明石茂生  1‐94/1‐94

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1 . BC 1998: 3-4 (Arnason, Eisenstadt and Wittrock, 2005)

2 Motomura (1991)Gizewski (1994) (1998)Mutschler and Mittag (2008)Scheidel (2009)

3 M.

4 ( ) (1986)

5 (1986: 20-21) (1999: ) (2005: 230) (180~157BC) (141~ 87BC)

6 (73BC) (10BC) (72BC) (AD1-5) (AD2) (74BC) (AD105) (AD157) (AD263) (1986:83) 1986: 83

7 (AD242) (AD280) (AD280) 200BC 115BC AD (1999: )

8 (AD282) (AD2) (AD140) (AD2) (AD140) (1998: ) (140AD)

9 !!

10 (AD2) (AD140)!

11 !! (1978) (1980)

12 (2004: 461)!

13 (AD2) (AD140) (AD280) (AD742) (2000: 6)

14 (1985) (2005; 232) (62BC) (61BC) (47BC) (42BC) (AD62) (AD69) (AD117)! (AD139) (AD171) (AD183) (AD190)

15 AD BC AD (1993)

16 AD (202-87BC) (AD25-88) (1999: ) (1969) (1970) (1993: )

17 (221BC) (227BC) (1974, 1975, 1977a, 1977b, 1978, 1981, 1984, 1987, 1993, 2001) (1987: 30-31) (1999: 80-97)

18 (154BC) (143BC) (104BC) (1952)

19 (120BC) (115BC) (110BC) (1981: 11-16)

20 (115BC) (113BC) 1984: (118BC) (AD9) ""!

21 "! " " " (1975: 79-80)

22 (AD81) 1977a: 6 (1977a: 19-20)

23 (1993, 2001) (157BC) (1977a: 20-30) (2001: )

24 (1993: ) 1993: , , 535,

25 (1993:656-58)

26 (1985)!

27 (1986: 63) (1993)

28 (59BC) (7BC) (AD50) (1983: ) (1999: ) (1955: ) (1957) (1963)

29 E.P.T.5: 47 (2005: )

30 (2001: )

31

32 2001: : (AD83) (AD84~86) (AD118) (AD136-41)

33 (GDP) GDP (AD141) (AD156) (AD159)! 1993: (AD162) (AD169) " (AD146) # (1993: )

34 GDP GDP GDP GDP (1993: ) (1993: ,656) (2005: 83) (1993: 657) (1993: 654)

35 GDP (a) (b) (c) (a+b+c) (d) (e) (f) (d+e+f) (g) (h) GDP (a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h) (i) (a i+b+c+g+h) (2010: 48-49) GDP

36 GDP!" (1982: 3-181) (2005: 4-13) Scheidel (2009: ) GDP

37 (2005: 160)

38

39 # "!

40

41 (1982: ) (2005: ) (1947)

42 (2005: ) " # $ "!%# & (2005: 10-24) (1989: 147) (1999: 539)

43 (2005: ) (2002: )

44 !

45 Y" (X 1 ) (X 2 ) (X 3 ) Y"$F(X 1#X 2#X 3 ) Y Y$X 1#!(Y"!X 1 )!$2#000$T#T$max(S#2000) S (km ) T km y"$2"285#1"245x 1#0"456x 2#0"393x 3 R 2 $0"91n$7F$21"23 (y"#x 1#x 2#x 3 ) (Y"#X 1#X 2#X 3 ) (x 1#x 2#x 3 )

46 ! km km! km (1935)

47 + + %, $$ (! ' + $! " ( * $ $ ) # ' ) % & $ #

48 (2005: 8) m (2006: 273) 2007: ! "

49 (2005: )

50 (2008: ) (2005: )

51 !!!

52 (1999: ) (2005: ) (1985: 43-77) (1992) (1974, 1977, 1978) (1971) (1982: ) (2005: ) (2005: 16-17)

53 ! (1962a) (1985) (2005: ) (1982: 151)2005: (2007: ) (1999: )

54 "! # Bray1984: : 192 (1999: ) (1989: ) (1966: )

55 (1981: 93-96)!

56 !" (1964) (1979) (2007: 462, ) (1989: ) (2002) (1982: 153) (2006: , 36-37) 2005: : 330 (1989) 1989: 122

57 (1999: ) 2004: 459 (1982: )

58 (2006) (a) (b) (c) (d) (2006: )

59 !" # (2001: 126) (2006: 206)

60 (1995: 166) (1995: 179) 1995: :

61 ! " (1995: ) (2006: ) (1993) (2006: , 338) (1955: ) (1994)

62 "! # $ $ % (1977: 209) (1974, 1978) (1981: ) (1982: )

63 km (2003: ) (1955: )! 1955: 365 (2005: 85-86)

64 ! (1999: 25-48) (1981: 115-6) (2005: 499) (2005: 539) (2005: )

65 ' (1993) (1995: ) (1982: )#$ %& ""!

66 (2009b) 2002: : 540 (2002) 2002: 551 (1993) (2009a) (2000: )

67 2002: : 536 (2002: 550-1) (1990) 1990: : 132

68

69 ! (1955) e 1 e 2 (H 0 :e 1!32!76"e 2 ) (H 1 :e 1!32!76"e 2 ) H 0

70 ! V (2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2008, 2009b)

71 (1989) (1982) (1990) (1998) (2006) (1990) (1983) (1974) (2000) (1984) (1986) (1988) (1992) (1992) (1980) (1981) (1978) (1986)!!!!

