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1 13C E N T R A L A S I A P A V I L I O N ィコ ィョ ィー ィェ ィー 08 ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 06 ィヲ ィィ ィィ : 08 ィコ ィー ィョ ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 04 ィヲ ィィ 09 K Y R G Y Z S T A N / K A Z A K H S T A N / U Z B E K I S T A N /

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3 13C E N T R A L A S I A P A V I L I O N A r t f r o m C e n t r a l A s i a a C o n t e m p o r a r y A r h c h i v e ィコ ィョ ィー ィェ ィー 08 ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 06 ィヲ ィィ ィィ : 08 ィコ ィー ィョ ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 04 ィヲ ィィ 09 K Y R G Y Z S T A N K A Z A K H S T A N U Z B E K I S T A N Bishkek / 2005/ 09ィィ03ィコ02ィコ K Y R G Y Z S T A N / K A Z A K H S T A N / U Z B E K I S T A N /

4 13 ーArt of Central Asia. A Contemporary Archive ア C E N T R A L A S I A P A V I L I O N Art of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan might be the last territory not represented at the global art scene. This exhibition ィC the first in the history of Venice biennales pavilion of Central Asian counties, is another attempt to fill this gap. The propriety of this attempt is defined not only by the cultural and historic peculiarity of these countries, but also by their ethnic and art originality. Interest towards this region might be motivated by the fact that these countries are a part of modernity. Being a subject of the Soviet modernization, Central Asia was a key participant of various collisions and bearer of historic experience of the XX century. At the same time collisions and experience of post communist period transformed it into the full member of global order. Thus, also in art, being a part of art reform of Russian avantguard, Central Asian artists created their original context, their own perspective towards contemporary art discourse. As it is the first presentation of this regional context in Venice, it is sensible to present is as a context, as a dialectic multiplicity of various artist, various generations, various ethnos, cultural centers, and, finally, different countries. It makes sense to show this context as dialectic multiplicity of individual and collective experience, especially of post Soviet period, and not as the latest actual expressions. The last results haven ッt been done yet, it remains live substance, provoking question that do not have answers. Consequently, the questions that have already been asked and suggested answers are still actual. The works by already dead Sergey Maslov are still vital as well as the works by a young duet Roman Mィ skalev and Maxim Boronilov. An archive of the Central Asia is a Contemporary Archive. Looking for identity was the first problem of actual time that was in focus of Central Asian art scene, the countries that had recently obtained political independence. Mytho-poetic narrative in forms of installation, and later video, started to be actively used by the artists of various generations, from Rustam Khalfin, the founder and patriarch of Alma-Ata scene, to the young follower, Almagul Menlibaeva. Thanks to the efforts of various artists (Rustam Khalfin, Kanat Ibragimov, Erbossyn Meldibekov, group ーRed Tractor ア, etc) it appeared in forms of performance. By the initiative of Shaarbek Amankul it appeared in forms of vast stationary works created in the nature. However, while appealing to national-ethnic archetypes: step ッ, nomadic and Sufis traditions, etc., sacrifice, pagan rites this narrative refused any pretences to be authentic but became a construct, it was created and immediately destroyed. Thus, Vyacheslav Akhunov ッs author ッs myth includes both icons of the Soviet propa- 4

5 13ganda, a pyramid, made of Lenin ッs sculptures, and icon of the Western consumerism ィC Coca Cola ads. Said Atabekov ッs shamanism includes also motives of post-modernity, Kalashnikov gun or police silhouettes at the pavement. National myth is a construct of not only artists but also of a new political power, in regard to which the artists, for example works by Elena and Viktor Vorobyev, took a position of aloof analyses and deconstruction. Artists also show, Sergey Maslov ッs works, that the reverse side of new political mythology is reality of survival. Survival doesn ッt have national; identity, it is universal. According to Muratbek Djoumaliev and Gulnara Kasmalieva, paradoxical positivism of dramatic posy-soviet experience is in this openness to universal. However, the perception of both universal basis and national identity by the Central Asian artists is ambiguous. For Erbossyn Meldibekov we burst to the universal through the rejection of identity, through self-abuse. For Alexander Nikolaev the only possible universality is globalized cultural industry and it imposes stereotyped identities. For Roman Maskalev and Maxim Boronilov identity and universality are not counterpoints, they are fused in existential and philosophic experience of ーroute ア and ーway ア. For the Bishkek ーpoor ア actionism by Ulan Djaparov and his colleagues, universal presents itself in unexpected moments, obtaining forms of everyday jokes that, in their own turn, are the remnants of a myth. These are some of the names and events that can be found in the Contemporary archive of Central Asian art ュ Viktor Misiano Curator of Central Asian Pavilion K Y R G Y Z S T A N / K A Z A K H S T A N / U Z B E K I S T A N /

