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3 13National Library of Russia International association Bibliotheca Baltica Access to the Baltic Sea: Maps and Other Information Resources in a Sea-bound Area IX International Symposium Proceedings October 23 ェ Saint-Petersburg 2010

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6 1305ontents Preface...8 Greeting...9 Kyrill Chistyakov, Viktor Ionov. The Baltic Sea in the a Changeable world...11 Ulla Ehrensv01rd. The History of Mapping in the Baltic Sea Area Vitalij Kaptsィケg. 00The Struve Geodesic Arc03 in the Baltic Geographical, Social and Cultural Area Anda Juta Zalite. Digitization of Latvian Maps: Praxis and Vision of the Future...46 Ludmila Kildushevskaya. Maps of the Baltic Region in the Collections of the National Library of Russia...52 Aleksey Andronov. Dialectological Maps of Baltic Languages as Milestones in the History of Science: Preservation and Accessibility Anna Kukli09ska, Romualda Szura. History of the Baltic Sea Southern Shore: an Analysis of Shoreline Changes based on the Old Maps from the National Library in Warsaw...80 Olga Krasnikova, Sergei Sementsov. The Cartographic Information Data Bank of the City of Saint-Petersburg of the 18 th to the 21 st Century in the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Issues of Studying and Developing the Urban Construction and Planning System of the City of Saint Petersburg...91 Olga Barysheva. The Digital Library ェ The Way through Countries and across Boarders Steffi Mittenzwei. Maps and Geodata in German Libraries and Archives Authors

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8 13PREFACE The International Symposium: 00Access to the Baltic Sea: Maps and other Information Resources in a Sea-bound Area03 was hosted by the National Library of Russia Saint Petersburg from the 23rd to the 24th October 2008 and organized by the International Association Bibliotheca Baltica. The aim of this organization, which represents libraries of different tipes in the ten Baltic countries, is to consolidate their efforts aimed at the preservation of and the free access to the cultural heritage in age-old library collections in the region. In the current context, and relying on the free information space principles and the extensive opportunities offered by advanced technologies, the libraries can and must provide the relevant foundations for various research activities both in the Baltic Sea and adjacent areas as well as in the countries concerned. Among the participants were library directors from the Baltic countries, map curators and scholars recognized in different fields from Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Finland. The discussions concerned a range of subjects related to common problems of Baltic geography, studies of regional map collections, digitization and provision of free access to cartographic heritage, geographical databases, as well as future prospects for electronic libraries. Some papers dealt with map applications in various research fields including history, geography and philology in particular. There is good reason to believe that the collected papers prepared for publication will generate both scholarly and general public interest in Russia and elsewhere, providing an excellent example of international cultural cooperation. Vladimir Zaitsev, Director General, National Library of Russia 8

