2. 実 験 方 法 第 1 表 N min 1 Ns 0.15 Ns = N / 60 Q 1/2 /Had 3/4 Q ( m 3 /s ) Had ( J/kg ) 第 1 図 VLD 5 mm 2 R 2 R 2 VLD 1.38 R R 2 10 mm 1.14

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1 Study on Flow Fields in Centrifugal Compressor with Unpinched Vaneless Diffuser CFD ( Computational Fluid Dynamics ) CFD CFD The performance of centrifugal compressors strongly depends on their internal flow fields. Therefore, CFD ( Computational Fluid Dynamics ) is indispensable to the design of centrifugal compressors. CFD codes are usually validated by some representative data or compared with results calculated by other CFD codes, in order to ensure their accuracy. However, finding the estimation accuracy of any type of centrifugal compressor s performance requires continuously comparing experimental data obtained in the development of various centrifugal compressors with calculated results. This paper introduces one example of this by using a centrifugal compressor with an unpinched vaneless diffuser. In addition, flow behaviors in the inducer where CFD had qualitatively good agreement with experimental data were analyzed in detail. 1. 緒 言 CFD ( Computational Fluid Dynamics ) CFD CFD ( 1 ) ( 2 ) CFD CFD ( 3 ) ( 5 ) CFD CFD (1) (2) IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 ) 51

2 2. 実 験 方 法 第 1 表 N min 1 Ns 0.15 Ns = N / 60 Q 1/2 /Had 3/4 Q ( m 3 /s ) Had ( J/kg ) 第 1 図 VLD 5 mm 2 R 2 R 2 VLD 1.38 R R 2 10 mm 1.14 R 2 3 第 1 表 Table 1 Impeller dimensions mm 65.4 mm mm 1 14 ( 7/7 ) 実 験 結 果 3. 1 全 体 性 能 第 2 図 Q Q < 0.18 m 3 /s Q < 0.18 m 3 /s 第 2 図 第 3 図 0.37 m 3 /s 8 m 3 /s D P MPa 0.52 m 3 /s 0.37 m 3 /s 3. 2 インペラ 性 能 第 4 図 コレクタ 2.2 ( コレクタ 出 口 オリフィスなし ) ( コレクタ 出 口 オリフィスあり ) 4 圧 縮 機 出 口 1.72 R R 2 ( 4 ) 1.38 R 2 ( 3 ) 1.14 R 2 (Ⅱ) 2 R 2 ( 2 ) インペラ 5( 1 ) 10(Ⅰ) 静 圧 / 圧 縮 機 入 口 全 圧 (-) m 3 /s 2 8 m 3 /s 0.52 m 3 /s 0.37 m 3 /s 5 m 3 /s ( 注 ) R 2 :インペラ 半 径 体 積 流 量 Q ( m 3 /s ) 第 1 図 mm Fig. 1 Schematic of tested compressor ( unit : mm ) 第 2 図 Fig. 2 Static pressure characteristics at each position of the compressor 52 IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 )

3 ( a ) Q = 0.52 m 3 /s 1 ( b ) Q = 0.52 m 3 /s ( c ) Q = 5 m 3 /s ( d ) Q = 5 m 3 /s 3 ( e ) Q = 0.37 m 3 /s 1 ( f ) Q = 0.37 m 3 /s ( g ) Q = 8 m 3 /s 1 ( h ) Q = 8 m 3 /s 第 3 図 Fig. 3 Pressure fluctuation at and ( 注 ) DP : 静 圧 ( ゲージ 圧 ) Q : 体 積 流 量 s 第 4 図 P 0 - ( a ) DP Q 5 m 3 /s 第 5 図 Y H 0.39 m 3 /s 13 第 6 図 2 ( Temp - 1 Temp - 2 ) 8 m 3 /s 1 m 3 /s 3. 3 ディフューザ 性 能 第 7 図 0.52 m 3 /s 第 8 図 Y H H D Y H / H D = 0 Y H / H D = 1 > 90 第 9 図 (1) Q = 7 m 3 /s ( a ) ( b ) VLD (2) Q = 0.51 m 3 /s ( a ) VLD IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 ) 53