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7 13ィーィ ィコ ィィィェィィ02ィィィ ィーィィ ィ ィ 08ィ 02ィコィ 08ィャィ ィェィコィョ05ィ 09 ィャィ 0903ィーィ ィ ィェ ィーィ 02ィィ06ィェィ 08ィェ ィ ィ 06ィーィ 01, ィ 09ィ 02ィャ0401 ィェィ 0506ィェ ィー0902ィェィェ ィヲ04ィ 03ィ. 0308ィィ 05ィー06ィャ, ィ ィィ08ィョ07 ィコ ィェィ 02ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェ06-05ィーィェィィ ツ0209ィコィィィャ ィ ィーィィ07ィ ィャ ィC 09ィー0207ィィ, ィェ06ィャィ 01ィィ04ィャィョ, 09ィョ00ィィ09ィー09ィコ06ィヲ ィー08ィ 01ィィ02ィィィィ, ィー ィィィェ060302ィェィィ06, ツ0209ィコ06ィャィョ ィコィ ィャ05ィ ィェィィ06 ィィ ィー. 07., 05ィー06ィー ィェィ 0808ィ ィーィィ09 06ィーィコィ ィ ィー ィー02ィェ04ィィィヲ ィェィ ィ ィョィー02ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィケ, ィ ィェ02ィィ04ィャ02ィェィェ ィェィ 09ィ ィコ06ィェ09ィー08ィョィコィー06ィャ ィC 06ィェ ィィ01ィ ィィ ィーィョィー ィ 09ィョィィ080609ィ ィ ィコ ィョ 0007 ツ020905ィ 09ィ 0801ィョィェ0609ィ ィ 09ィー060809ィコィィィヲ ィャィィ00 09ィコ0506 ツィ 02ィー ィ 07 ィコィ ィコ ィィィコ06ィェ ィー09ィコ06ィヲ ィ 00ィ ィェ0104 ィC 07ィィ08ィ ィャィィ0104 ィィ ィェィィィェ09ィコィィ01 ィ 0609ィー0609, ィーィ ィコ ィィ ィィィコ06ィェ04 04ィ 07ィ 01ィェ ィコ06ィェ0906ィャ0208ィィ04ィャィ ィC 0802ィコ05ィ ィャ ィョ ツィェ06ィヲ 0806ィコィ ツ ィケ ィェ04ィヲ 03ィ ィャィ ィェィィ04ィャ 05ィ ィィ01ィ 08ィーィ ィ 02ィコ0609ィ 09ィコ0506 ツィ 02ィー ィ 07 ィャ06ィーィィ ィー ィャ02ィェィェ0609ィーィィ ィC ィ 09ィー06ィャィ ィー 08ィ 05ィ 03ィェィィィコ0609ィ ィィ05ィィ ィィ0202ィヲ09ィコィィ02 09ィィ05ィョ05ィー04 ィェィ ィャ0609ィー060906ィヲ ツ02ィャ, ィェィ 02ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェ04ィヲ ィャィィ00 ィC 05ィー06 ィコ06ィェ09ィー08ィョィコィー ィェ02 ィー0605ィケィコ06 01ィョ010603ィェィィィコ0609, ィェ06 ィィ ィェ060906ィヲ ィィィーィィ ツ0209ィコ06ィヲ 0905ィ 09ィーィィ, ィーィェ060302ィェィィ06 ィコ ィコ06ィー060806ィヲ 01ィョ010603ィェィィィコィィ ィC 0708ィィィャ0208 ィー06ィャィョ 08ィ ィ 06ィー04 00ィィィコィー0608ィ ィィ ィェ ィ ィケ ィC 04ィ ィェィィィャィ 06ィー ィィ02ィィ06 06ィー09ィー08ィ ィェ02ィェィェ ィ ィェィ 05ィィ04ィ ィィ 0102ィコ06ィェ09ィー08ィョィコ02ィィィィ. 09ィョ010603ィェィィィコィィ ィーィ ィコ ィコィ ィ 06ィー ィC 08ィ ィ 06ィー ィ ィ ィC ツィー06 06ィ 08ィ ィーィェィ 07 09ィー060806ィェィ ィェ060906ィヲ ィィィーィィ ツ0209ィコ06ィヲ ィャィィ ィィィィ 05ィー ィ 05ィケィェ0609ィーィケ ィィ09ィ ィェィィ ィィ09ィ ィェィィ ィェ02 ィィィャ0202ィー ィェィ 02ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィィ, 06ィェ06 ィョィェィィ ィ 05ィケィェ ィー06ィヲ 06ィーィコ0804ィー0609ィーィィ ィョィェィィ ィ 05ィケィェ06ィャィョ ィC ィコィ ィコ ィョィー ィ 06ィー 00ィョ08ィ ィー 0203ィョィャィ 05ィィ0209 ィィ 01ィョ05ィケィェィ 08ィ 08ィ 09ィャィ 05ィィ0209ィ ィC 07ィ 08ィ 0106ィコ09ィ 05ィケィェィ ィィィーィィ09ィェ0609ィーィケ 0108ィ ィャィ ィーィィ ツ0209ィコ ィー ィー09ィコ ィーィ. 0201ィェィ ィコ ィィ07ィーィィ02 ィョィェィィ ィ 05ィケィェ ィェィ ツィ 05ィ 01ィョ010603ィェィィィコィ ィャィィ 0002ィェィー08ィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ 0804ィィィィ 06ィコィ ィ 02ィー ィー0605ィケ 0302 ィェ020601ィェ0604ィェィ ツィェ04ィャ, ィコィ ィコ ィィ ィェィ 02ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェィ 07 ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィケ ィ ィェィ ィケ01ィィィ 02ィコ0609ィ ィコ ィョィェィィ ィ 05ィケィェ06ィャィョ ィャ ィ 02ィャ0907 ツ ィー0802 ツ02ィェィィ02 06ィー ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィィ, ツ ィ ィャ ィョ00ィ ィェィィ ィコ09ィ ィェ0108ィ 01ィィィコ0605ィ 0209ィ 0201ィィィェ09ィー0902ィェィェ ィーィョ07ィェィ 07 ィェィ ィャ ィョィェィィ ィ 05ィケィェ0609ィーィケ ィC000506ィ ィ 05ィィ04ィィ080609ィ ィェィェィ 07 ィコィョ05ィケィーィョ08ィェィ 07 ィィィェ01ィョ09ィー08ィィ07, 06ィェィ 0302 ィィ ィェィ ィ 02ィー ィェィ ィャ 09ィー ィーィィ07ィィ04ィィ080609ィ ィェィェ0402 ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィィ ィャィ ィェィ 00ィ 09ィコィ ィ ィィ 00ィ ィコ09ィィィャィ ィェィィ050609ィ ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィケ ィィ ィョィェィィ ィ 05ィケィェ0609ィーィケ ィェ02 ィコ06ィェィー08ィ 07ィョィェィコィー04 ィC 06ィェィィ 0905ィィィー ィコ04ィィ09ィー02ィェ02ィィィ 05ィケィェ06ィャ ィィ 00ィィ ィコ06ィャ ィー ィョィーィィ03, ィィ ィ ィィ03ィコ02ィコ09ィコ ィ 0201ィェ ィ ィコ02ィィ06ィェィィ04ィャィ 0705ィ ィェィ 0203ィ 07ィ ィ ィィ ィィ03ィェィィィコ0609, ィョィェィィ ィ 05ィケィェ ィー0907 ィェィ ィャ 09 ィェ020603ィィ01ィ ィェィェ0402 ィャ06ィャ02ィェィー04, 0708ィィィェィィィャィ ィャ04 ィ 04ィー ィコィョ08ィケ , ィコ06ィー , ィー02ィャ ィェ02 ィャ02ィェ0202, 09ィョィーィケ 0609ィコ0605ィコィィ ィャィィ00ィ. 0006ィー ィェ02ィコ06ィー ィィ04 ィィィャ02ィェ ィィ ィェィィィヲ, ツィー06 ィャ0603ィェ06 ィェィ ィヲィーィィ 09 08ィコィーィョィ 05ィケィェ06ィャ ィ 0801ィィ0902 ィィ09ィコィョ0909ィー09ィ 0002ィェィー08ィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ 0804ィィィィ ュ 00ィィィコィー ィィ04ィィィ ィェ06 08ィョ08ィ ィー ィ 09ィィ05ィケ06ィェィ 0002ィェィー08ィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ 0804ィィィィ K Y R G Y Z S T A N / K A Z A K H S T A N / U Z B E K I S T A N /

8 13Auezkhan Kodar Modern art as the end of a secret: a viewpoint from Central Asia. In our time all old connections have been destroyed, and the new are just beginning to appear. Now a world map doesn ッt exist, but bright fragments of smaller ones. However, it is not helpful to try to assemble the pieces into something new. Presently there is not even any division between an artist and his or her work. Artists are their work. Presently time consists of endlessly existing nouns. Verbs and adjectives do not mean anything. Our time is the time of desperation. For so long we were afraid of the end of the world. But it ended up being not that terrible, daily life ィC it ended up being not the end of the world, not the Apocalypse, but a ーlight-show ア. Presently