158 citation form c. N T Archangeli Underspecification T Underspecification Contrastive Underspecification Radical Underspecification T Underspecifica

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1 英 語 冠 詞 再 訪 高 橋 直 彦 , N 2000, 2009 T 14 0 a. N T 2 b. N 1 3 T Phonetic Implementation TM IA IP 1 sign signature <http://raspberries.jp/sign.html> <http://raspberries.jp/kaku.html> <http://raspberries.jp/np.html> 2 2 T changing processes template - matching filling - in processes 1990, 1992, 1996a, b 3 Optimality Theory OT ,

2 158 citation form c. N T Archangeli Underspecification T Underspecification Contrastive Underspecification Radical Underspecification T Underspecification CU RU Underspecification CU RU Underspecification unfeasible 4 d. b, c N T N T 5 e. a, c N IP T TM Nondistinctness Principle distinct template - 4 CU RU Archangeli 1984, 1988, Archangeli & Pulleyblank 1989, Mohanan 1991, Itô, Mester & Padgett 1995, Steriade Pairwise Algorithm Archangeli 1988 Dresher 2008 The Successive Division Algorithm TM PA SDA PA SDA Underspecification 11 deep depth CV - tier 2 C cone conic CV - tier 2 X C C 5 Cf. Knowledge often progresses in a spiral, turning a full circle, but never going back to the same point Mohanan 1986 : 3. Dresher 2009 pp

3 matching filling - in processes

4 158 2 <http://raspberries.jp/2.html> 18

5 N 2010 N 0b N the ð 6 proclitic fatal cf. 2 Hansson 2010: 15 fn 7 ia In the diagram in ia, X k is shown as having its own feature specification G on the relevant tier, which gets eliminated delinked as part of the spreading process. This is by no means necessary; the harmony in question might just well be a feature - filling operation, if target elements X k can be assumed to lack specifications on the F / G / H tire. Hansson OT 19

6 158 and/or d 8 i TM 0a, c, e 8 3 the ð the Tom Gally ðí: ð Neal Snape ðí: 20 a éi toke: to ke e to ke i to ke e to ke i a éi the ðí: Cf. 11 N /æn/ n /ði:/ ðí: ðí cf. 20

7 0a N archiphoneme Underspecification cf. 0c 9 cf. 0d 6 6 N IP IP IA Hokett 1954, , b : 95 0d T 9 cf. 0a 21

8 158 cf. 5 derivation - independent grammar TM T 1 vs. derivation - dependent grammar IP N 1 N 7 7 /æ/ /æ/ about a local locality a about a / / local locality a æ about a 22

9 about a local locality a about a local locality a a an N a an 9 about a local locality a famous ei infamous a 13 net n autumn autumnal n bet bomb bombard b bomb bombard b T N autumn n bomb b e.g. N TM e.g. T Nondistinctness Principle 0e 14 cf. 2 2 TM 1995, 1996a IP e.g. N e.g a/an /æn/ / n/ N /æn/ n /æn/ / n/ /æn/ n n N 23

10 b vs. 1 T T N T 9 e.g. CV - tier 2 N / / T N 14 AI n autumn n bomb b N SWSW n /æn/ n /ði:/ ðí: ðí TM CV - tier Dresher 2009 pp. 4-5 N 7 24

11 a ei , 2009 T N 2000, 2009 T 0b N 3 T N vs. T proclitic 1 T T TM 7 the ð and/or 4 14 Kiparsky 1982a, b, 1985 and/or paralinguistic factors comfortable k vmf t bl k mft bl ð 25

12 i : a an n the ð ði ii : a éi an n the ðí: iii : the ð 0a N TM T T Nondistinctness Principle Underspecification cf. 0c, e DP 16 9 a/an : 107 autumn autumnal 13 ii a éi famous ei infamous ei famous ei éi 14 N ðí: ðí 3 26

