COM COM 4) 5) COM COM 3 4) 5) COM COM 6) 7) 10) COM Bonanza 6) Bonanza Hearts COM 7) 10) Hearts 3 2,000 4,000

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1 Vol. 50 No (Dec. 2009) 1 1, 2 COM TCG COM TCG COM TCG Strategy-acquisition System for Video Trading Card Game Nobuto Fujii 1 and Haruhiro Katayose 1, 2 Behavior and strategy of computers (COM) have recently attracted considerable attention with regards to video games, with the development of hardware and the spread of entertainment on the Internet. Previous studies have reported strategy-acquisition schemes for board games and fighting games. However, there have been few studies dealing with the scheme applicable for video Trading Card Games (video TCG). We present an automatic strategy-acquisition system for video TCGs. The proposed strategy-acquisition system uses a sampling technique, Action predictor, and State value function for obtaining rational strategy from many unobservable variables in a large state space. Computer simulations, where our agent played against a Rule-based agent, showed that a COM with the proposed strategy-acquisition system becomes stronger and more adaptable against an opponent s strategy. 1. TCG TCG 1) ) TCG TCG 3) TCG TCG 1 COMCOM COM COM COM 4),5) 6) 10) TCG COM 7) 10) TCG Hearts TCG TCG TCG 2 3 TCG 1 Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University 2 CrestMuse CrestMuse Project, CREST, JST 2796 c 2009 Information Processing Society of Japan

2 COM COM 4) 5) COM COM 3 4) 5) COM COM 6) 7) 10) COM Bonanza 6) Bonanza Hearts COM 7) 10) Hearts 3 2,000 4,000 Hearts 2.3 TCG TCG TCG TCG 3 TCG TCG

3 2798 TCG TCG COM 1 (1) COM 15 3 (2) (3) (4) COM 1 (5) 0 (6) 3 (3) (4) (5) (3) (4) (5) Table 1 Elemental affinity /8 HP TCG

4 2799 7,000 TCG TCG COM 20 HMM 11) RNN 12) 13) 14) TCG 7) 10) U(H t,a t) H t t a t COM π(h t) π(h t) = arg max at U(H t,a t) (1) s t t S R(s t,a t,s t+1) a t s t s t+1 V (s t+1) 1 Fig. 1 Learning method for optimum action.

5 2800 U(H t,a t)= P (s t H t) P (s t+1 s t,a t){r(s t,a t,s t+1)+v (s t+1)} (2) s t S s t+1 S COM COM COM o t COM P (s t H t) s t S 1/ P (s t+1 s t,a t) á t P (á t s t) COM COM P (s t+1 s t,a t)=p (á t s t) (3) P (s t+1 s t,a t) o t P (át ot)p (ot st) O 1 MLP MLP R(s t,a t,s t+1) MLP COM V (s t+1) MLP s t S s t+1 S ŝ t ŝ t+1

6 2801 U(H t,a t) P (ŝ t H t) P (ŝ t+1 s t,a t){r(ŝ t,a t, ŝ t+1)+v (ŝ t+1)} (4) ŝ t S ŝ t+1 S COM COM COM 14 COM 15 COM 16 COM 17 COM COM COM COM COM COM COM COM COM COM MLP

7 2802 MLP MLP 1 COM COM COM 3 COM 3 80% 20% TCG TCG MLP TCG MLP

8 RL-agent Rule-based RL-agent Rule-based 100 Rule-based 200 RL-agent 3 Rule-based 200 RL-agent RL-agent Rule-based Rule-based Rule-based Rule-based Rule-based RL-agent 3 Rule-based TCG Rule-based Rule-based 11 (1) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Rule-based Rule-based RL-agent Rule-based Rule-based Rule-based 5,200 RL-agent 2 RL-agent 3 RL-agent 500 RL-agent RL-agent 25 2,200 80% RL-agent 50% 500 Rule-based Rule-based Rule-based Rule-based Rule-based RL-agent 80% Rule-based

9 Fig. 2 Rule-based RL-agent s winning percentage. 4 Fig. 4 Select RL-agent at random. 3 RL-agent 3 RL-agent 70% 80% 5.4 Rule-based 3 3 Fig. 3 Addition of new rules. 5.3 RL-agent 2,200 80% RL-agent Rule-based 2, RL-agent 2, % Rule-based 2,500 Rule-based 2,500 Rule-based 4 2,500 RL-agent 70% Rule-based 2, % 2,500 RL-agent 2 80% 2,500 2,500

10 TCG 80% COM TCG 6.2 TCG TCG TCG TCG COM 1 TCG COM COM COM COM 7. TCG TCG TCG TCG

11 2806 TCG COM COM TCG 1 Web 1) (1999). 2) Guinness World Records. 3) (1996). 4) fnirs Vol.2006, No.134, 2006-EC-3, pp (2006). 5) 2006 pp (2006). 6) futility pruning Vol.47, No.8, pp (2006). 7) Vol.102, No.731, pp (2003). 8) Ishii, S. and Fujita, H.: A Reinforcement Learning Scheme for a Partially- Observable Multi-Agent Game, Machine Learning, Vol.59, pp (2005). 9) Vol.J88-D-II, No.11, pp (2005). 10) Fujita, H. and Ishii, S.: Model-Based Reinforcement Learning for Partially Observable Games with Sampling-Based State Estimation, Neural Computation, Vol.19, pp (2007). 11) (2005). 12) RNNPB TL , NLC , PRMU , pp (2006). 13) Vol.2004, No.74, 2004-HI-109, pp.1 6 (2004). 14) Sutton, R.S. and Barto, A.G.: Reinforcement Learning, An Introduction, MIT Press (1998). 15) Vol.44, No.1, pp (1996). ( ) ( ) HCI 21 CREST CrestMuse

[4], [5] COM [4] COM [5] COM COM [6] Infinite Mario Bros. COM 2 3 4 Infinite Mario Bros. 5 2. 2.1 COM [7] [1], [2] Bonanza [7] Bonanza 6 Bonanza [3],

[4], [5] COM [4] COM [5] COM COM [6] Infinite Mario Bros. COM 2 3 4 Infinite Mario Bros. 5 2. 2.1 COM [7] [1], [2] Bonanza [7] Bonanza 6 Bonanza [3], (EC2013) 2013 10 COM 1,2,a) 1 1 1,b) 1,c) COMCOM COM COM COM COM Evaluating Human-like Video-Game Agents Autonomously Acquired with Biological Constraints Fujii Nobuto 1,2,a) Sato Yuichi 1 Wakama Hironori

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