4 Q ( m 3 /s ) 5 ( a ) 圧 力 信 号 静 圧 分 布 ( b ) シュラウド 翼 間 静 圧 分 布 ( c ) シュラウド 翼 間 静 圧 分 布 ばらつき 翼 間 位 置 /( 長 羽 根 1 ピッチ ) 翼 間 位 置 /( 長 羽 根 1 ピッチ ) 0.15 s/p :Q = 9 m 3 /s :Q = 0.52 m 3 /s :Q = 5 m 3 /s :Q = 0.37 m 3 /s 翼 間 位 置 /( 長 羽 根 1 ピッチ ) 翼 間 位 置 /( 長 羽 根 1 ピッチ ) 翼 間 位 置 /( 長 羽 根 1 ピッチ ) ( 注 ) P 0 : 圧 縮 機 入 口 全 圧 DP : 静 圧 ( ゲージ 圧 ) s : 翼 間 静 圧 の 偏 差 Q : 体 積 流 量 第 4 図 Fig. 4 Static pressure variation near shroud in between blades at ( a ) Q = 5 m 3 /s ( b ) Q = 0.39 m 3 /s Y/H Y/H 軸 方 向 速 度 ( m/s ) 軸 方 向 速 度 ( m/s ) ( 注 ) Q : 体 積 流 量 Y :インペラボスからの 距 離 H :ボス 面 と 入 口 管 内 面 との 距 離 第 5 図 Fig. 5 Axial velocity distribution at I ( b ) VLD 8 m 3 /s 8 m 3 /s 54 IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 )

5 圧 力 比 圧 縮 機 出 口 全 圧 / 圧 縮 機 入 口 全 圧 (-) m 3 /s (3) Q 0.38 m 3 /s ( a ) VLD VLD ( b ) : 圧 力 比 ( 実 験 日 1 ) : 圧 力 比 ( 実 験 日 2 ) : 圧 力 比 ( 実 験 日 3 ) : 圧 力 比 ( 実 験 日 4 ) :ベルマウス 前 方 全 温 Temp - 1 :ベルマウス 前 方 全 温 Temp m 3 /s 0.37 m 3 /s 5 m 3 /s 0.52 m 3 /s 0 体 積 流 量 Q ( m 3 /s ) 第 6 図 Fig. 6 Ratio of total-to-total pressure and total temperature just before bell-mouth 静 圧 比 3/ 第 10 図 ベルマウス 前 方 全 温 ( ) ( コレクタ 出 口 オリフィスなし ) ( コレクタ 出 口 オリフィスあり ) 0.18 m 3 /s 0.37 m 3 /s 0.52 m 3 /s 5 体 積 流 量 Q ( m 3 /s ) 第 7 図 Fig. 7 Static pressure ratio between and 体 積 流 量 Q ( m 3 /s ) 流 れ 角 ( 度 ) 流 れ 角 ( 度 ) 流 れ 角 ( 度 ) 流 れ 角 分 布 流 れ 角 ( 度 ) 実 験 結 果 のまとめ (1) VLD VLD ( 2 ) 0.51 m 3 /s VLD 3 PIV ( 6 ) 全 圧 分 布 全 圧 / 圧 縮 機 入 口 全 圧 (-) 全 圧 / 圧 縮 機 入 口 全 圧 (-) 全 圧 / 圧 縮 機 入 口 全 圧 (-) 全 圧 / 圧 縮 機 入 口 全 圧 (-) ( 注 ) Y H :ハブ 面 からの 距 離 H D :ディフューザ 幅 第 8 図 Fig. 8 Flow angle and total pressure distribution at II IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 ) 55

6 No. 体 積 流 量 Q ( m 3 /s ) ( a ) ハブ 側 ( b ) シュラウド 側 4. 計 算 結 果 ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 注 ) :インペラ 回 転 方 向 : 内 径 から 外 径 へ 向 けての 油 膜 模 様 の 方 向 第 9 図 Fig. 9 Oil flow visualization ( hub side ( a ) and shroud side ( b ) ) 圧 力 波 形 : 位 置 3 : 位 置 3 ( 周 方 向 に 60 度 の 間 隔 位 置 ) : 位 置 2 : 位 置 3で 周 方 向 に 60 度 間 隔 における 位 相 差 2 MPa 4. 1 数 値 計 算 CFD ( 7 ) ( 9 ) Chakravarthy-Osher TVD Spalart-Allmaras 第 11 図 361 VLD 1.72 R 全 体 性 能 第 2 図 Q 0.52 m 3 /s 5 m 3 /s 0.52 m 3 /s 0.37 m 3 /s ( m 3 /s ) < Q < 0.52 m 3 /s 第 7 図 4. 3 フローパターン インペラ 第 12 図 Y ( 注 ) 条 件 体 積 流 量 Q:5 m 3 /s 第 10 図 Fig. 10 Pressure variation at and ( 3 ) 5 m 3 /s 0.39 m 3 /s 1 m 3 /s (4) 0.18 m 3 /s 第 11 図 Fig. 11 Computational grid 56 IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 )