there is not even any division of days and nights. Day and night we light our lights, and it is not important whether the light they provide is real or artificial. This division has ceased to exist. Our time is not the end of the world, but the end of a secret, a grandiose discovery, made sometime by Bodriar. It is hard to overvalue this discovery. The secret, the foundation of which are the foundations of tradition, religion, and culture. Once ancient knowledge was made secret, and yet it has become consecrated. The phenomenon of the consecrated emerged from the cult that had withheld it. It is not surprising that with this secret also appeared the holy and the damned, true and untrue, fully valued and the not fully valued, familiar people and strangers, the chosen and the unchosen. One senses it, another is indifferent to it. But it ーexists no matter what ア. The secret is the cult of identity. When in the middle of the ocean of shadow, you are shown an island of light, you immediately believe in it and can associate yourself only with it. But now it is possible to happen this way, that there is an island of shadow in an ocean of light. We longed for our identity, and now are cursed with it. We are cursed with our physical and national constitution, with our weaknesses and strengths. But now all of the measures of quality or ーvalue ア have been lost. What measures can possibly be applied to tin plating? Only flatness. And so our art, it is flat on flatness. Further all humor has disappeared from it. It is rarely ironic. In it is neither the challenging nor the outrageous. It is all a sign of modernity, and we already lived through or were carried through post-modernity. Like measles or hives. And we do not feel anything except itching. A r t f r o m C e n t r a l A s i a. A C o n t e m p o r a r y A r h c h i v e 8

9 ィコ ィョ ィー ィェ ィー 08 ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 06 ィヲ ィィ ィィ. 08 ィコ ィー ィョ ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 04 ィヲ ィィ 09 So, this itching moves us. It, of course, is a material thing, and at the same time ーimmaterial ア. It is impulsive like a cardiogram. Some have more consciousness of it, and some are overcome unconsciously. But the sparks of recognition flow, blood pulsates and all around vibrates. However, the magnitude of the vibration is not great. It is even with the human body. It is that event, when the message and the meaning cross into one point ィC the point of modern art: our dialogues about the modern art of Central Asia. In that event it is acceptable to talk about prehistory or maybe history. But how can we talk about these subjects if they never existed? It is possible only to talk about the vertical invasion of modern art in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Ortega-and-Gasset in ーMass Insurrection ア wrote about the vertical invasion of barbarianism, and with the idea that it was a completely unexpected event that suddenly happened in civilized Europe. But with our situation, it was the other way around, in the midst of post-perestroika destruction and collapse suddenly arose modern art. The fall of the Soviet Union was a phenomenon of the same order. It seemed that there was never a government more powerful and yet all of a sudden it collapsed. As if from somewhere above democracy infiltrated. Notice in this that there is no dialectic, or specifically, invasion ーthe birth of tragedy from the spirit of music ア. Regretfully, with the next step came the birth of farce. Former republics of the Soviet Union, having received sovereignty, ran away into their ーnational apartments ア and anew became inspired by their own ーBerlin wall ア. So at this point everything was helpful: myths and insinuations, and reluctant acceptance of prestigious models of identity. The defining paradigm again became historical self-identity, or, more specifically, willfully construed epic centuries of one ッs own identity. That is how it happened, that Central Asian republics anew returned to the epoch of ーsecrets ア, but the invasion of modern art resulted in the end of the ーsecret ア. If you remember that in the middle of the 1990s we were still representations of conservative Soviet culture, and modern art conflicted with all our inclinations for determining the decency of art. First, it was not painting, second, in it was absolutely no kind of ideology, and third it wasn ッt humanistic. And in our, Kazakhstani, situation, it was also not national. And further, any decent artist hides the story of the creation of his or her work, and the viewer only sees the finished painting. For that reason at the beginning it was wild, that modern art, more than anything was about the open display of techniques, the destruction of all barriers and the uncovering formerly unspeakable truths, a severe conceptualization, allowing a person any desired degree of freedom. And at the same time, modern art was a kind of conditional space, built specifically for that