176 B B.1: ( ) ( ) ( ) (2 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (quantitative nondestructive evaluation:qnde) (1) X X X X CT(computed tomography)

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1 B 1) B.1 B.1.1 ( ) B m B.1.2 (nondestructive testing:ndt) (nondestructive inspection:ndi) (nondestructive evaluation:nde) 175

2 176 B B.1: ( ) ( ) ( ) (2 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (quantitative nondestructive evaluation:qnde) (1) X X X X CT(computed tomography)

3 B (2) ( ) ( ) ( ) AE (3) ( ) ( ) (4) (5) ( ) ( ) ( )

4 178 B B.2 (1) X X X 2 (X ) ( ) ( ) B.1 ( ) X X X min E E[kV ]= 1:24 min [nm] (B.1) X ( ) ( ) ( ) I o X T I I = I 0 exp( μt ) (B.2) ( ) X B.2 T T X I I 0 = I 0 expf μ(t T )g (B.3) X 60 Co( 60) 59 Co 60 Co 60 Co 60 Co Ir( 192) 137 Cs ( 137) X 252 Cf( 252)

5 B B.1: X B.2: X (2) B.5 X X X X 100mm X B.4 X ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) D D = 0:434 flμff T fl ff n (fl ) X ( μ n ) ff 1 X X mm X ( ) 5 10μm X X (B.4)

6 180 B X ( ) X B.3: B.4: X B.5: X CT

7 B (3)X CT 1 X CT X X X CT m X CT X 5 20 m X CT (??) 8 CT ( m 4 ) X CT X X X CT B.3 B.3.1 ( ) ( B.6) ( ) s ( +2μ) c L = (B.5) ρ c T = r μ ρ (B.6) (, μ:lame ρ: ) ( ) C R c R = 0:87 + 1:12ν c T 1+ν (B.7) (ν: ) 1 (Lamb ) Z 1 Z 2 R = Z 2 Z 1 Z 1 + Z 2 (B.8) (Z 1 ) Snell ( B.7)

8 182 B ( ) ( ) B.6: B.7: Snell (a) (b) B.8: (a) (b) B.9: EMAT (a) (b) B.10: (2) PZT PVDF ( B.8) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( : )

9 B ( ) D 2 /(4 ) (D: : ) 0 ( ) o o =70 /D[ ] ( ) 2.44 F/D (F: ) (electromagnetic acoustic transducer: EMAT) ( B.9 ) ( B.10) (3) A ( ) B ( ) C ( ) ( B.11) (distance) (gain) (size) DGS ( AVG ) TOFD(time-of-fight diffraction) TOFD ( ) ( B.12) (guided wave) ( ) SH ( )

10 184 B B.11: (a)a (b)b (c)c B.12: TOFD B.13: V(z) (4) (5) MHz 2 r r = F D (B.9) ( : F: D: ) MHz 5μm 1GHz 1μm

11 B (leaky surface acoustic wave: LSAW) ( B.13) z (V(z) ) z LSAW c LSAW = c w q 1 (1 c w 2f z ) (B.10) (c w = f: ) V(z) LSAW (6) (acoustic emission:ae) AE AE AE 100kHz 1MHz AE AE AE AE (Kaiser) AE V(t) ( )D(t) G(t) S(t) V (t) =D(t) Λ G(t) Λ S(t) (B.11) V(t) D(t) B.3.2 (1) B.14,

12 186 B SMD (SQUID) ( ) (nearside) (farside) B.14: B.15: (2) 2 B.15

13 B ffi a B.15 2 ff a = d 2 (V 2 V 1 1) (B.12) 3 2 CT CT B.3.3 (3) 1 2

14 188 B B.3.4 (1) ( ) (i) (ii) ( ) (iii) (2) ffl ffl ffl ffl ffl ffl ffl ffl

15 B (3) ( ) B.16 1/5 (a) (b) B.16: (4) ( )

16 190 B B.17 CFRP( ) B.18, CFRP O.25 O.4 B.17: B.18: CFRP (a) (b) B.19:

17 191 B.3.5 (5) 1 B.19 1) pp

2

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