72 (2000: ) (1978)! (1989)

73 2009b: 75 (1986) (1986: 120,128) 1986: 120 (1971) 1996 "!!! " (2000: 205-8) (1986: 116)

74 1981: (1986: 154, 158) (2007: ) (2000: ) (2010) (2008)

75 ! 1982: (1994)!!! 1986: 158

76 ! 2000a 2000b

77 (2005: 141-2) (2008: 18-21)! 1984: 497 (2006: 337, n. 1) : (2003: )

78 !

79 (2000: ) (2003: 23-25, ) Harl (1996: 108-9)von Reden (2010: 86-88)

80 ! (2000: ) (2009: 130) (2010: 61-63)

81 (2010: )

82 (2000: 81-82) von Reden (2010: 13-14)

83 (1996: ) g gg Scheidel (2009: ) (1983: )

84 (1983: 23-24) (2009) (tribute) Bang (2009: )

85 Finley (1999: ) Parkins (1997), Mattingly, Stone, Stirling and Ben Lazreg (2001) (Hopkins, 2009: 196) Boserup (1981). (2009) Bowman and

86 Wilson (2009)!

87 (command economy) von Reden (2010: , ). (Kießling, 1924: ) Weber (1896) Banaji (2001: 15-16) (2009a) Morley (2007: 100).

88 Banaji (2001: 16-22, 34-37). 2009:

89 (2009) 185: 1-91 (1990) (1978)37-1: (1970)28-4: (1955) (1969) 21: 1-34 (2000) (2006)155: (2007a) 11: (2007b)29: 2-24 (2008) 9: (2009a) 19: (2009b)31: (2010)120: 1-16 (1984) (1952) (1993) (1993) (1994)52-4

90 (1982) (1989)4: (2009) (1980)357: 37-65, 79 (1962a) 13-7: (1962b) (1985) (1993) (2002) (1999) (2009)4: (1994) 52-4: 1-19 (2008) (1999) (2005) COE 3-15 (1978)87-12: 1-38 (1989) (1966) (1981)! (1957)48: 1-21 (1995) (2005) (1985) (1977) (1992) (1998)

91 (1974)31: 1-26 (1975)33: (1977a)18: 1-39 (1977b) B27: 1-11 (1978)38: (1981) 40-3: (1984)1: (1987)57: (1993) (2000) (2001) (2003) (1989) (1985)1: (2010) (2005) (1990) : 116 (1963) : (1974) : (1984) : (1998) (1986) (1964) : (2007) (1990) : (1992) : 63-66

92 (1989) : (2005) (1992) : (1986) (1980) : (1935)5. 2: (1971)42. 3: (2005) (2007) (1999) (1996) : (1979) : 61-67! (1989) : (1983) (1988) : (1981) : (2000) (2007) (2008) : (2000) : (1982) : (1982) (2004) (2006) : (1998) : (1986) : (2000a) 53. 3: (2000b) : (1986) : 63-67

93 (1989) (2003) (2006) (1983) : (2008) (1999) (1978) : (1959) (2007) (2001) (2005) Arnason, J. P., S. N. Eisenstadt and B. Wittrock, eds. (2005), Axial Civilizations and World History, Brill. Banaji, J. (2001), Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: Gold, Labour, and Aristocratic Dominance, Oxford University Press. Bang, P. F. (2009), Commanding and Consuming the World: Empire, Tribute, and Trade in Roman and Chinese History, in W. Scheidel, ed. (2009): Boserup, E. (1981), Population and Technological Change: A Study of Long-Term Trends, University of Chicago Press 1991 Bowman, A. and A. Wilson, eds. (2009), Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems, Oxford University Press. Bray, F. (1984), Agriculture in J. Needham, Science and Civilization in China, vol. VI, Biology and Biological Technology, Part II, Cambridge University Press 2007 Finley, M. I. (1999), The Ancient Economy, updated ed., with foreword by I. Morris, University of California Press. Gizewski, C. (1994), Römische und alte chinesische Geschichte in Vergleich: Zur Möglichkeit eines gemeinsamen Altertumsbegriffs, Klio 76: Harl, K. W. (1996), Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300B.C. to A.D.700, Johns Hopkins University Press. Hopkins, K. (2009), The Political Economy of the Roman Empire, in I. Morris and W. Scheidel, eds., The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from

94 Assyria to Byzantium, Oxford University Press: Kießling, G. (1924), Giroverkehr in Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Neue Bearbeitung, hrsg. von Georg Wissowa, forgeführt von Wilhelm Kroll et al. Supplementband 4, Druckenmüller: Mattingly, D., D. Stone, L. Stirling and N. Ben Lazreg (2001), Leptiminus (Tunisia): a Producer City?, in D. J. Mattingly and J. Salmon, eds., Economies beyond Agriculture in the Classical World, Routledge: Morley, N. (2007), Trade in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge University Press. Motomura, R. (1991), An Approach towards a Comparative Study of the Roman Empire and the Ch in and Han Empires, Kodai 2: Mutschler, F. and A. Mittag, eds. (2008), Conceiving the Empire: China and Rome Compared, Oxford University Press. Parkins, H. (1997), The Consumer City Domesticated?: the Roman City in Elite Economic Strategies, in H. Parkins ed., Roman Urbanism: Beyond the Consumer City, Routledge: Scheidel, W. (2009), The Monetary Systems of the Han and Roman Empires, in W. Scheidel, ed. (2009): Scheidel, W. ed. (2009), Rome and China: Comparative Perspectives on Ancient Empires, Oxford University Press. von Reden, S. (2010), Money in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge University Press. Weber, M. (1896), Die sozialen Gründe des Untergangs der antiken Kultur 1954: 1-26

90 COE 2006 6 8....................................... 8....................................... 12....................................... 15 I 19 1 21....................................... 21 1.1.........................

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