7 ( a ) 軸 方 向 速 度 分 布 ( b ) ( a ) の 拡 大 図 0.37 m 3 /s 5 m 3 /s 2 m 3 /s 0.52 m 3 /s Y/H C (-) 0.37 m 3 /s 2 m 3 /s 5 m 3 /s 0.52 m 3 /s Y/H C (-) 軸 方 向 速 度 ( m/s ) 軸 方 向 速 度 ( m/s ) 第 12 図 Fig. 12 Calculated axial velocity distribution at ( 注 ) *.** m 3 /s: 体 積 流 量 Y :ハブ 面 からの 距 離 :ケーシングとハブ 面 間 の 距 離 H C H C Y / H C m 3 /s 第 4 図 第 5 図 第 13 図 第 15 図 第 13 図 - ( a ) - ( b ) 2 第 13 図 - ( c ) 第 13 図 - ( a ) - ( b ) 第 13 図 - ( d ) 第 13 図 - ( c ) ( 10 ) (1) Q = 0.70 m 3 /s (2) Q = 0.52 m 3 /s (3) Q = 9 m 3 /s 0.52 m 3 /s (4) Q = 5 m 3 /s (5) Q = 0.37 m 3 /s IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 ) 57

8 No. 体 積 流 量 Q ( m 3 /s ) ( a ) 長 羽 根 前 縁 負 圧 面 近 傍 を 通 過 する 流 線 ( b ) 長 羽 根 翼 端 隙 間 を 通 過 する 流 線 ( c ) 翼 端 隙 間 における 軸 方 向 速 度 分 布 ( d ) 翼 端 隙 間 における 軸 方 向 速 度 分 布 ( 概 念 図 ) ( 1 ) 0.70 軸 方 向 速 度 = 0 ( 2 ) 0.52 主 流 翼 端 漏 れ 流 れ 主 流 軸 方 向 速 度 > 0 翼 端 漏 れ 流 れ 軸 方 向 速 度 < 0 長 羽 根 翼 前 縁 ( ) 軸 方 向 ( + ) ( 3 ) 9 ( 4 ) 5 ( 5 ) Fig. 13 Streamline passing through near leading edge of full blade suction surface ( a ), streamline through tip clearance of full blade ( b ) and axial flow velocity of tip leakage flow ( c ) ( a ) Q = 0.70 m 3 /s ( b ) Q = 0.52 m 3 /s ( c ) Q = 9 m 3 /s ( d ) Q = 5 m 3 /s ( e ) Q = 0.37 m 3 /s 14 Fig. 14 Circumferentially averaged streamline ( 注 ) Q: 体 積 流 量 ( a ) Q = 0.70 m 3 /s ( b ) Q = 0.52 m 3 /s ( c ) Q = 9 m 3 /s ( d ) Q = 5 m 3 /s ( e ) Q = 0.37 m 3 /s 長 羽 根 前 縁 ( 注 ) Q: 体 積 流 量 15 Fig. 15 Limiting streamline on compressor casing 58 IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 )

9 第 14 図 0.52 m 3 /s 第 15 図 9 m 3 /s 0.37 m 3 /s Q < 9m 3 /s 第 6 図 Q = 5 m 3 /s ディフューザ 第 8 図 7 m 3 /s 0.51 m 3 /s 0 m 3 /s Q 7 m 3 /s 第 16 図 第 9 図 第 16 図 ( 1 ) 7 m 3 /s ( 2 ) 0.52m 3 /s CFD ( 3 ) 0.38 m 3 /s ( 4 ) 0.18 m 3 /s Q < 0.52 m 3 /s No. ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) 体 積 流 量 Q ( m 3 /s ) ( a ) ハブ 側 ( b ) シュラウド 側 第 16 図 Fig. 16 Limiting streamline on vaneless diffuser ( hub side ( a ) and shroud side ( b ) ) 5. 結 言 VLD CFD (1) (2) ( 3 ) CFD IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 ) 59

10 CFD 3 CFD 1 CFD CFD 参 考 文 献 ( 1 ) M. V. Casey Turbomachinery Design Using CFD AGARD Lecture Series 195 ( ) pp ( 2 ) G. Eisenlohr, P. Dalbert, H. Krain, H. Proell, F-A. Richer and K-H. Rohne Analysis of the Transonic Flow at the Inlet of a High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Impeller ASME 98-GT-24 ( ) pp (3) CFD pp (4) CFD pp (5) CFD IHI pp (6) PIV IHI pp ( 7 ) D. Kato, S. Goto, T. Kato, T. Wakabayashi and H. Ochiai Development of Simple and High- Performance Technology for Compressors IHI ENGINEERING REVIEW Vol. 41 No. 1 ( ) pp ( 8 ) H. Tamaki, S. Goto, M. Unno and A. Iwakami The Effect of Clearance Flow of Variable Area Nozzles on Radial Turbine Performance ASME GT ( ) pp ( 9 ) H. Tamaki, M. Unno, T. Kawakubo and Y. Hirata Aerodynamic Design to Increase Pressure Ratio of Centrifugal Compressors for Turbochargers ASME GT ( ) pp ( 10 ) H. Tamaki Effect of Recirculation Device with Counter Swirl Vane on Performance of High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor Journal of Turbomachinery Vol. 135 No. 5 ( ) IHI Vol.54 No.2 ( 2014 )

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