primitive Schultz, Theodore W. efficient-but-poor hypothesis Stiglitz, Joseph E.LDC 2 Redfield, Robert San Antonio Palopó Agua Escondida peasants

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1 Abstract This paper takes as its case of study the south area of the Atitlán Lake in the midwestern highland of Guatemala. In the pre-colombian period, one of the Mayan indigenous ethnics, Tz utujil people, had developed a Kingdom and its southern part reached to the south coast as the wasteland, baldío. Since the late th century, the government has expropriated this baldío in order to be converted as the productive element of capitalism. In the first part of this paper, the historical changes in this area are traced giving a primary focus on the relation between the highland area and the lower baldío. After, it will be analyzed how this history has been described in the anthropological studies under the US academic research started at the s. One local young intellectual was employed to help Dr. Sol Tax for his fieldwork to write Penny Capitalism, and after to go to the south shore to start fieldwork in the primitive world, Tz utujil. The second part analyzes his field report concerning his role as the intermediate for establishing the anthropological fieldwork. Keywords: Wasteland (Baldío), Maya, Communitiy, Moral Economy Debate, Fieldwork 1 1 Tax, Sol Current AnthropologyDeclaration of Indian Purpose AICC Atitlán Panajachel Penny Capitalism

2 primitive Schultz, Theodore W. efficient-but-poor hypothesis Stiglitz, Joseph E.LDC 2 Redfield, Robert San Antonio Palopó Agua Escondida peasants

3 3 Tii-iii Tiii Tz utujil San Pedro La Laguna santos 4

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14 5 - jefe político intendente Tiii Tax, Sol. Penny Capitalism, A Guatemalan Indian Economy, Smithsonian Institution, Institute of Social Anthropology Publication, No., Washington: United States Government Printing Office, ibid., p.ix Schweigert, Thomas. Penny Capitalism : Efficient but Poor or Inefficient and (Less Than) Second Best?, World Development, Vol., No., pp. -, Great Britain : Nuffield Press Ltd.,, p.

15 Jun. No. - Wolf, Eric R. Closed Corporate Peasant Communities in Mesoamerica and Central Java, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, Vol., No.,, pp. - ibid., p. Scott, James C. The Moral Economy of the Peasant, Rebelion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia, New Haven: Yale University Press,. Popkin, Samuel. The Rational Peasant, Berkeley : University of California Press,, p. Wolf, Closed Corporate Peasant Communities, op.cit., p. ; fn. IPA Ti Rosales, Juan de Dios. Notes on San Pedro La Laguna, Microfilm Collection of Manuscripts on Cultural Anthropology No., Chicago: University of Chicago Library,. Rxx-xx Txx Paul, Benjamin. San Pedro La Laguna, Flavio Rojas Lima y Sol Tax, eds., Los pueblos del lago de Atitlán, pp. -, Guatemala : Seminario de Integración Social Guatemalteca,. ibid., pp. - McBryde, Felix Webster. Cultural and Historical Geography of Southwest Guatemala, Institute of Social Anthropology, Publication No., Washington D.C.: U.S. Goverment Printing Office,, p. Cortes y Larraz, Pedro. Descripción geográfico-moral de la diócesis de Goathemala, Prologo del Licenciado Don Adrian Recinos, de la Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala, Volumen XX, Tomo II, Guatemala: Biblioteca Goathemala,, p. McCreery, David J. Rural Guatemala, , California: Stanford University Press,, pp. - Recopilación de las leyes en Guatemala, tomo, año -, Guatemala, pp. - Recopilación, op.cit., tomo, año, p. McBryde, Cultural and Historical Geography, op.cit., pp. - McCreery, Rural Guatemala, op.cit., pp. - McBryde, Cultural and Historical Geography, op.cit., p. AGCA, Sección de Tierra, B, leg., exp., folios, el año de Recopilación de las leyes en Guatemala, tomo, año -, Guatemala, p. Recopilación de las leyes en Guatemala, tomo, año -, Guatemala, pp. - AGCA, Sección de Tierra, B, leg., exp., fol., el año de Recopilación de las leyes en Guatemala, tomo, año -, Guatemala, pp. - Paul, Benjamin.. San Pedro La Laguna, op.cit., pp. -

16 Recopilación de las leyes en Guatemala, tomo, año -, Guatemala, p. McBryde, Cultural and Historical Geography, op.cit., p Ethno-Naturales Ethno-Botanicas Ethno-Zoologica Recopilación de las leyes, op.cit., tomo, año -, pp. - p. ibid., pp. - Tax() ibid., pp. - Tax, Sol. The Indians in the Economy of Guatemala, Social and Economic Studies, Vol., No., pp. -, Institute of Social and Economic Research, University College of the West Indies,.

17 ibid., p. - ; p. Ph.D MIT CENS W.W.Rostow Geertz, Cliford Frank, A.G. The Cold War and Me, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Vol., No., Monthly Review Frank, Andre Gunder. ReORIENT: Global Economy in the Asian Age, Berkeley, California: University of California Press,, p.xvi. Prebisch, Raul Limqueco, Peter and Bruce Mcfarlane (eds.). Neo- Marxist Theories of Development, London: Croom Helm; New York: St. Martines Press.,. Wolf, Closed Corporate Peasant Communities, op.cit., p. Smith Carol. Conclusion : History and Revolution in Guatemala, in Carol (ed)., Guatemalan Indians and the State : 1540 to 1988, pp. -. Austin: University of Texas Press,, p. Handy, Jim. Revolution in the countryside: Rural Conflict and Agrarian Reform in Guatemala, , Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press,, pp. - Paul, Benjamin.. San Pedro La Laguna, op.cit., pp. - McCreery, Rural Guatemala, op.cit., p., footnote no. Cancian, Frank. Political and Religious Organization, in Manning Nash ed., Social Anthropology, Handbook of Middle American Indians, No., pp. -, Austin: University of Texas Press,, pp. - Adams, Richard N. Ethnic Images and Strategies in, Carol A. Smith (ed.), Guatemalan Indians and the State: 1540 to 1988, pp. -, Austin: University of Texas Press,, pp. - correyeros peones campañía de voluntarios R

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