concrete act, specifically for that situation. All remaining things in modern art were natural (taken from life), but refusing the moment of conditionality, it would have lost its own status as art. It is well known that the most outrageous of these artists of the 90s, Kulik, in his interviews always underlined that moment, his respect for conditionality, as a method for the aesthetic presentation of events. And now we will write about the unique modern art of Central Asia. It developed quickly among us, but officially it is as if it does not exist. If the phenomenon of the ーliving dead ア is happening, then it is happening with out artists. For Western artists, defended by all the power of their institutions, it is difficult to understand Asian artistic players, who try to be modern here, where there is only the archaic. They explode into the big world, where they are received with open arms, and then return again to their desert, where they have no status and no chance for growth. Creating art in Central Asia means creating in emptiness, trusting in Providence. You can ッt accept patriarchal thoughts of your own fellow tribesmen, just as they can ッt accept your non-ritualness. You are only saved by virtual association and ーthe spirit of music ア. And it is evident that in connection with this spirit only one ッs own understanding of identity itself changes. Now the only exit from the limits of identity is created by identity, i.e. it becomes like a transgression. Asian artistic players are not only carriers of modern art, but also its immediate expression. It is akin to the Vatican in Rome, appearing to be a government within a government, only this desacralized and deideologized space is the space of general communication and the end of secrets. This space, where the roots grow from the air, and the territory, like Delezu-Gvattari, has long ceased to possess the status of a territory. The artist is the only representative of the big world, about which only he knows. And he doesn ッt make a secret of his estrangement from his fellow tribesmen. It is possible, that only such estrangement is capable of granting sovereignty to the cultural situation in Central Asia. 9

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A C o n t e m p o r a r y A r h c h i v e 10

11 ィャ02ィェィェ06ィャ ィィ09ィコィョ0909ィー0902 ィ ィェィ ィーィョ08ィ 05ィケィェ04ィャ (090407ィー04ィャ ィィ04 03ィィ04ィェィィ), ィェ06, 06ィーィコィ 04ィ 0903ィィ09ィケ 06ィー 05ィー ィャ06ィャ02ィェィーィ ィョ ィェ0609ィーィィ, 06ィェ ィー ィ 04, 0906ィ 09ィー0902ィェィェ06, 09ィーィ ィーィョ09 ィィ09ィコィョ0909ィー09ィ. 0306ィコィ 04ィ ィー0205ィケィェ06, ツィー06 09ィ ィャ04ィヲ 0507ィ ィーィ 03ィェ04ィヲ ィ ィコ02ィィ06ィェィィ09ィー 90-01, 08ィョ05ィィィコ, ィィ01 ィィィェィー020809ィケ ィ ツ0208ィコィィ09ィ 05 05ィー06ィー ィャ06ィャ02ィェィー, ィョ09ィ 0302ィェィィ02 ィコ ィョ ィェ0609ィーィィ, ィコィ ィコ ィコ ィー09ィョ 0509ィー02ィーィィ04ィ 02ィィィィ ィーィ ィャ ィェィィィヲ. 08 ィー ィケ ィ 08ィ 04ィィィィ ィャ02ィェィェ ィィ09ィコィョ0909ィー09ィ ィェィー08ィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ 0804ィィィィ. 02ィェ06 ィョ ィェィ 09 ィ ィョ08ィェ06 08ィ 0409ィィ09ィ 02ィー0907, ィェ ィィ02ィィィ 05ィケィェ06 06ィェ06 ィコィ ィコ ィ ィョ01ィー06 ィェ02 09ィョィエ0209ィー09ィョ02ィー ィィ 09 ィコ02ィャ-ィー06 ィィ ィィ ィィィー 0009ィャ0208ィーィケ 0903ィィ09ィョ0603, ィー06 05ィー06 09 ィェィ 03ィィィャィィ 01ィョ010603ィェィィィコィ ィャィィ. 05ィ 07ィ 01ィェ04ィャ 01ィョ010603ィェィィィコィ ィャ, 04ィ ィエィィィエ02ィェィェ04ィャ ィヲ ィャ06ィエィケ ィィ01 ィィィェ09ィーィィィーィョ02ィィィヲ ィー08ィョ01ィェ ィェ07ィーィケ ィ 04ィィィ ィー09ィコィィ01 ィ ィコ02ィィ06ィェィィ09ィー0609, 0704ィーィ 06ィエィィ ィ 04ィーィケ ィャ02ィェィェ04ィャィィ ィーィ ィャ, ィー ィー0605ィケィコ06 ィ 0801ィ ィィィコィ. 02ィェィィ ィ 06ィー ィ 0605ィケ0306ィヲ ィャィィ08, ィィ ィィィェィィィャィ 06ィー 09 08ィ ィー0208ィー04ィャィィ 06ィ ィイ07ィーィィ07ィャィィ, ィ 0706ィー06ィャ 09ィェ0609ィケ ィ ィエィ 06ィー ィョ09ィー04ィェ06, ィョ ィェィィ01 ィェ02ィー ィェィィィコィ ィコ ィーィ ィーィョ09ィ ィィ ィャ0603ィェ0609ィーィィ ィーィ ィィィーィケ ィェィー08ィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ 0804ィィィィ ィC 05ィー06 04ィェィ ツィィィー ィー090608ィィィーィケ 09 07ィョ09ィー06ィー02, 09 ィェィ ィー0605ィケィコ06 ィェィ ィ ィー0902ィェィェ ィィ0102ィェィィ ィェ02 ィャ ィケ 0708ィィィェ07ィーィケ 07ィ ィー08ィィィ 0801ィ 05ィケィェ0602 ィャ ィェィィ ィィ ィャ02ィェィェィィィコ0609, ィコィ ィコ ィィ 06ィェィィ, ィー ィC ィェ02 08ィィィーィョィ 05ィケィェ ィ ィ 09ィ 02ィー ィー0605ィケィコ06 09ィィ08ィーィョィ 05ィケィェ ィ ィエ02ィェィィ02 ィィ ィー06, ツィー06 ィェィ ィ 02ィー ィョ0106ィャ ィャィョ0404ィコィィ03. 06, 09ィィ01ィィィャ06, ィィ 09 05ィーィィィャ ィャ02ィェ0702ィー ィ ィャ ィェ07ィーィィ02 ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィィ ィケ ィー0605ィケィコ ィ ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィィ ィ 02ィー ィィ0102ィェィーィィ ツィェ0609ィーィケ, ィー ィェィ 0708ィィ06ィ 0802ィーィ 02ィー ィー08ィ ィェ ィィ09ィェ04ィヲ 01ィ 08ィ ィコィー ィィィ ィー09ィコィィィヲ ィ ィコ02ィィ06ィェィィ09ィー ィェ02 ィー0605ィケィコ06 ィェ0609ィィィー0205ィケ ィャ02ィェィェ ィィ09ィコィョ0909ィー09ィ, ィェ06 ィィ ィェ ィー0902ィェィェ ィ 0302ィェィィ02. 02ィェ ィ ィェ06 00ィ ィーィィィコィ ィェィョ 09 04ィィィャ02, ィー ィョ01ィ 0809ィー0906ィャ ィョ01ィ 0809ィー0902, ィー0605ィケィコ06 05ィー ィ ィコ08ィ 05ィィ040609ィ ィェィェ0602 ィィ 0102ィィ ィィ04ィィ080609ィ ィェィェ ィー08ィ ィェ09ィー0906, ィー08ィ ィェ09ィー ィ ィエ02ィヲ ィコ06ィャィャィョィェィィィコィ 02ィィィィ ィィ ィコ06ィェ02ィ 0902ィコ0802ィーィ. 06ィー ィー08ィ ィェ09ィー0906, ィコ0608ィェィィ 08ィ 09ィーィョィー ィィ ィョ01ィ, ィ ィー020808ィィィー0608ィィ07 01ィ 09ィェ06, ィョ-0109ィ ィーィーィ 08ィィ, ィェ02 ィィィャ0202ィー 09ィーィ ィーィョ09ィ ィー020808ィィィー0608ィィィィ. 09ィョ010603ィェィィィコ ィィィェ09ィー0902ィェィェ04ィヲ ィー ィ 0605ィケ ィャィィ08ィ, 06 ィコ06ィー060806ィャ ィ 02ィー ィー0605ィケィコ06 06ィェ ィェ ィェ ィ 02ィー 0902ィコ0802ィーィ ィャ 06ィー ツィョ030102ィェィィィィ 06ィー ィャ02ィェィェィィィコ ィャ0603ィェ06, ツィー06 ィー0605ィケィコ06 ィーィ ィコ ィー ツィョ030102ィェィィ ィ ィェ ィャ02ィェィィィーィケ ィコィョ05ィケィーィョ08ィェィョ06 09ィィィーィョィ 02ィィ ィェィー08ィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ 0804ィィィィ ィャ0502ィェィィィィ 09ィーィ ィーィケィィ ィィ ィケ040609ィ ィェ ィー060008ィ 00ィィィィ ィコ09ィ ィェ0108ィ ィコ ィョ ィー ィェ ィー 08 ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 06 ィヲ ィィ ィィ. 08 ィコ ィー ィョ ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 04 ィヲ ィィ 09 11