13 9 3 9 a. b. 27

14 158 c. a an d. a an , 2008, 2010b TM T derivation - independent grammar IP N derivation - dependent grammar OT Cf. 1995, b : 6 TM IP TM N /æn/ N 14 N OT 15 TM 28

15 16 éi n cf. <http://jbauman.com/gsl.html> the 1 a 5 1 N cf. 7 T a, b, 2008, NP DP cf. Abney 1987 Det Det NP NP cf. Culicover and Jackendoff DP NP DP DP Sunday, Monday, and Saturday N default V /N/ coarticulation and/or 29

16 158 n n e.g. n n /n/ n n n m /N/ Underspecified entity unfeasible divine divinity autumn autumnal bomb bombard 11 7 e.g. 7 1 N 6 /æn/ N /p/ /æn/ /n/ in Paris /In/ /n/ N 30

17 /æn/ /n/ /In/ /n/

18 N the ð ði T sonority profile : SP proclitic the ω i the pear, man, etc. ii the apple, enemy, etc. 18 SP i ii the hiatus SP the 2 2 i /j/ N 6 AI Onset cf. 15 hêtre C SP i SP c : tse: se vs. f : εf εf / θ 32

19 9 an n 20 <http://raspberries.jp/> tab Web Web the 9 heuristic ð vs. ði the the ð / ð vs. ði the ði 8 Tom Gally the ð ð ð n an n N 33

20

21 3 s t IPA , N T 21 Hansson 2010 : 43 fn 4 most aboriginal languages of Australia and New Guinea lack fricatives altogether, or have only /s/, and a great number of Austronesian languages also have no more than one sibilant. 35

22 TM c illegal ll innumerable nn irregular rr 22 cf. 7 轻 请 tc h in 轻 k h i 请 ts h i 2 36

23 2005c illegal l innumerable n irregular r 37

24 158 Popper 1973 Objective Knowledge Whenever a theory appears to you as the only possible one, take this as a sign that you have neither understood the theory nor the problem it was intended to solve. Abney, S. P The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect, Ph. D. thesis, MIT, Cambridge MA. Archangeli, Diana 1984 Underspecification in Yawelmani Phonology and Morphology. Ph. D. thesis, MIT, Cambridge MA Aspects of underspecification theory, Phonology 5, Archangeli, Diana & Douglas Pulleyblank 1989 Yoruba vowel harmony, Linguistic Inquiry 20, Culicover, P. W. and R. Jackendoff 2005 Simpler Syntax, Oxford University Press. Hansson, G. Ó Consonant Harmony : Long - Distance Interaction in Phonology, University of California Press. Dresher, B. Elan 2008 The contrastive hierarchy in phonology, in P. Avery, B. E. Dresher and K. Rice eds Contrast in phonology: theory, perception, acquisition, Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter, The Contrastive Hierarchy in Phonology, Cambridge University Press. Hockett C. F Two Models of Grammatical Description, Word 10, ; Joos, M. ed Readings in Linguistics, American Council of Learned Societies, A Manual of Phonology, Baltimore : Waverly Press. Itô, J., A. Mester & J. Padgett 1995 Licensing and Redundancy : Underspecification in optimality theory, Linguistic Inquiry 26 : Kiparsky, Paul 1982a From cyclic phonology to lexical phonology, in H. van der Hulst and N. Smith eds., The Structure of Phonological Representations, vol. 1, Dordrecht : Foris, b Lexical phonology and morphology, in I.S. Yang ed. Linguistics in the Morning Calm, vol. 2, Seoul : Hanshin, Some Consecuences of Lexical Phonology, Phonology 2, Mohanan, K. P The Theory of Lexical Phonology, Dordrecht, Holland : Reidel On the bases of radical underspecification, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 9 : Steriade, Donca 1995 Markedness and underspecification, in John A. Goldsmith ed., The Handbook of Phonological Theory, Blackwell,

25 1996a b rhotics ng a Economy in Phonological Theory b EPSJ c in - un /j/ /j/ a b

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