9 13Dear Bibliotheca Baltica Colleagues! The Bibliotheca Baltica Board is pleased to present to you the The Proceedings of the IXth International Bibliotheca Baltica Symposium, which was devoted to maps of the Baltic Sea and the sea-bound area! Luebeck, Tartu, Riga, Stockholm, Szczecin, Copenhagen, Greifswald, Vilnius and now ェ St. Petersburg! There are many roads, shipping paths, traffic routes, air lines and subways drawn to cross the Baltic Sea region. And we can find even many more maps in various languages, different scripts in diverse scales created in order to cover these areas. All these materials are our common culture heritage, kept within a variety of libraries of all kinds in the countries around the Baltic Sea. From the very begining. Bibliotheca Baltica symposiums have always been devoted to these two matters: on the one hand, what is our common cultural heritage, and on the other hand, in which ways, and how can we preserve and hand it down to the next generations? At this time our special attention will be drawn to the 00access03 to items and various media, designed to improve and facilitate how users seek information in the Baltic Sea region. I hope we find the right track in mapping questions and solutions during the next days of the symposium! Andris Vilks, President of Bibliotheca Baltica until 2009, Director of the National Library of Latvia 9

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11 1309ィ 05ィーィィィコィ 09 ィィ04ィャ02ィェ0706ィエ02ィャ0907 ィャィィ ィィ08ィィ0505 チィィ09ィー07ィコ0609, 00ィィ ィィ0102ィェィー 04ィョ0909ィコ ィ 00ィィ ツ0209ィコ ィ ィエ0209ィー09ィ, 05ィ ィェィコィー-0302ィー0208ィ ィョ ィィィコィー ィェ0609, 05ィ ィェィコィー-0302ィー0208ィ ィョ080009ィコィィィヲ ィョ01ィ 0809ィー0902ィェィェ04ィヲ ィョィェィィ ィィィー02ィー, ィィ07 The Baltic Sea in the a Changeable world Kyrill Chistyakov, Vice-President of the Russian Geographical Society, St. Petersburg Viktor Ionov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia The Baltic Region is seen as an integral eco-geographical system, with environmental stability requiring coordinated actions of all countries in the Baltic basin area. One potential model is cooperation in the educational field. An example is provided by the activities of the Baltic University initiated by Uppsala University (Sweden) in The current remote education program teaching global ecological thinking involves 14 Baltic countries and over 30 universities. Eco-geographically-oriented courses are supplemented with knowledge of basic water-area anti-polluting technologies. This allows assessing the status and prospects of nature conservation projects developed by different countries, paying particular attention to their specific characteristics (socio-economic and technological development, the level of use of natural resources, environmental monitoring etc.). 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ0602 ィャ ィェィ ィィィー ィ ィコィーィィ ツ0209ィコィィ ィ ィ ィヲ09ィコ ィコ06ィェィーィィィェ02ィェィーィ. 02ィェ ィェ0609ィ ィー0602 ィィ ィ ィィ05ィィ09ィェ0602, 06ィーィェ0609ィィィー0205ィケィェ06 ィャ0205ィコ ィェ ィー0607ィェィィ02 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィャ ィ 09ィィ09ィィィー ィェ02 ィー0605ィケィコ06 ィィ ィェ02 09ィー0605ィケィコ06 06ィー ィ ィャ02ィェィ 09 08ィー05ィ ィェィーィィィコ06ィヲ, 09ィコ0605ィケィコ06 06ィー ィーィョ070502ィェィィ ィィ ィェ0609ィィィャ0401 ィィィャィィ 09ィョィ 09ィーィ ィェ02ィィィヲ ィ 0608ィェ0401 ィ ィ ィヲィェ ィコ. 02ィ 05ィィィコ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィャ ィィ04ィィィコ ィ 00ィィ ツ0209ィコ06ィャ 09ィャ ィー ィェ0201ィ 09ィェ02ィヲ ィェィィィコ060906ィヲ ィィ09ィー0608ィィ02ィヲ, ィコ060001ィ ィコィ ィェ01ィィィェィ 0909ィコ ィェィー08ィ ィェ02ィェィィ07 ィコ 0600ィョ ィィ ィー06ィコィョ ィェ020601ィェ06ィコ08ィ ィーィェ06 ィェィ 0708ィ ィィ09ィケ ィ 0605ィケ03ィィ02 11