12 13Valeria Ibraeva Waiting for Godot: the Central Asian version of the search for identity Monument to Amir Timur, Tashkent, Uzbekistan ィ ィャ07ィーィェィィィコ 08ィャィィ08ィョ 06ィィィャィョ08ィョ, 06ィ 03ィコ02ィェィー, 0704ィ 02ィコィィ09ィーィ ィェ Ex-Soviet Central Asia, one of the most closed and secretive regions of the USSR, today, after the fall of the iron curtain and thirteen years of independence, is the intersection of the geopolitical and economic interests of the USA, China, and Russia. Stores of oil, gas, and metal, like the caves of Ali Baba, attract the attention of diplomats, travelers, businessmen, adventurers, and artists. Tumultuous political processes in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan, countries in search of their identities and defining their place in world society, are undoubtedly stimulating the necessity of devising specific models of cultural identification in every country. Debates concerning national ideas are happening in kitchens, in mass media, and in parliaments. A large majority of societies long existing under Soviet cultural standards, which were based on the acculturalization (the creation of a monoculture subsuming all others) of all nations of the USSR and countries of the Warsaw Pact (without exception), are now examining the situation from the position of compensation theory, and have began the formulation of positions prioritizing, as it is currently fashionable to say, the creation and support of ーstate-forming ア ethnos. The most progress in the process of ーacculturalization ア was achieved in the Central Asian region, due to the power of undifferentiated cultural and ethnic identification in local societies built on foundations of clan and tribal relations. This is the very same phenomenon that the USA struggled with during the creation of ーdemocratic government ア in modern Afghanistan. In 1924 Soviet power performed the so-called ーtopornoe razdelenie ア (hammered-out division), choosing border lines which, if one were to look at a map of the region in detail, would remind one of the triangles and segments present on a typical map of Africa. As a result of the once-present Central Asian historical and cultural spaces of Iran and Turan, differing in cultural-geographical type (on the Steppe pastoral-nomadic, in cities agriculturalsedimentary), with the 1991 birth of new independent Central Asia these states became the subject of division and whimsical prospecting. The destruction of nomadic way of existence in the Steppes and the Islamic way of life in the cities, which was called for in order to unite the population and build the abstract ーlabor class of the Soviet East ア, lead to the near-complete destruction of cultural traditions and historical memory. In such A r t f r o m C e n t r a l A s i a. A C o n t e m p o r a r y A r h c h i v e 12

13 ィコ ィョ ィー ィェ ィー 08 ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 06 ィヲ ィィ ィィ. 08 ィコ ィー ィョ ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 04 ィヲ ィィ 09 a way this virtual ーjump ア into the bright future was promoted by the Soviet propaganda apparatus on signs donned by horsemen, who proceeded to jump over barriers, with the message ーFrom feudalism to Socialism! ア The collapse of the Soviet Union and the rapid announcement of sovereignty returned Central Asia to a past point, with a society enriched by monoagricultural (cotton and grain), monoindustrial (mostly mining), and monocultural (socialist realism) elements of Soviet society. With this heritage the new countries stood ready to enter the new 21st century as equal participants in worldwide political, economic, and cultural processes. Having turned away from Communist ideology and proclaiming themselves open to the market, the secular world, democracy, and multiculturalism, they began working toward the creation and strengthening of states. Nonetheless the principles of Soviet cultural policy and the approach to culture as an instrument of government policy remained present in their efforts. The approach of social realism was the only complete and wellworked-out ideological strategy available and had been working for seventy years. Likewise it is necessary to recognize that by implanting Soviet cultural standards, the Soviet authorities initiated the emergence of European-esqe culture in Central Asia. Having declared themselves sovereign, before the new Central Asian governments stood the task of political-cultural selfidentification, and their process for constructing ideologies began at the same point as the USSR ッs: monumental propaganda. The