132 Camerer (2003) Chen, Lakshminarayanan and Santos (2006) fmri ventral stiatum Fliessbach K., Weber B., Trautner P., Dohmen T., Sunde U., Elger C. E

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1 * Ferrer-i-Carbonell (2005) Luttmer (2005) McBride (2001) Stutzer (2005) Clark and Oswald (1996) Ultimum Game

2 132 Camerer (2003) Chen, Lakshminarayanan and Santos (2006) fmri ventral stiatum Fliessbach K., Weber B., Trautner P., Dohmen T., Sunde U., Elger C. E. and Falk A. (2007) Ferrer-i- Carbonell (2005) 50 Luttmer (2005) Clark and Oswald (1996) McBride (2001) Stutzer (2005)

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19 Brosnan, Sarah R, and Frans B. M. De Waal (2003) Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Nature, Vol. 425 (6955), pp Camerer, Colin F. (2003) Behavioral Game Theory, Princeton University Press. Chen, M. Keith, Venkat Lakshminarayanan, and Laurie R. Santos (2006) How Basic Are Behavioral Biases? Evidence from Capuchin Monkey Trading Behavior, Journal of Political Economy, 114 (3), pp Clark, Andrew E. and Andrew J. Oswald (1996) Satisfaction and Comparison Income, Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 61 (3), pp Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada (2005) Income and well-being: an empirical analysis of the comparison income effect,

20 150 Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 89, pp Fliessbach K., Weber B., Trautner P., Dohmen T., Sunde U., Elger C. E. and Falk A. (2007) Social comparison affects reward-related brain activity in the human ventral striatum, Science, Vol. 318 (5854), pp Guth, Werner, Rolf Schmittberger and Bernd Schwarze (1982) An Experimental Analysis of Ultimatum Bargaining, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 3 (4), pp Luttmer, Erzo F. P. (2005) Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 120 (3), pp McBride, Michael (2001) Relative-Income Effects on Subjective Well-Being in the Cross-Section, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 45 (3), pp Smith, Vernon L. (1994) Economics in the Laboratory, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 8 (1), pp Stutzer, Alois (2004) The Role of Income Aspirations in Individual Happiness, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 54 (1), pp , p67-97.

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26 156 Whose income do you compare yours to? a questionnaire investigation of real reference groups Yoshio IIDA Abstract A large number of empirical and experimental studies have shown that relative income influences people s subjective welfare: individuals gain higher utility by obtaining a higher income than other individuals. However, there are virtually no studies which investigate who individuals regard as the benchmark for comparison. For this research, I carried out a questionnaire survey in order to answer this question. The results of the survey of 604 men and women in employment, indicated that (1) People with the same occupation and/or of the same age as a respondent tended to be chosen as the benchmark for comparison; and (2) Statistical values, such as average income, tended to be chosen as the benchmark for comparison to a similar extent as (1). Moreover, the survey results showed that many respondents do not accurately know the income levels of others or the statistical values, even though they evaluate their income against these, and that individuals tend to think that the income levels of the others are higher than their own. Keywords : questionnaire survey, relative income, income differential, reference group, subjective well-being

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