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14 1309ィ ィェィィ07 ィコ08ィョ07ィェ ィコ ィィ ツ0209ィコィィ01 ィィ ィ 00ィィ ツ0209ィコィィ01 09ィィ09ィー02ィャ ( ィィ09ィー02ィャ). 06ィ ィコ, ィェィ 0708ィィィャ0208, ィェ0205ィケ0407 ィョィャ02ィェィケ03ィィィーィケ 04ィ ィェ02ィェィィ ィコ06ィヲ 00ィョィ 04 ィィ ィヲ 08ィィィェ09ィコ ィ 05ィィ09ィ ィィィェィ ツ02, ィコィ ィコ 0906ィコ08ィ ィエィ ィケ09ィコ ィヲ09ィー0902ィェィェ0602, ィャ ィェィェ0602 ィィ ィコ06ィャィャィョィェィ 05ィケィェ06-ィ 04ィー ィ ィェ02ィェィィ ィ ィィ ィィ ィィ 05ィー06ィャ 0802 ツィケ ィェ02 ィャ060302ィー ィィ01ィーィィ ィィ040409ィ 01 00ィェィ 04ィ 01, ィエ ェ ィャ02ィェィェ0402 ィー0802ィ 0609ィ ィェィィ07 ィコ ィョ080609ィェ06 03ィィ04ィェィィ ィェィ ィェィィ07 ィャ0600ィョィー ィ 04ィーィケ 06ィ ツ02ィェ04 04ィ 09 ツ02ィー ィェィィ07 04ィ 01ィ ツ 0607ィーィィィャィ 05ィケィェ ィ ィェ0103ィ 00ィーィェ ィ ィェィィ080609ィ ィェィィ07 ィィ ィ ィェィィ07 ィャィェ060006ィョ080609ィェ ィ ィエィィィーィェ ィィ09ィー02ィャ. 02ィ 0802ィー02ィェィィ ィ ィ 05ィケィェ ィコ ィィ ツ0209ィコ ィャ ィェィィ07, ィョ ィェィィ02 ィェ ィェィ ィェィィィヲ ィコィ ィコ ィャ0603ィェ06 ィ 0605ィケ03ィィィャ ツィィ090506ィャ 09ィーィョ0102ィェィー ィー08ィ ィェ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィィ06ィェィ ィェ ィャ02ィェィェ0603, ィェィ 0601ィィィェィ ィコ ィコ06ィャ ィョィェィィ ィィィー02ィー09ィコ06ィャ ィョ080609ィェ02 ィィ 09 ィコ08ィ ィー ツィ ィヲ03ィィ ィコィィ ェ 0609ィェ0609ィェ ィェィ 04ィェィ ツ02ィェィィ02 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィョィェィィ ィィィー02ィーィ. 00 ィェィ 09ィー0607ィエ ィャ ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ06ィャ ィョィェィィ ィィィー02ィー ィ 05ィィ04ィョ02ィー0907 ィコィョ ィ ィョィコィィ 06ィ 06ィコ08ィョ03ィ 06ィエ02ィヲ ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ06ィャ ィィ06ィェ0203 (00Environmental Science in the Baltic Region03). 02ィ ィョ ツ02ィェィィ02 ィェィ ツィィィェィ 02ィー ィィ04ィョ ツ02ィェィィ07 00ィィ04ィィ ツ0209ィコ06ィヲ ィ 00ィィィィ 09ィ 05ィーィィィコィィ, ィェ06 09 ィ ィコ0202ィェィー06ィャ ィェ02 ィェィ ィー08ィ 01ィィ02ィィ06ィェィェ ィー08ィ ィィ09ィ ィェィィ ィィ ( ィィ07, ィャ ィィ07, ィコ05ィィィャィ ィー, 00ィィ ィ 00ィィ07 ィィ ィー. 01.), ィ ィェィ ィコ ィィ ツ0209ィコィィ ィーィ ィェィィ ィ, ィー ィー06 ツ02ィェ06 ィェィ ィー06ィャ, ィコィ ィコ 0904ィ ィィィャ060102ィヲ09ィー09ィョ06ィー ィ ィ ィィ06ィーィィ ツ0209ィコィィ02 ィィ ィ ィィ06ィーィィ ツ0209ィコィィ02 00ィ ィコィー ィ 04ィェ0606ィ 08ィ 04ィィ ィィ ィ 05ィーィィィコィィ, ィコィ ィコ 0102ィヲ09ィー09ィョ06ィー ィャ0201ィ ィェィィ04ィャ04 ィィ ィィ, 08ィ 04ィェ0606ィ 08ィ 04ィェ ィィ ィィ01 05ィコ ィィ ツ0209ィコィィ ィー09ィィ ィ 05ィーィィィャ 09ィェィィィャィ ィェィィ ィーィ ツィィ09ィ 02ィー0907 ィェィ 0609ィェ0609ィ 01 ィ ィィ ィィィィ, 09ィィ09ィー02ィャィ ィーィィィコィィ ィィ 05ィコ ィィィィ 0708ィィィャ02ィェィィィー0205ィケィェ06 ィコ 05ィコ0609ィィ09ィー02ィャ02 09ィ 05ィーィィィコィィ, 08ィ 09ィコ080409ィ 06ィー ィ ィィィャ ィィ ィャ020301ィョ ィ ィェィィ04ィャィ ィャィィ ィィ ィィ ィ ィィィャ060102ィヲ09ィー09ィィ ィヲ 06ィ ィィィーィ ィェィィ ィィィャ02ィェィィィー0205ィケィェ06 ィコ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ06ィャィョ ィャ ィー010205ィケィェ ィ 0909ィャ06ィー0802ィェィィ07 04ィ 0905ィョ03ィィ09ィ 02ィー ィー02ィャィ ィー080600ィィ080609ィ ィェィィ07 ェ ィョ09ィコ060802ィェィィ ィーィョ070502ィェィィ ィャ, 0005ィ 09ィェ04ィャ 06ィ 08ィ 0406ィャ, ィ 0406ィーィ ィィ ィ, ツィー ィィ090601ィィィー ィコ ィョ090205ィィ ツ02ィェィィ ィィ ツィェ06ィヲ ィョィコ02ィィィィ, ィィ04ィ 04ィー06 ツィェ06ィャィョ 08ィ 0409ィィィーィィ ィヲ ィィ ィィ01 08ィ 09ィー02ィェィィィヲ. 06ィー06ィー ィ 02ィー ィャィェ04ィャィィ ィィ04ィャ02ィェ02ィェィィ07ィャィィ 09 09ィー08ィョィコィーィョ ィェ ィコ0609ィィ09ィー02ィャ, 0708ィィ ィエィィィャィィ ィコ ィョィャ02ィェィケ0302ィェィィ06 ィ ィィ ィィ ツ0209ィコ ィ 04ィェ0606ィ 08ィ 04ィィ07 ィィ ィョ01ィョ010302ィェィィ06 ィコィ ツ0209ィー09ィ ィィ02ィィィー ィコィィ ィ, ィェィ 0708ィィィャ0208, ツィ 09ィー ィ 02ィー 04ィ ィャ ィ ィェ07ィーィケ ィーィィ ィェ04ィャ 06ィ 08ィ 0406ィャ ィャ0603ィェ06 ィー0605ィケィコ06 ィェィ 0609ィェ ィーィ ィー06 ツィェ ィョィ 06ィコィィ ィーィ ィェィィィヲ 06ィ ィィ09ィー0608ィィィィ ィェィィ07 ィィ 08ィ 0409ィィィーィィ ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィィ06ィェィ ィャ. 0308ィィ 05ィー06ィャ ィェィ ィャ02ィエィ ィーィケ ィィ09ィー0608ィィ06 09ィー08ィ ィェ ィィ ィェィ , 05ィーィェ ィィ ィコ06ィェ ィィィヲ, ィィ ィヲ09ィー060202ィェ ィェ0609ィョ ィ - 14