fundamental mystery of the ーCentral Asian plan of Monumental Propaganda ア seems to be the emphasis on the deep historical roots of the state-formation. From the annals of history the most fitting facts and characters are found, a revision of the archeological and historical research is performed, and a review of mythology and folklore. In the process of devising a model of cultural-identification, the meanings of the words ーsovereign ア and ーnational ア is subject to interpretation based on the priorities of so-titled ethnos, each of which looks for the ーfather ア of their ーnation ア to fit in the ideological hole, which is fashioned with reference to the debunking of the cult of Lenin. The recently liberated sacred spaces of Soviet ideology (most often cities ッ main squares) began being used as a place for realizing new fetishes. In Kazakhstan this role was played by a warrior with Jungar influence, in Uzbekistan by the conqueror emir Timur (Tamerlane), and in Tajikistan by Ismail Samani, founder of the Samanidov dynasty. The formulation of the national aesthetic is happening based on imitating the principles of the European aesthetics of the 16-17th centuries, which fully solved the problem of government passivity, directed toward the ancientization of history and the creation of myths about the grand modern nations of Central Asia, with sniper-like precision determining for itself the appropriate historical style. The baroque and classical styles, as is well known, appeared in connection with the formation of European states, based on a strong national idea and authoritarian government. So, Uzbekistan ッs Tamerlane rides a horse in the same manner as Bernina: strong, dynamic, light and shadow effects, expressively molded and so on (fitting descriptions from an art history textbook). European classical tradition for the portrayal of heroes in antiquated clothing was also continued ィC Tamerlane in Tashkent is dressed in the clothes of an ancient Sogdit, although this medieval conqueror was a Mongol. The historical and ethnographical eclectic builds a new geopolitical semantic to strengthen the historicity of modern Uzbekistan. In Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, there is a (horseless) monument to Ismail Samani, who, having built the city, supported farmers and the vocational development. A gilded silhouette is engraved the opening of a grandiose arch, which has the portals of madras and mausoleums of Samarkand and Bukhara, which are currently located in Uzbekistan. Monument to Ablaixan, Almaty, Kazakhstan ィ ィャ07ィーィェィィィコ 08ィ 05ィ ィヲ01ィ ィェィョ, 0805ィャィ ィー04, 08ィ 04ィ 0109ィーィ ィェ 13

14 13In this way historical persons became involved in modern territorial disputes and, proclaimed as the fathers of nations, become symbols of newly-formed states. The attribution of exclusive rights of state-formation to ancient ーFathers of nations ア is happening, without question, and of succession of power, because the currently presidents emphasize their roles as founding fathers who gave independence to the new states of Central Asia. However, as is well known, the ーparade of sovereignties ア passed upward owing to the fall of the Soviet Union. Having installed authoritarian regimes and held power for more than fifteen years, the presidents assure us that the ーemergence of the national spirit ア and the ーreturn to traditions ア by virtue of the founding of a nationalistic aesthetic of based on classification, is a sign of national identity. On horseback, Ablaikhan, perched on a narrow post supported by ornate multicolored columns encrusted with many-faceted stones on the train square in Almaty, the former capital of Kazakhstan, gestures toward the square entrance. The second Ablaikhan on horseback, this time in the new capital Astana, which was built on the naked Steppe, is more modestly done in a strict classical style. ーNational traditions ア in both monuments are represented by ーnational ア dィヲcor: accessories, a mongoloid face, and, naturally, the image of the horse, which for the past nomad way of life was a very important identifying mark. This singularly successful concurrence of nomadic and feudalabsolutist traditions begot a strong circulatory effect: now every city or district center aspires to install their own equestrian hero. Arising from folklore, legends, and mythic tales, often announcing the ancestral origins of innumerable present-day heads of state, they are already capable of being counted in dozens. It is not a coincidence that the majority of modern Kazakhstani equestrian monuments evoke associations with nomadic characters, and heroes of legends, in which the powerful hero saves his motherland from maleficent enemies. In the same way, the ancient Greeks, members of an ancient society, marked their achievements, uniting themselves under the names ーPrometheus ア or ーHeracles. ア But in repeating motifs a certain piece of cultural memory is maintained. It would seem that every city and