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1

2 Atg X X

3 20 DNA mrna DNA RNA mrna 3000 DNAmRNARNA SPring-8X Artsimovitch, I. et al., Cell 117,

4 4 5 11mm 1 1 XNMR X X X X X NMR NMR 105 ppm ppm 1

5 NMR pp : [] : DNA PDB NMR99X PDB 3923 TERA SPring-8 BL26B2 SPACE SPring X26 NMR pp

6 8 9 DNA NMRX 3 NMR X 3 X X SPring-8 PF NMR DNA NMR 3000 TERA SPring-8 PF PF-AR 4 AR-NW12 2 SPring-8 BL26B2 CCD BL-5A CCD315mm BL-5 CCD X SPring-8 X X NMR TERA NMR NMR 900MHz NMR NMR 3000 LAFIRE KUJIRA CYANA NMR X

7 3000 :DNA : : :: : DNA TFIIE NMR mrna POLG POLG DNA DNA DNAPOLG DNA POLG RNA POLG Kujoth, G. C. et al., Science 309, POLG 9 POLG RNA DNA Okuda, M. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279, :: : : : : 20 trna VHS GAT trna GGA trna GatCABGatDE ARF-GTP GAE trna 20tRNA GGA trna GatCAB GatA GatB 3 GGAVHS GAT GAE 3 trna GGA GatDE Nakamura, A., Yao, M., Chimnaronk, S., Sakai, N. and Tanaka I., Science 312, Shiba, T. et al., Nature Struct. Biol. 10,

8 3000 : : : :: : SPring-8 120Å Numoto, N. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, ,,, 61, Ma, J., Yoshimura, M., Yamashita, E., Nakagawa, A. Ito, A. and Tsukihara, T., J. Mol. Biol., 338, :: : CRKCRKI CRKIICRKI :: : 30% 3 CRK CRK Kobashigawa, Y. et al., Nature Struct. Mol. Biol. 14, Nakajima, Y. et al., J. Bacteriol. 188,

9 SPring-8 NMR NMR X 3000 SPring NMR X NMR 3000 SPring X 3000 NMR SAIL p.7 2 NMR 3 DNA 14 15

10

11 3000 NMR X X NMR X

12 4 Atg H -ATP Fo NMR V-ATPase RNA DOCK2 AdipoR AMPK ACC NPP X NMR SAIL P

13 Atg Atg NMR X 3000 Atg 6 : : HsAtg4B-LC complex Atg Atg Atg3 LC3 AtATG12b Atg5/Atg16N Atg8 nascent Atg8 processed Atg8-PE PE Atg3 E2-like Atg7 E1-like Atg12- Atg5 Atg12 Atg5 Atg4 Atg10 E2-like Atg12- Atg5/Atg16 Atg16 10 DNA RNA T oll TLR 10 TLR TLR9 DNA RNA 6 CpGDNA DNA TLR9 TLR9DNA TLR9 DNA TLR9 X : : DNA TLR9 CpGDNA non-cpgdna CpGDNA+TLR9 TLR9 DNA CpG DNA Non-CpG DNA CpG DNA + CpG DNA TLR9 Atg12 Atg12 Atg12 Atg10 Atg7 Atg5 Atg12 Atg1 Atg17 Atg13 Atg29 Atg31 Atg16 Atg5 Atg12 Atg16 Atg5 Atg12 Atg9 Atg18 Atg2 Atg9 Atg34 Atg14 Atg6 Atg15 PI3 Atg1 Atg8 Atg8 Atg8 Atg8 Atg4 Atg3 Atg8 PE * * PAS HsAtg4B

14 : : : : AREB1 X DREB2A 2 AREB DREB22 AREB1 DREB2A DREB2A NMR X ABA AREB1 DREB

15 26 27 NMR X X X X X m SAD X 40 SPring m SPring-8 BL44XU SPring-8 / BL41XU SPring-8 NW12A PF-AR BL-5A PF BL-17A PF ( // / A B C X : : : :

16 PDBj NMR org p.19 p p.5 9 p.10 p.10 p.11 p p.12 p p.13 p.13 p.23 p.24 p.25 p.27 p.28

17

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