15 13ィー0205ィケィェ0609ィーィケ 07ィ ィ 00ィィ ツ0209ィコィィ ィ 04ィーィィィヲ, ィ ィェィェ ィェィィィコィェ060902ィェィィ02ィャ ィィ 08ィ 0907ィ 0106ィャ ィェ02ィェィィィヲ, ィー08ィ ィェ ィィ07ィャィィ ィィ ィィ07ィャィィ 0708ィィ050201ィェィィィコ ィャ0609, 09ィャ02ィエ02ィェィィ07ィャィィ 05ィ ィェ0103ィ 00ィーィェ ィェ ィー09ィィ02 ィィ04ィャ02ィェ02ィェィィィヲ ィコ05ィィィャィ ィーィ. 06ィー06ィー ィィ06ィ 0802ィーィ 02ィー ィ ィョ06 ィ ィコィーィョィ 05ィケィェ0609ィーィケ ィィ ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェ04ィャィィ 0802ィ ィコ02ィィ07ィャィィ ィェィ ィャ02ィェィェ ィ ィ 05ィケィェ0402 ィィ04ィャ02ィェ02ィェィィ07 ィコ05ィィィャィ ィーィ ィャ02ィェィェィ ィャ ィェィェィ ィ 01ィ 08ィ ィコィー0208ィィ04ィョ02ィー ィ ィャ02ィーィェ06ィヲ ィィィェィー02ィェ09ィィ00ィィィコィ 02ィィ02ィヲ ィ ィェィー ィェィェ ィヲ09ィー09ィィィヲ ィィ 0904ィ ィ ィャィィ ィ ィ 05ィケィェ0402 ィコ08ィョ ィー ィエ0209ィー09 ェ 04ィ ィェィィィー020502ィヲ ィィ09ィコィョ0909ィー0902ィェィェ ィィ ィェィィ07, ツィ 09ィー06 ィェ02 ィィィャ0206ィエィィ ィー0209ィー0902ィェィェ0401 ィ ィェィ ィェィコィィ ィャ ィェィェ ィヲ09ィー09ィィィヲ 09 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ06ィャ ィィ06ィェ ィィ 06 ツ02ィェィケ ィコ06ィャ ィョ080609ィェ ィェィェ0609ィーィィ ィー0802ィ ィョ06ィー 04ィェィ ィェィィィヲ ィェ02 ィー0605ィケィコ ィ 05ィ 09ィーィィ ィェィ ィョィコ ィャ0502, ィェ06 ィィ ィー0201ィェ ィィ ツ0209ィコィィ ィ 08ィ ィ 02ィャ ィコィィ ィィ, 09 ィコ06ィェ02 ツィェ06ィャ 09 ツ02ィー02, 09 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ0602 ィャ ィ ィェィィィー0205ィィ 0909ィーィョ07ィ 06ィー ィェ ィ ィコ02ィィィィ 0108ィョ ィョ0006ィャ, ツィー ィ 02ィー ィェ0206ィ ィィィャ0609ィーィケ 09 ィョ0005ィョィ 0502ィェィェ06ィャ ィィ ィ ィェィィィィ ィ 0502ィャ ィー06ィコ09ィィィコ ィィィィ 06ィコ08ィョ03ィ 06ィエ02ィヲ ィ ィョ ィケ 09 05ィー06ィャ ィコ08ィョ ィ 0502ィャ ィィ0008ィ 02ィー ィ ィェィィ04ィ 02ィィ ィケ040609ィ ィェィィ07. 06ィ ィコ ィコィ ィコ 04ィ ィエィィィーィ 06ィコ08ィョ03ィ 06ィエ02ィヲ ィ ィ ィェィィィィ ィヲ09ィー0902ィェィェ04ィャィィ ィィィェィー ィ ィャィィ ィェ ィャ0603ィェィ ィ ィ ィョ05ィィ080609ィ ィェィィ07, 06ィー010205ィケィェ04ィヲ 08ィ ィコィョ0809ィ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィョィェィィ ィィィー02ィーィ ィエィ 02ィー ィー06ィヲ ィ 0502ィャィ ィーィィィコ02. 05ィー08ィ ィー0200ィィィィ ィィ ィコ06ィャ070502ィコ ィィ ィ ィェィェ0401 ィャ0208, 08ィ 0408ィ ィ 06ィーィ ィェィェ , ィェ ィー ィーィ ィー06 ツィェ04ィャィィ ィャ02ィェィェ06ィヲ ィィィィ. 0308ィィ 05ィー06ィャ 0708ィィ010601ィィィー0907 ィョ ツィィィー0409ィ ィーィケ, ツィー ィィ ィ ィェィェィ ィィィーィィィコィ ィィィィ ィェ02 ィャ060302ィー ィェ06ィヲ ィャ ィ ィーィケ ィーィョ 04ィ 07ィ 01ィェ ィー08ィ ィェ, ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェ0402 ィィ ィャィョィェィィ02ィィ07ィ 05ィケィェ ィェィィ ィャィィ080609ィ 05ィィ09ィケ ィー020702ィェィェ06, 07ィ 08ィ ィケィェ06 ィョ ツ02ィェィィ ィョ05ィィ08ィョ06ィエィィ ィェ06ィコ ィャ0201ィ ィェィィ04ィャ ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェィ 07 05ィコ ィィ ツ0209ィコィ ィィィーィィィコィ 09ィャ060302ィー 09ィーィ ィーィケ 0102ィヲ09ィー0902ィェィェ06ィヲ ィィ ィコィーィィ09ィェ06ィヲ ィー060001ィ, ィコ060001ィ ィコ0806ィャ02 ィャ0608ィ 05ィケィェ06-05ィーィィ ツ0209ィコィィ ィィィェ02ィィ070609, ィ ィョ0102ィー 09ィョィエ0209ィー090609ィ ィーィケ ツ02ィーィコィ 07 ィィ 0706ィェ07ィーィェィ ィャ 09ィィ09ィー02ィャィ 0705ィ ィーィェ ィィ ィケ040609ィ ィェィィ07 ェ 05ィコ06ィェ06ィャィィ ツ0209ィコ06ィヲ ィェィコィィ 0708ィィ080601ィェ0401 ィョ ィィィヲ ィィ ィョ ィケィコ06 ィー060001ィ ィャ060302ィェ ィー 06ィー08ィ ィィィェ02ィィ07ィ ィョ0708ィ ィェィィ07 ィィ ィケ040609ィ ィェィィ02ィャ 0708ィィ080601ィェ ィョ ィコ ィー020808ィィィー0608ィィィ 05ィケィェ06ィャィョ ィー0902ィー09ィー09ィョ06ィエィィィャ ィィ04ィャ02ィェ02ィェィィ02ィャ ィィィェ090209ィーィィ02ィィ06ィェィェ06ィヲ ィィィーィィィコィィ 09 06ィ 05ィ 09ィーィィ 04ィ ィエィィィー04 06ィコ08ィョ03ィ 06ィエ02ィヲ ィー 08ィ 0409ィィィーィィ07 09ィー08ィ ィェ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィィ06ィェィ ィェィィ ィーィィ0502ィーィィ07 ィョィ 0201ィィィー0205ィケィェ ィィ0102ィー0205ィケ09ィー09ィョ02ィー, ツィー ィィィーィィ ツ0209ィコィ ィィ, ィー0902ィー09ィー0902ィェィェ06, ィ 0102ィコ09ィ ィーィェ ィ ィエ0209ィー0902ィェィェ0602 ィャィェ02ィェィィ ィー ィ 0704ィ ィー0205ィケィェ04ィャィィ ィョ ィィ07ィャィィ 0802ィ 05ィィ04ィ 02ィィィィ 0506ィ ィィ ィ ィェィェ ィコィー ィー0607ィェィィ02 15