town that builds an equestrian monument on their square loyally supports the epidemic of state monument building. On the other hand, their number seems to be a consequence of the still-living tradition of strong clan and tribal relationships, and evidence of the centrifugal force capable of being initiated without an ordering finger. This, however, naturally contradicts the ideas of the authoritarian government and was quickly forbidden by an unofficial but sufficiently clear order. The idea of modern absolutism, portrayed as national, found its own higher incarnation in Turkmenistan, the president of which is so honest that in agreement with the democratic will of the people, he obediently took his own lifetime election to the highest national post. In connection with this the Ark of Neutrality in Ashgabat, itself representing enormous, held up by three strong supports, pedestal of cement and glass, with a parade quarters inside, crowned with the golden figure of Saparmurat Niyazov, which rotates depending on the position of the sun in the sky. At present it is possible to talk not about the baroque style, but about other ancient empires. These are more beloved by Hollywood, and installed the columns of Trayan and the megalithic sculptures of Constantine. On the other hand, the moving statue of Turkmenbashi, undoubtedly, is a kinetic object, in which the influence of new technology is obvious. Slavoy Jijek ッs opinion, that Soviet architecture has influenced the aesthetics of Hollywood, seems to fit well. Pop philosophy connects the image of King Kong standing on top of a skyscraper with the metal figure of Lenin on the summit of the main Soviet palace. In the case of the Ark of Neutrality it is completely possible to talk about the opposite effect, the influence of Hollywood, including in the creation of its own monumental productions of roughly-built interpretations of natural objects. The role of the Hollywood moon over the infatuated King Kong is played in this case by the ancient sun of Turkmenistan moving over the optimistic, rotating Turkmenbashi. The perception of new technologies through the populist aesthetic of Hollywood is a completely legitimate type of modern authoritarian Central Asian discourse; even Rolan Bart noted that a vague sign, like a pendulum swinging between intellect and gut, is the foundation of the bourgeoisie vision, hypocritically proclaiming its name authentic. Turkmenbashi even admitted a few years ago the humble, even by Hollywood standards, desire to become the next prophet after Jesus and Mohammad (not God, but also not a regular person). Turkmenbashi, however, is not alone in his unique marginalized position ィC similar objects uniting symbolic religious systems with odd Hollywood scenes about electronic World governance, also exist in Kazakhstan. Elements of the Independence Monument in Almaty and the internal decoration of the Baiterek tower in Astana seem to bear the fingerprints of President Nazarbaev. On the upper surface of bronze podiums, at the Independence Monument resembling books, at the Baiterek tower resembling traditional ーTumar ア amulets, are in-molded handprints, which when reacting to a certain set of papillary lines, can be successfully used to ーrule ア the country. These bronze sensors are references to the film ーTotal Recall, ア at the end of which the triumphant Arnold Schwarzenegger (whose governorship is also deeply symbolic), pressed his palms into alien hand-shaped sensors and thereby gave the Martian nation the opportunity to breathe its own air. At the same time the hand ッs fingerprints are a static symbol of one of Islam ッs myths, the so called ーHand of Ali ア ィC the son A r t f r o m C e n t r a l A s i a. A C o n t e m p o r a r y A r h c h i v e 14

15 ィコ ィョ ィー ィェ ィー 08 ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 06 ィヲ ィィ ィィ. 08 ィコ ィー ィョ ィ 05 ィケ ィェ 04 ィヲ ィィ 09 in law and follower of the Prophet. In Astana the composition ーthe kind palms ア, as was already said, was placed alone in the ーBaiterek ア tower. Inside this enormous structure, apart from composition itself and the composition ッs complex podium is absolutely nothing. The ninety-seven meter construction is simply a support for the imprinted hands of the President, but the name of the tower ィC Baiterek ィC is mysterious. The name is explained to be a war cry of the ョShaprashty ッ tribe to which Nazarbaev belongs. ュ Godot arrived. The process of searching for identity and roots, pompous slogans of a return to national traditions and the awakening of spirituality, the theatrical pathos of the emphasis on ancient foundations of states and unshakable sovereignties in the Central Asian region, historical research, appealing to historical and modern systems of aesthetics, the attraction archaic and new technologies are all grandiose efforts and falsifications aimed at entrenching the leaders ッ status in the eyes of the people ュ ュ in 2002 in Geneva the Kyrgyz artist Gulnara Kasmalieva