said that Japanese universities are difficult to enter [get into] but easy to graduate from. On the other hand, European and American universities are easier for students to enter, but it seems that they cannot graduate (from them) without working hard [without much effort] Colleges in Japan are said to be hard to get into but easy to graduate from. By [In] contrast, colleges in Europe and America are easier for students to get into, but it seems impossible to get [obtain] a degree [diploma] unless they study hard. -10-
12 解 答 例 26-1 Twenty years ago, personal computers were very expensive, and only a limited number of people [only a few people] could afford (to buy) one. However, nowadays it is a necessary [a necessity] of life and one of the sources of information which we cannot do without [dispense with] in modern life It is said that since human history began, there has been no age [period] in which as many great changes have occurred [taken place] as rapidly as in the 20th century. But probably the same thing will be said about the 21th century Since the beginning [the dawn] of human history, it is said, there has never been a time which experienced [saw] as many great and rapid changes as the twentieth century did. However, the same thing will probably be said about the 21th century It is said that in human history, no other period [century] witnessed such great and rapid changes as the twentieth century did 世 紀 の 現 在 まで 含 めて 考 えれば 現 在 完 了, 20 世 紀 を 基 準 にすれば 過 去 になる 28-1 Today having enough [leisure] time to read books seems a luxury because the busier our lives become, the less time to read we have. Not a few people think that now reading is not so much a pleasure as a part of our cultural heritage (which) we must pass on to our children Today it seems that if we can afford (time) to read, it is a luxury. For we have less and less time for reading as our lives become busier and busier. Many people think that nowadays reading is not an entertainment [a pastime] but a part of our cultural heritage (which) we have to hand down to our children. a luxury: 贅 沢 =この 場 合 は 贅 沢 な 事 で 可 算 名 詞 だが, 英 語 の 可 算 名 詞, 不 可 算 名 詞 は 日 本 人 には 難 物 である 29-1 Men have lived in harmony with forests, but now the situation is [the conditions are] changing rapidly. In fact, as (more) forests disappear from (the surface of) the earth, the climate is (more) seriously influenced (by this), and more people suffer from starvation [hunger] Men have lived [led] a harmonious life with forests, but the situation is changing very fast. As a matter of fact, the more forests disappear [are lost] from the earth, the more serious influence this disappearance has [exerts] on the climate and the more people are suffering from starvation. -12-
13 30-1 The (average) life span of the Japanese is rapidly getting longer. This must be a good [wonderful] thing. But how we should live when we have grown [grow] old is a difficult [troublesome] problem More and more Japanese live longer and longer. There is no doubt that [No doubt,] this is a good thing. However, when it comes to the way of living [spending] our old age [years], it is difficult to find a good answer [solution/way]. -13-
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