16 13ィィ ィコィーィィ ィー ィ 08ィ ィコィー020806ィャ ィィィ 05ィケィェ06-05ィコ06ィェ06ィャィィ ツ0209ィコ ィィ ィー0201ィェ ィィ ツ0209ィコ ィ 0409ィィィーィィ07 09ィー08ィ ィェ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィィ06ィェィ, ィィ01 ィョ080609ィェ07ィャィィ 0706ィー0802ィ 0502ィェィィ ィィ080601ィェ ィョ , ィャ0603ィェ0609ィー07ィャィィ ィャ06ィェィィィー0608ィィィェ00ィ ィー0607ィェィィ ィィ , ィョ05ィィ080609ィ ィェィィ07 ィィ 0609ィョィエ0209ィー090502ィェィィ07 ィコィ ィコ ィェィ 02ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェ0401, ィーィ ィコ ィィ ィャ020301ィョィェィ ィェ ィ ィャィャ. 04ィ 01ィィィコィ 05ィケィェ ィィィ 05ィケィェ06-05ィコ06ィェ06ィャィィ- ツ0209ィコィィ ィ 08ィ ィ ィェィィ ィー06 ツィェ ィヲ09ィコィィ01 09ィー08ィ ィェィ ィィ06ィェィ ィ 05ィィ ィコ08ィョ07ィェ ィコ08ィ ィエ02ィェィィ ィャ ィェィェ ィィ ィケ09ィコ ィヲ09ィー0902ィェィェ ィィ ィー09ィ, 07ィ 0102ィェィィ02 ィョ080609ィェ07 08ィ 0409ィィィーィィ07 ィィ 0706ィー0802ィ 0502ィェィィ07, ィーィ ィ ィィ05ィィ04ィ 02ィィ06 00ィィィェィ ィェ ィィ09ィー02ィャ ィィ 0202ィェィー08ィ 05ィィ040609ィ ィェィェ ィョ0708ィ ィェィィ07, 0906ィコ08ィ ィエ02ィェィィ02 ツィィ090502ィェィェ0609ィーィィ ィェィ ィェィィ07 ィィ 0108ィョ00ィィ ィョ05ィケィーィ ィー02 ィェ0209ィコ0605ィケィコ ィ ィ ィ 0408ィョ03ィィィー0205ィケィェ0602 ィ ィェィー ィェィェ ィヲ09ィー09ィィ02 ィェィ 06ィコ08ィョ03ィ 06ィエィョ ィョ. 0201ィェィ ィコ06 09 ィー ィャ ィ ィ 05ィィ ィャ0603ィェ0609ィーィィ ィコ06ィェィー ィ ィー0607ィェィィ02ィャ 0708ィィ080601ィェ , ィェィコィィ 0708ィィ080601ィェ ィィ09ィコ0609, 0802ィ 05ィィ04ィ 02ィィィィ 0708ィィ ィ ィェィェ0401 ィャ ィィ07ィーィィィヲ ィョ05ィケィーィ ィー06ィャ ィー06ィコ 0904ィヲィーィィ ィィ ィ ィェ ィコ08ィィ04ィィ09ィ 0709ィィ05ィィ09ィケ 09ィー08ィ ィー0200ィィィィ ィョ09ィー06ィヲ ツィィ ィ 0409ィィィーィィ07 ィャィェ0600ィィ01 09ィー08ィ ィェ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィィ06ィェィ, 08ィ 0408ィ ィ 06ィーィ ィェィェ ィーィィ0502ィーィィ02 XXI ィ ィコ ィェィェ04ィヲ 09 08ィ ィャィコィ 01 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィョィェィィ ィィィー02ィーィ ィー 0706ィコィ ィ 02ィー, ツィー06 ィコ06ィェ09ィー08ィョィコィーィィ09ィェ0602 ィャ020301ィョィェィ ィェ ィー08ィョ01ィェィィ ツ0209ィー ィ 08ィ ィ ィー0205ィケィェ ィコィーィ ィー ィ ィャ 01ィ 05ィケィェ02ィヲ ィィィェィェ0609ィ 02ィィ06ィェィェ ィ 0409ィィィーィィ07 ィェ02 ィー0605ィケィコ06 06ィ 08ィ ィ ィェィィ07 ィィ ィェィ ィョィコィィ, ィェ06 ィィ 05ィコ06ィェ06ィャィィィコィィ ィィ ィィィ 05ィケィェ06ィヲ ィィィ 05ィィ06ィー02ィコィィ, ィェィ ィコィ 0705ィィ09ィ 06ィエィィ02 ィィ ィ ィェ0706ィエィィ ィー ィョィエィィ ィコ060502ィェィィィヲ ィェィィィィ ィ 0502ィャ 0904ィ ィィィャ060102ィヲ09ィー09ィィ07 チ ィコィ ィィ 0308ィィ , ィー ィ 03ィェ02ィヲ03ィィィャ ィェ06ィャ 0802ィ 05ィィ04ィ 02ィィィィ 0506ィ 0401 ィィィェィィ02ィィィ ィーィィ ィ 05ィ 09ィーィィ 08ィ 0408ィ ィ 06ィーィコィィ 09ィー08ィ ィー0200ィィィヲ ィョ09ィー06ィヲ ツィィ ィ 0409ィィィーィィ07 09ィー08ィ ィェ 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィィ06ィェィ. 16

17 130609ィー0608ィィ07 ィコィ 08ィー 09ィ 05ィーィィィヲ09ィコ ィィ06ィェィ ィ ィェ0409ィ 0801, 01ィ 02ィィ06ィェィ 05ィケィェィ 07 ィ ィィィ 05ィィ06ィー02ィコィ ィィィィ, 05ィー06ィコ000605ィケィャ The History of Mapping the Baltic Sea Area Ulla Ehrensv01rd, National Library of Sweden, Stockholm ィコ05ィ ィィ09ィ 02ィー0907 ィィ09ィー0608ィィ07 ィコィ 08ィー060008ィ 00ィィ080609ィ ィェィィ07 09ィ 05ィーィィィコィィ ィェィ ツィィィェィ ィ 08ィー ィ ィ 0901ィィ ィ 09ィョ09ィ (1427), ィヲ ィーィ ィ 00ィィィィ03 03ィー060502ィャ0207 ィィ ィー09ィィィィ 09ィーィ ィヲ ィィ09ィー06 ツィェィィィコ06ィャ ィ ィェィィ ィィィヲ, 09 ツィ 09ィーィェ0609ィーィィ, ィコィ 08ィー04 00ィ 08ィーィィィェィ 00ィ 05ィケ ィャ ィ ィ 05ィケィェ02ィヲ ィョィー06 ツィェ02ィェィィ02 ィ ィヲ 05ィィィェィィィィ ィ ィーィィ00ィェィョィー06 ィェィ ィコィ 08ィー ィコ ィコィ 08ィー060008ィ 00ィ 0205ィ ィョ09ィ 00ィ 00ィェィョ09ィ, 09 ィ ィェ0005ィィィヲ09ィコィィ01 ィコィ 08ィーィ 01 ィィ 08ィ ィ 06ィーィ 01 ィェィィ ィ ィェ0109ィコ ィコィ 08ィー060008ィ 00ィ ィ 0002ィェ0208ィ. 00 XVII ィェ09ィー090609ィ ィェィィ02 ィャ060809ィコィィ01 ィコィ 08ィー ィ ィェ ィ ィェ0109ィコィィ01 ィ ィー05ィ 09ィ ィ ィョ, 08ィェ0906ィェィ, ィ, 00ィ ィェ 0802ィヲ0502ィェィ. XVIII ィ 08ィ ィコィー0208ィィ040609ィ ィィィェィー02ィェ09ィィ09ィェ04ィャィィ ィコィ 08ィー060008ィ 00ィィ ツ0209ィコィィィャィィ 08ィ ィ 06ィーィ ィャィィ ィィィィ (ィ ィー05ィ ィィ ィェ ィェ000205ィケ01ィ ) ィィ ィィィィ ツ0208ィコィェィョィー06 04ィェィ ツ02ィェィィ02 09ィーィ 08ィィィェィェ0401 ィコィ 08ィー ィャィ 08ィコィ 02ィィィィ 0008ィ ィェィィ It is gratifying for someone who speaks about the Baltic Sea, that the problem of the form of its name was solved already in the 