presented a performance, the content of which follows ィC her assistant took a certain lattice made of the long braided hair of the artist from the podium and shook it on primitive loom. The artist herself, wearing national dress, was sitting in front of the audience and so- ーbound ア to the loom, played the kobyz, an ancient instrument of nomads. At the end of the melody she cut off her braids and could finally stand, freed from her ーbonds. ア The sharp declarative manner of the performance, seeming to be a strong condemnation of speculative games using national culture as a brand of independence, is one type of nonconforming discourse, in which the unofficial artists of Central Asia participate. On the other hand, actively working realists, who lived with the Soviet administration for two thirds of their lives, unexpectedly wound up inhabitants of completely different countries, are very concerned about the problem of identity. National traditions, participation in which is felt very strongly, cannot be included in their axiology. Emphasis on a person ッs right to be different, belong to different traditions, and have a non-europecentered history, culture, and psycho-physical type became a strong tendency among realist artists in Central Asia. At the same time the sense of belonging as a part of humanity, capable of changing and emphasizing a personal and equal relationship with the world is stated. In 2002 in Europe, the names of exhibits, the first in Central Asian history, speak for themselves: ーNo Mad ッs Land ア (Berlin), ーRe-Orientation ア (Weimar), ーTrans Forma ア (Geneva). At the individual level this tendency appears in the search for a language of differences and not similarities, based on the breaking of an ethnographic-souvenir stereotype, or outdated view of people or regions. Besides that, if one examines the world ッs congeniality toward art, in the beginning it was strongly oriented toward Moscow actionism. For that reason the performance of Gulnara Kasmalieva remains, despite already expressed critical responses, an idea in which the artist is present as a modern person, having all knowledge, thoughts, feelings, and rights to be herself. Because this sort of breaking-out demands in first rank an elucidation of the absence of any kind of clear information about the history of the region, lots of work which is fundamentally on the details of reconstructing traditional rituals, the removal of layers of Soviet and religious morals, European and Eastern cultural norms, and the secularization of ritual hardware of posts of Soviet society. As in Gulnara Kasmalieva ッs performance, the majority of the work has a shocking character ィC Kanat Ibragimov publicly killing a sheep, Rustam Khalfin filming the details of human coitus on horseback, Saken Narynov putting sheep ッs knee bones (which children use as toys) into a monument to Asyk, Said Atabekov burning a hole in the Koran and filling it with a rock, as a sign of the region ッs pre-islamic pantheist beliefs. In such a way, having declared their identities at the most personal levels and proved their abilities differently, on the basis of a reconstruction of ancient traditions is to love women and children, weave, play musical instruments, and believe in the powers of reason in nature, realist art searching for identity approached the problems of the personal relationships of Central Asian citizens with their own sovereign states. The projection screen of the video performance ーPol Pot ア by Erbossyn Meldibekov (Kazakhstan) has a strange appearance ィC the heads of living people with strongly expressive facial lines digging in the earth. The lines are actually alliterations, the semantics of which refer to cultural codes and signs. These include the historical-isfagan pyramid of Tamerlane, ーThe apotheosis of war ア by V. Vereshagin, the cultural Soviet film ーThe white desert sun ア, the modern ーeastern ア advertisement by Inkombank, the first frame of the first ーTerminator ア, the future-anticipating (done in 2000) photographs from Abu Ghraib, the electronic game Snood. But the allusions aren ッt exhausted by the multifaceted ideas of the work, the constancy of the absence of freedom on a personal level, and on a regional and general human level, puts the human head on the same level as a paving stone, rock, inanimate object, all of which are incapable of changing the situation ーbeing a comforting rock ア ュ The strongest sign of artists ッ regional identity seems to be the Mongoloid-ness that makes them quintessential Asiatics, notwithstanding the obvious political incorrectness of its use, and the fact that no one besides those in Central Asia articulates such sentiments. So, in a simple video performance named ーPastan, ア the author, possessing a clear Mongoloid appearance, sits for hours in a storm pelting him with hail, completely politically incorrect, with masochistic zeal mocking the phenomenon of 15

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