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1 Cognitive Studies, 23(1), (March 2016) Onomatopoeias are frequently used in daily Japanese conversations and are a part of children s early vocabularies. Previous studies have revealed that the phonetic structure and rhythm of onomatopoeia promotes word memory and production, and that sound symbolism functions as a cue to infer word meaning. This study examined whether the acoustic feature of speech is another factor that facilitates onomatopoeic word learning in children. The focus of the study was on voiced/unvoiced consonant contrasts related to the size of the referred object (e.g., dondon-large / tonton-small). First we analyzed mothers speech while reading a picture book that included onomatopoeic pairs contrasted with word-initial voiced/unvoiced consonants. Mothers read onomatopoeias that referred to small objects with higher fundamental frequency (f0) and lower amplitude than those of large objects. Then three-year-old children s understanding of the onomatopoeic pairs was examined. The conditions were 1) original (acoustic features are almost identical between the onomatopoeias of small and large objects), 2) high 50 (the f0 of the onomatopoeias of small objects was 50 Hz higher than that of large objects), 3) high 100 (similar to the high 50 condition, but the difference was 100 Hz). The results indicated that the f0 is a possible cue to infer the meaning of onomatopoeias related to object size, and that the acoustic feature of speech would facilitate children s learning of onomatopoeias. Keywords: onomatopoeias, infant-directed speech, acoustic properties, children 1. (, 2002) (, 1999) (, The Effect of Pitch of Speech on Onomatopoeic Word Recognition in Children, by Sachiyo Kajikawa (Tamagawa University), and Etsuko Haryu (University of Tokyo). 1999) (sound symbolism) (, 2007) (, 1999) (2013), 2 3, 3

2 38 Cognitive Studies March 2016 (, 2010) (, 2007) 4 4 (, 2006) (Shintel & Nusbaum, 2007) (Herold, Nygaard & Namy, 2011) (strong-weak)., (happy-sad) (tall-short), (yummy-yucky) (hot-cold) (big-small) Nygaard, Herold, & Namy (2009) blicket (big) (small) (Herold, Nygaard, Chicos, & Namy, 2011) 2 (Eitan, Schupak, Gotler, & Marks, 2014; Mondloch & Maurer, 2004; Spence, 2011) 4 (Dolscheid, Hunnius, Casasanto, & Majid, 2014) 6 (Fernández-Prietoa, Navarrac, & Pons, 2015) 10 (Haryu & Kajikawa, 2012) (Spector & Maurer, 2009) (, 2013) (phonetic symbolism) (, 1999) (phone)

3 Vol. 23 No (Trainor & Desjardins, 2002) (1) (2) 2 (1) (2) (2010) (Voice Onset Time, VOT) (F0) 30 Hz F0 (, 1993) (SD=2.9) (2007) AT810F 1 Roland R-09 wav 44.1KHz 16bit Praat (Boersma & Weenink, 2009)

4 40 Cognitive Studies March (s) (db) (Hz) (Hz) (Hz) t (M =62.66, SD =8.25) (M =60.36, SD=8.12) (t(13)= 6.05, p<.01) (M =63.40, SD=8.93) (M =61.21, SD=9.47) (t(13) = 3.13, p<.01) ( : M = , SD=37.50; : M = , SD=45.29) ( : M = , SD =59.12; : M = , SD =64.64) ( : M = , SD =32.08; : M = , SD =38.31) ( : t(13) = 4.73, p<.01; : t(13) = 3.87, p<.01; : t(13) = 3.61, p<.01) Hz (SD=47.00) 30 Hz (, 1993) (t(13)= 2.34, p<.05) 2.4

5 Vol. 23 No (s) (db) F0 (Hz) F0 (Hz) F0 (Hz) 0.55 (0.66) (8.25) (34.34) (52.91) (32.46) 0.55 (0.45) (8.12) (46.46) (68.44) (34.32) 0.61 (0.11) (9.26) (41.40) (87.33) (38.03) 0.58 (0.08) (9.26) (40.62) (71.12) (34.40) 0.60 (0.09) (8.93) (37.50) (59.12) (32.08) 0.55 (0.09) (9.47) (45.29) (64.64) (38.31) F0 F0 F0 7 paired t-test 1%

6 42 Cognitive Studies March (Herold, Nygaard & Namy, 2011) (Nygaard et al., 2009) (, 1997) Nygarrd et al. (2009) ,Herold, Nygaard, & Namy (2011), Hz 1SD 100 Hz original high50 high original high high original high high

7 Vol. 23 No (s) (db) F0 (Hz) F0 (Hz) F0 (Hz) original 0.85 (0.12) (1.64) (21.83) (22.90) (27.00) 0.86 (0.09) (1.72) (23.18) (21.45) (29.96) high (0.09) (2.83) (26.41) (27.20) (37.19) high (0.09) (2.57) (20.51) (16.97) (31.95) F0 F0 F0 7 high50 high100 original (wav,44.1khz,16bit) (original) 50 Hz (high50) 100Hz (high100) Praat (Boersma & Weenink, 2009) original (2007) original high50 high100 3 original high50 high100 50Hz 100Hz PC PC, (0.5) t, α=.05, 2 (F (1, 114)= 3.93, p<.05, η 2 =.03) 3 (M =0.64, SD =0.18) 3 (M =0.71, SD=0.19) (F (2, 114) = 2.19) (F (2, 114)= 0.002) (0.5) original 25 (38%) high50 33 (82%) high (81%) (χ 2 (2) = 5.03, p<.10, p<.05) original high (43%) high100