17 th century. Its oldest name in Antiquity was the Gulf of Codanus. The astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, who wrote his Geographikィヲ hyphィヲgesis about 150 AD in Alexandria, used several different names, such as Oceanus Germanicus or Sarmaticus or Mare Germanicum, Suevicum, Scythicum etc. The Nordic peoples used compass directions like 00stersj02n (the East Sea), Ostsee, It01meri, Eystersalt, while the Russians coined the expression Varyashkoe more (the Sea of the Vikings/Varangians) in The name forms varied so much that the Danish government gave Admiral Erik Ottesen Orning the task of systematizing them in As a result of his interviews the word balticus, introduced by the Bishop Adam of 17

18 13Bremen in his history of the Hamburg bishopric, Gesta Hammaburgensis in 1075/76, was fixed. He was certainly influenced in its formation by the Danish word b03lt, a belt towards the Roman world, or, as Adam wrote 00the Baltic extends a long distance through the Scythian regions even to Greece. It is also named the Barbarian Sea or Scythian Lake, from the barbarous people [foreigners] whose lands it washes03. Through Christianity, the Nordic countries became connected with the European cultural world. The common language, Latin, made a considerable contribution to this development. The head of the Christian church, the Pope, convened year-long meetings, or councils. One of these councils was held in Constance (Konstanz) between 1414 and 1418 with an estimated participation of around Among all the Catholic scholars present were also representatives of authorities in the North. Claudius Clavus and Waldseemィケller At the council the recently completed translation into Latin of Ptolemy ッs Geography was mentioned. People became aware that there was a lack of maps of northern Europe. The papal delegate to France, Cardinal Guillaume Fillastre from Reims, had the Nordic countries as one of his areas of responsibility. He therefore needed a map. The commission went to the Dane Claus Clauss03n Swart, born in 1388 in Sallinge on the island of Fyn. After spending some time in a Danish monastery school, he had gone to Italy. At this time he latinised his name to Claudius Clavus Niger. In 1427, Cardinal Fillastre obtained a copy of Clavus ッs Map of the North, which he appended to the translation of Ptolemy ッs Geography (now in the Bibliothィィque Municipale, Nancy). The map was to completely change earlier conceptions of the Northern regions, and it is here that the 00Gronlandia provincia03 is depicted for the first time. On the map, a peninsula containing the Norwegian, Danish and Swedish kingdoms extends from west to east. Towards the west, on the furthest headland, Clavus had put 00Nidrosia03 (Trondheim). In the east, near 00findlandi03, there is a route from Stockholm via Sk01nninge to 00Wasten03 (Vadstena). Thus the North ッs two most important places of pilgrimage, for Saint Olav and Saint Birgitta, were marked out. Claudius Clavus ッs contribution to the cartography of the North comprises two texts. The one from 1435 in the Vienna National Library 18

