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37 Migration and employment in late Edo period in Iwami Silver Mine Territory Why was household reproduction rate the lowest among non tenant peasants? HIROSIMA Kiyosi Faculty of Law and Literature, Shimane University, Professor Emeritus With the anticipation that the rise in fertility and in population growth rate were caused by the decrease in outmigration from villages for employment among lower class peasants in late Tokugawa Period, I examined the migration rate by stratum of landholding in Iwami Silver Mine Territory villages. Consequently, the rate was found to be in reverse proportion to the rank of the landholding of peasants except those with 10 koku and more, which is in accord with the anticipation. Very rare descriptions of deshoku, meaning going outfor work leaving family members were found in Shūmon Aratamechō of a few villages. Besides, among 21 deshoku workers recorded in a documentof a village, only one was registered as a residentin Shūmon Aratamechō of the village. Hence, it was inferred that the description of deshoku was exceptionally carried out by the unstable circumstances in late Tokugawa Period in Iwami, which was situated close to the country of Chōshū that revolted against the Shogunate government and that most deshoku workers were not written as such but only registered as emigrants when getting out of the villages for the first time in the Shūmon Aratamechō. Therefore, deshoku is considered to be the important hidden cause to decrease the household reproduction rate by delaying marriage of the never married and by hindering marital life of the married for the lower classes of peasants. Also, this can be concluded as the mechanism that the lowest class of peasants of no landholding had a higher marital rate and fertility rate but a lower rate of reproduction of household calculated for residents of villages registered in the Shūmon Aratamechō than those with minimul landholding less than one koku had. Keywords migration, employment, fertility, strata, work away from home

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