8 44 Cognitive Studies March original 6 (86%) /b/-/p/ /g/-/k/ 3,/d/-/t/ 1 1 original, /b/-/p/ 0.63, /g/-/k/ 0.65,/d/-/t/ /d/-/t/, 3 /b/-/p/ (F (1, 114) = 3.34, p =.07, η 2 =.03) (F (2, 114) = 0.55, n.s., η 2 =.04) (F (2, 114) = 0.20, n.s.) /g/-/k/ (F (1, 114)= 2.77, p =.06, η 2 =.05) (F (2, 114)= 0.53, n.s., η 2 =.004) (F (2, 114)= 1.11, n.s.) original (M =0.63, SD=0.27) high100 (M =0.76, SD=0.27) (p =.06) (t, α =.05) 3 /b/-/p/ /g/-/k/ 3 /b/-/p/ high100 original high50 /g/-/k/ high50 high100 original original 50 Hz 100 Hz

9 Vol. 23 No Hz /g/-/k/ /b/-/p/ /g/-/k/ original 3 3 /d/-/t/ original 3 7 /b/-/p/ /g/-/k/ 1835 (, 1998) /b/ 37% 230 /p/ 43% 266 /g/ 55% 262 /k/ 45% 216 /p/ (, 1998) /p/.,, 50Hz (, 2003) 195Hz 195Hz % % /p//t//k//b//d//g/

10 46 Cognitive Studies March 2016 (2010) (Fernald, 1992) (Bortfeld & Morgan, 2010) (Marler, Evans, & Hauser, 1992) (, 2011) (, 1997) 5 (Herold, Nygaard, Chicos, & Namy, 2011) (2010) 3 (, 2013) Ishii, Rayes, Kitayama (2003) Grateful

11 Vol. 23 No ( ) Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2009). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. Bortfeld, H., & Morgan, J. L. (2010). Is early word-form processing stress-full? How natural variability supports recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 60 (4), Dolscheid, S., Hunnius, S., Casasanto, D., & Majid, A. (2014). Prelinguistic infants are sensitive to space-pitch associations found across cultures. Psychological Science, 25 (6), Eitan, Z., Schupak, A., Gotler, A., & Marks, L. E. (2014). Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink. Experimental Psychology, 61 (4), Fernald, A. (1992). Human maternal vocalizations to infants as biologically relevant signals: An evolutionary perspective. In J. H. Barkow,L.Cosmides,&J.Tooby(Eds.),The Adapted Mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Fernández-Prietoa, I., Navarrac, J., & Pons, F. (2015). How big is this sound? Crossmodal association between pitch and size in infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 38, (2006).. ( ). :. Haryu, E., & Kajikawa, S. (2012). Are higherfrequency sounds brighter in color and smaller in size? Auditory-visual correspondences in 10-month-oldinfants. Infant Behavior & Development, 35 (4), (2010). :., 58 (3), (2007). :., 78 (4), Herold, D. S., Nygaard, L. C., & Namy, L. L. (2011). Say it like you mean it: Mothers use of prosody to convey word meaning. Language and Speech, 55 (3), Herold, D. S., Nygaard, L. C., Chicos, K. A., & Namy, L. L. (2011). The developing role of prosody in novel word interpretation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, (2013).. ( ). :. (2007).. :. Ishii, K., Reyes, J. A., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Spontaneous attention to word content versus emotional tone: Differences among three cultures. Psychological Science, 14, (2002).. :. Marler, P., Evans, C. S., & Hauser, D. (1992). Animal signals: Motivational, referential, or both? In H. Papousek, U. Jurgens, & M. Papousek (Eds.), Nonverbal Vocal Communication: Comparative & Developmental Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2013).. :. Mondloch, C. J., & Maurer, D. (2004). Do small white balls squeak? Pitch-object correspondences in young children. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 4 (2), Nygaard, L. C., Herold, D. S., & Namy, L. L. (2009). The semantics of prosody: Acoustic and perceptual evidence of prosodic correlates to word meaning. Cognitive Science, 33, (1999).. ( ). (2). :. (1997).,., 5 (1), (2003).. TL,, 103 (307), 1 4. (2011).., 82 (1),

12 48 Cognitive Studies March 2016 (2013). :. ( ). :. (1993). :., 45, Shintel, H., & Nusbaum, H. C. (2007). The sound of motion in spoken language: Visual information conveyed by acoustic properties of speech. Cognition, 105, (1998).., 48 (2), Spector, F., & Maurer, D. (2009). Synesthesia: A new approach to understanding the development of perception. Developmental Psychology, 45 (1), Spence, C. (2011). Crossmodal correspondences: A tutorial review. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, (1999).. :. (2010). :. HIP,, 110 (279), Trainor, L. J., & Desjardins, R. N. (2002). Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants ability to discriminate vowels. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9 (2), (Received 8 July 2015) (Accepted 5 Nov. 2015) ( ) NTT ( ) 2015

pp 427 438 2006 Dimensional Change Card Sort ****** ** 2005 9 30 2004 8 2002 4 Zelazo, P. D., Carter, A., Reznick, J. S. & Frye, D. 1997 10 2003 Zelaz

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