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1 GIS Theory and Applications of GIS, 2012, Vol. 20, No.2, pp レーザ 計 測 による 地 理 空 間 データを 用 いたディジタルシティの 構 築 天 野 貴 文 * ** 吉 川 眞 Generating Digital City by Using Geo-spatial Data from Laser Measurements Takafumi AMANO* and Shin YOSHIKAWA** Abstract: In the field of urban design and landscape design, efficient and probable methods have been researched and developed to generate a digital city which is an urban model made by using three-dimensional computer graphics. This study tried to automatically generate three-dimensional building models with a roof shape and a facade shape in order to improve probability of landscape simulation in surroundings and an efficient urban modeling on computer graphics. The authors used DSM (Digital Surface Model) data, which is acquired by airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), and MMS data, which is acquired by MMS (Mobile Mapping System) also known as mobile LIDAR. A building's roof shape was reproduced and interpreted by the DSM data, and a facade shape was reproduced by the MMS data. Finally, the authors proposed a method of performing these automatically. Keywords: mobile mapping system, digital city, roof, facade, probability 1.はじめに GIS CAD/CG Computer Aided Design/Computer Graphics 1998 GIS CAD/CG CAD CG Amano and Yoshikawa, 2011 * Osaka Institute of Technology ** Osaka Institute of Technology Tel

2 2. 研 究 の 目 的 DM Digital Mapping LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging LIDAR Mobile Mapping System MMSMMS 3 CityGML Gröger et al., 2008 LOD2 MMS MMS 2005 MMS MMSとMMSデータ MMS MMS MMS 1 GPS IMU Inertial Measurement Unit GPS MMS 80km 1 26,000 80m m 0.1m 0.01m MMS XYZBLH GPSRGB 1 MMS 1GPS ユニット 2IMU 3ディジタルカメラ 43D レーザスキャナ MMS MMS

3 MMS 1 26, MMS Image-based Rendering IBR 2003 IBR Image-based Modeling IBM Modelbased Modeling MBM MBM MMS ファサード 付 き 建 物 モデルの 生 成 MBM a 2 1 MMS MMS 3D MMS MMS Digital Surface Model DSM MMS DSM 2 MMS MMS GPS MMS

4 データ 名 / 出 典 MMS データ / 株 式 会 社 パスコ MMS 車 両 軌 跡 データ / 株 式 会 社 パスコ 基 盤 地 図 情 報 ( 縮 尺 レベル 2500) 豊 中 市 / 国 土 地 理 院 LIDAR データ / 株 式 会 社 パスコ 基 盤 地 図 情 報 ( 数 値 標 高 モ デル)10m メッシュ( 標 高 ) / 国 土 地 理 院 内 容 2009 年 12 月 計 測. 座 標 値 (XYZBLH, 平 面 直 角 座 標 第 VI 系, 日 本 測 地 系 2000),GPS 時 刻 ( 小 数 以 下 4 桁, 秒 ), 予 測 誤 差 (m),カラー 情 報 (RGB) が 収 録 された CSV ファイル. シェープファイル 形 式 のラインデー タ. 平 面 直 角 座 標 第 VI 系 ( 日 本 測 地 系 2000).GPS 時 刻 ( 小 数 以 下 1 桁, 秒 ), 車 両 傾 き 情 報 (m)などを 収 録 年 調 製, 平 面 直 角 座 標 第 VI 系 ( 日 本 測 地 系 2000), 建 築 物 の 外 周 線 の 地 図 情 報 レベルは 年 から 2007 年 の 間 に 撮 影,デー タ 取 得 間 隔 2m(2m 2m に1 点 以 上 ), 平 面 直 角 座 標 第 VI 系 ( 日 本 測 地 系 2000)の DSM データ(ランダムデー タ) 年 調 製, 緯 度 経 度 座 標 系 ( 日 本 測 地 系 2000)の DEM(Digital Elevation Model: 数 値 標 高 モデル)データ. 4 MMS MMSMMS MMS GPS 4 MMS 1 MMS MMS MMS MMS 3 4 GPS 3 MMS 4 MMS MMS MMS MMS 3 MMS x MMS y 99.7 μ+3σ 3 5 y 0.1e 0.165x

5 P E 5 MMS MMS P E P E 0.1m P P 8 P E P P 7 9 P E GIS SIS Map Modeller P E P P

6 G R1 G L1 G L1 G L1 G R2 G L1 G R2 G R2 G L1 29.6m 26.5m 8 P E P P G 1 G 1 G 1 G L2 G R3 G 1 G R3 G L2 G L2 G L2 G 2 G 3 G L3 G P P L1 G L1 G L1 G R1 G L1 G R1 11 MMS LIDAR LIDAR

7 12 a b a 13 b 12 SIS Map Modeller GISLink 5. 屋 根 およびファサード 付 き 建 物 モデルの 構 築 MMS 2010b MMS DSM MMS m DSM Haala Haala

8 and Brenner 寄 棟 方 形 切 妻 陸 14 1 DSM 4 4 igva/igv T S 2 igva i igv i i 1 4 T S = Gg/G T f 3 Gg1 G T f =0.5 LIDAR 1m DSM 15 a b

9 6. 外 壁 線 手 すり 壁 線 軒 線 の 自 動 抽 出 a GIS C D f g h 2 MMS 3 (a) (c) (b) (d) 16 a MMS b A A MMS B c B A d 0.1m 0.01 e C D (e) (f) (g) (h) a b 7.おわりに

10 (a) (b) 17 謝 辞 MMS LIDAR 参 考 文 献 2010a MMS A-3 CD-ROM 2010b A1-G22 DVD-ROM 2011 MMS Mobile Mapping System A1-G21 DVD-ROM IBR MBR CVIM GIS Mobile Mapping System 19 3D-3 CD-ROM 2007 VR Amano, T. and Yoshikawa, S. (2011) Facade Modeling with Mobile Mapping System Data. Proceedings of the

11 12th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management (CUPUM 2011), 207 (USB Memory). Gröger, G., Kolbe, T. H., Czerwinski, A. and Nagel, C. (2008) OpenGIS City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard Version 1.0.0, Doc. No r1, International OGC Standard, Open Geospatial Consortium. Haala, N. and Brenner, C. (1998) Interpretation of Urban Surface Models Using 2D Building Information. Computer Vision and Image Understandings, 72(2),

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