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4 MINERVA Papers toward the Constructivist Political Theory Stephen Macedo & Others, Democracy at Risk: How Political

5 A. Lijphart 1996 Presidential Address 8 compulsory voting Choices Undermine Citizen Participation, and What We Can Do About It, Brookings, Arend Lijphart, Unequal Participation: Democracy s Unresolved Dilemma, Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1996, in American Political Science Review, Vol. 91, No. 1, 1997, pp

6 54 E. Ostrom 9 9 Elinor Ostrom, A Behavioral Approach to the Rational Choice Theory of Collective Action, Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1997, in American Political Science Review, Vol. 92, No. 1, 1998, pp

7

8 56 X

9 論 説

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11 unequal turnout systematic class bias 2 participatory revolution

12 60 Compulsory Voting CV CV 3 1 CV 2 CV CV CV 1 CV CV CV CV

13 61 CV 2000 CV CV J. Lacroix 2 CV 4 CV CV CV CV non-utilitarian CV CV 2 Justine Lacroix, A Liberal Defence of Compulsory Voting, in Politics, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2007, pp

14 62 civic obligation moral duty to vote legal compulsion CV A. Lever 3 CV informed and conscientious voting 3 Annabelle Lever, A Liberal Defence of Compulsory Voting : Some Reasons for Scepticism, in Politics, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2008, pp CV Is Compulsory Voting Justified? in Public Reason, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009, pp Liberalism, Democracy and the Ethics of Voting, in Politics, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2009, pp Compulsory Voting: A Critical Perspective, in British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 40, 2010, pp CV L. Hill Lisa Hill, On the Justifiability of Compulsory Voting: Reply to Lever, in British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 40, 2010, pp A. Lever, Democracy and Voting: A Response to Lisa Hill, in British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 40, 2010, pp Ben Saunders, Making Voting Pay, in Politics, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2009, pp

15 63 364

16 64 CV 1 JES 2 / 1 T. Parsons

17 65 / 3 sense of political efficacy A. Campbell 4 feeling internal efficacy external Angus Campbell, Gerald Gurin, and Warren E. Miller, The Voter Decides, Row Peterson, 1954, p

18 66 efficacy 5 effectively belief responsiveness belief 6 NES National Election Studies S. C. Craig J. Kahne 7 JESII Philip E. Converse, Change in the American Electorate, in Angus Campbell and Philip E. Converse (eds.), The Human Meaning of Social Change, Russell Sage Foundation, Stephen C. Craig, Richard G. Niemi, and Glen E. Silver, Political Efficacy and Trust: A Report on the NES Pilot Study Items, in Political Behavior, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1990, p George I. Balch, Multiple Indicators in Survey Research: The Concept Sense of Political Efficacy, in Political Methodology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1974, pp Joseph Kahne and Joel Westheimer, The Limits of Political Efficacy: Educationg Citizens for a Democratic Society, in PS: Political Science & Politics, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2006, p

19 JESIII

20 68 1 incumbent-based efficacy IBE regimebased efficacy RBE 2 regime RBE IBE

21 69 1 C. Hay Colin Hay, Why We Hate Politics, Polity Press,

22

23

24 R. D, Putnam social capital Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, Simon and Schuster,

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27 75 352

28 76 effectively belief responsiveness belief William H. Riker and Peter C. Ordeshook, A Theory of the Calculus of Voting, in American Political Science Review, Vol. 62, No. 1. (March, 1968) R PB C D PB D

29 77 350

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Brennan, G. and Lomasky, L., Democracy and Decision : The Pure Theory of Electoral Preference, Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1993. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., Miller W. E., and Stokes, D. E., Elections

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