19 13quickly became well known and was widely used after the 1460s as the basis for further versions and adaptions. Among them were maps drawn by the foremost cartographer of the time around 1500, the theologian Martin Waldseemィケller in St. Diィヲ. In 1516, he published in Strasbourg a wall map, Carta Marina Navigatoria Portugallen Navigationis (now in the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.). Concerning the the North and close to the depiction of a bear (in Greek Arktos, a symbol for the Arctic world), Waldseemィケller writes that travellers to the Northern countries have given conflicting information and that he hopes to offer a clearer view about the real conditions soon. Lucas Waghenaer and sea-charts Even if Waldseemィケller referred particularly to Portuguese navigation, Italians, Spaniards, Dutchmen and Englishmen explored the sailing routes in the North and Baltic Seas, too. England, through the Muscovy Company, carried on lively trade with Russia from the mouth of the river Thames to that of the river Narva from 1558 to England ッs then most important hydrographer, William Borough, made plain sea-charts to guide the shipmasters. They seem hard to follow since the Baltic coastline is not drawn completely. The idea was to draw the coastline only where it was important for sailing and navigation. Thus a chart (Maritime Museum, Greenwich) shows the southeast coast of England at the point of embarkation, the southern shores of Norway towards which the ships aimed, avoiding the tip of Jutland, and further the narrows of the Danish straits, Scania and Bornholm, between which the ships sailed, the eastern shore of 00land visible on the port side of the vessel, and finally the northern coastline of Estonia, to be followed to the destination, Narva. No more instructions were actually needed to guide an experienced mariner. In 1584 ェ85, the first printed sea-atlas was published in Leiden by the Dutch sea captain Lucas Waghenaer. His Spieghel der Zeevaerdt contains seven charts of the Baltic (a detail of one of them is reproduced in the Symposium programme). Waghenaer was the first cartographer to combine the drawing of coastlines with a 00double03 line, making it possible to perceive the relative heights of the shores. The Portuguese had already used this method to combine information about both the land and the sea. 19

20 13Hans Brask and Olaus Magnus On the Continent, the revolt against the Catholic church was gaining firm foothold and after 1527, the Nordic countries gradually adopted the Lutheran Reformation. The world of the church was shaken up and Catholics who could afford it emigrated. The Danish archbishop in Trondheim left for Rome, but his Swedish counterpart, Johannes Magnus, settled in 1526 in Danzig (Gda09sk). The city of Danzig was, after Lィケbeck, the most powerful trading city on the Baltic, and a focal point for cultural interests. A small colony of Catholic emigrants gathered there, which in addition to Johannes Magnus comprised his younger brother Olaus and the bishops Hans Brask of Link02ping and Magnus Haraldi of Skara. The members of this colony soon came into contact with the lively map making activity that was developing at the time in Poland. In addition to Copernicus, they were acquainted with the cartographer Bernard Wapowski, cantor of the cathedral in Krakィョw and royal secretary. Wapowski had his own maps of Poland and Eastern Europe printed in Krakィョw. During the winter of 1533, he worked on a map of Scandinavia, Livonia, and the Muscovite Empire. Thanks to his correspondence we learn that