情報の構造とデータ処理

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1 2014

2 SQL

3 information system input process output

4 (information) (symbols) (information structure) (data) ton/kg m/feet km 2 /m 2

5 (data structure) (integer) (real) (boolean) (character) Pascal person const size = 64; // size type word = array[1..size] of character; // word person = record name: word; // person word; height: real; gender: char; age: ; student: boolean; end;

6 person Pascal var he, she : person; // person he she // he.name = "taro"; he. = he.height = 175.3; he.gender = "M"; he.age = 20; he.student = true; she.name = "umeko"; she. = she.height = 170.0; she.gender = "F"; she.age = 24; she.student = false;

7 (information structure) (property) (value) (property) hasa S Q S has a property Q) S hasa (,Q) (S) = Q S (, ) hasa (, ) (, ) (, ) (, ) (, )

8 hasa (table) (cm) field record Table: 1 5

9 (hierarchy) (upper concept) (lower concept) isa (tree) isa S P S is a P ) S isa P S P is isa isa 49 7

10 data set (set) a A A a A a A A a 1, a 2,..., a n {}, A = {a 1, a 2,..., a n } σ : 1, 2,..., n = {a σ(1), a σ(2),..., a σ(n) } A = {x x }

11 set operation A B U (union) (intersection) (difference) (complement) A B = {x x A x B} A B = {x x A x B} A B = {x x A x B} A c = {x x U A} 1 2 U = {x x }, A = {y y U 7 } = {z z U 6 } A B, A B, A B, B A, A c A, B A ( a A) B A B (subset) A B A A A

12 = {,, } hasa (, ) = { } { } = {,, } = {} {} {} (empty set) ϕ A A ϕ = A, A ϕ = ϕ, A ϕ = A, ϕ A = ϕ, ϕ c = U ϕ 0

13 (direct product) (relation) A B a A b B (a, b) 2 ( binary relation) (a, b) (b, a) (a, b) = (c, d) a = c, b = d. A B = {(x, y) x A, y B} A B a A, b B 2 (a, b) A B. A = {a, b}, B = {x, y, z} A B = {(a, x), (a, y), (a, z), (b, x), (b, y), (b, z)}, B A = {(x, a), (x, b), (y, a), (y, b), (z, a), (z, b)}. A B R 2 (a, b) R arb arb bra A 1 A n = {(a 1,..., a n ) a i A i, i = 1,... n} (a 1,..., a n ) n (n-ary relation) R

14 a b 2 (a, b) A = {, }, B = {,, } R L = {(, ),(, )} A B R L, R L R l = {(, ),(, ),(, ),(, )} B A R l, R l, R l, R l 1 ap b a b A = {,, }, B = {,,, } P 2 aw b a b A = {,, }, B = {,,, } W

15 ( 1 1=( ) 2=( ) 3=( ) 4= 5=( ) 1 ( 2 2

16 [ ]

17 :

18 case grammar 1968 Charles Fillmore

19 Table:

20 1. RDBMS (parallel computing) (Concurrent Computing) (distributed computing) (grid) (cloud computing)

21 (structured data) hasa (unstructured data) (metadata) (schema)

22 (database) (Database Management System) DBMS

23 Apple, Amazon Google

24 (data mining) 1 2 Web PageRank

25 RDBMS (table) (, ) RDBMS(Relational Database Management System) SQL(Structured Query Language) RDBMS RDBMS Microsoft Access( )/SQL Server, Oracle Database, IBM DB2/Infomix MySQL, PostgresSQL : Amazon RDB, Google Cloud SQL

26 (column) (row) (table) record i n- (, ) field 1 field 2 field 3 field 4 field 5 record record record record (1 ) n- field 1 =, field 2 =, field 3 = cm, field 4 =, field 5 =..

27 SQL

2

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