Hans Brask drew maps. In a letter, dated 15th March 1533, he mentions that he is expecting soon to receive a map from Hans Brask, drawn by him himself. It has long been doubted that he actually produced such a map, but in Leiden University Library there is a map of Sweden which can be attributed to him ェ with a watermark of 1533! Brask had no cartographic education and the map therefore lacks a mathematical basis. On the other hand, one can precisely trace on the map each route that the trading ships took over the Baltic, the Sea of Bothnia, and the Gulf of Finland, and how they sailed into Stockholm past Vaxholm and then continued into Lake M01lar. Thanks to the correspondence of the Polish diplomat Joannes Dantiscus we also learn that Wapowski had access to Dutch maps of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, particularly a map by Liィヲvin Algoet, drawn in Algoet had studied cartography in Louvain (Leuven) and knew the new mathematical methods introduced by the famous Gerard Mercator. In 1530, he entered the service of the Flemish diplomat Cornelius Schepper, who had a 20

21 13great interest in the Nordic countries. In Danzig, Johannes Magnus met Schepper. In 1517, Johannes studied in Louvain and afterwards in Rome was taught mathematical methods by a trained cartographer, Jacob Ziegler. Perhaps Johannes had taken the opportunity to discuss the mapping of Scandinavia with Schepper or Dantiscus. His younger brother Olaus, on the other hand, never studied mathematical cartography but was a clever draughtsman. In 1527, Olaus Magnus visited Antwerp, Ghent and Amsterdam. At this time, he clearly got to see Martin Waldseemィケller ッs great world map of 1516, which had been published in a somewhat reduced edition in 1525 together with a description. Waldseemィケller ッs intention to get a clear picture of the Nordic countries was cut short by his death in However, his words made Olaus Magnus decide to fulfil the idea. He was never to return to Sweden. He joined his brother in Danzig and concentrated on completing his map of the North, his 00Carta Gothica03. As a basis for this task, Olaus Magnus might have had his brother ッs map sketches and perhaps a copy of Liィヲvin Algoet ッs map. In 1518 ェ19, he had travelled in the northernmost parts of Sweden and Norway and received a lot of ethnographical impressions. From Danzig he travelled round Poland and to K02nigsberg (now Kaliningrad), before the two brothers in 1537 left Poland once and for all to go to Italy. They were invited by the patriarch Hieronymus Quirini to stay in his house in Venice. On 2 March 1539, Olaus received a licence and publishing rights for ten years, not just for his Carta Gothica but also for the history of the Nordic peoples that he wanted to accompany it. After Gerard Mercator published his map of Europe in 1554, it became noticeable that the influence of Olaus Magnus ッs map was decreasing. But his ethnographical details and the sea-monsters in particular were much copied. Still in early 1800 he was known as the author of the history of the Nordic peoples. But in March 1886 a copy of the original was discovered in Munich (now the Bavarian State Library) and was then named Carta Marina. Another copy was acquired from a Polish owner by Uppsala University Library in

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