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1 13Language Related Research Vol.4, No.4 (Tome 16), Winter 2014 The Effect of Discourse Factors on Case System in Hawrami Mohammad Rasekh Mahand 16モ5, Zaniar Naghshbandi 2 1. Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran 2. Ph.D. Student, Department of Linguistics, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran Receive: 24/12/2012 Accept: 23/1/2013 The present paper focuses on the effects of discourse and pragmatic factors on the determination of case system in Hawrami. Du Bois (1987) argues that dominant case systems in any language cannot be thoroughly accounted for unless pragmatic factors are taken into consideration. He further shows that certain features of narrative discourse creates a special discourse tendency, called ーPreferred Argument Structure ア, whose defining characteristics are exactly the same as those of ーErgative systems ア. The way this pragmatic tendency competes with other pragmatic factors, which exhibit accusativelike features, ultimately determines the case system in syntax. In this paper, it is first shown that, although preferred argument structure is observed in all syntactic constructions of Hawrami, its effect in aorist constructions is more prominent than in the present constructions, and this very fact causes the former set of constructions to become Ergative. Other competing pragmatic tendencies like topic animacy and topic continuity, unlike the preferred argument structure, always motivate the accusative case pattern in syntax. The effects of each of these two factors on determination of accusative case system in the present constructions are not the same; only topic animacy has the potential to set the ultimate case system in syntax as accusative. From a theoretical point of view, the empirical findings of this research may lend more support to those functionally-oriented theories of language, which consider the syntactic properties of languages as direct results of pragmatic considerations and communicative needs of speakers. Keywords: Hawrami, Case system, Preferred argument structure, Topic animacy, Topic continuity モ5 Corresponding Author ッs 0

2 * /11/4 : /10/4 : ( ) (1987, 2003) : モ5

3 131 2 Nominative-accusative 3 Ergative-absolutive 4 Dixon 5 split ergativity Aspect : ( ) ( ) ( ) (1994) (Dixon, 1994: 2)

4 136 7 Du Bois 8 Preferred Animacy of Argument Topic Structure 9 10Topic Con tinu ity Pear Film Pear Film Pear Film ( )

5 By non 14 Odden and Holmberg 15 Hiag ( ) (1979) (2004) (1383) (1998) (1388) ( ) (1385) (1390) (1390) : ) (

6 Oblique Differential Object Marking (DOM) ( : ) Clitic Doub ling ( ) : kor ィCak ィCe ma ィCla ィCne pey madrasa ィCy Boy ィCDEF ィCPL IMPRF ィCgo.PRE -3.PL.NOM to school ィCOBL Hiwa 00a08t ィCaka ィCy mo ィCwar ィCo Hiwa food ィCDEF ィCOBL IMPRF ィCeat.PRE -3.SG.NOM Hiwa 00a08t ィCi mo ィCwar ィCo Hiwa food ィCFem IMPRF ィCeat.PRE -3.SG.NOM :

7 13( : ) amen 00a08t ィCaka ィCm ward ィC01 I food ィCDEF -1.SG.OBL eat.past -3.SG.NOM to 00a08t ィCaka ィCt ward ィC01 You food ィCDEF -2.SG.OBL eat.past -3.SG.NOM a08 00a08t ィCaka ィC08 ward ィC01 he food ィCDEF -3.SG.OBL eat.past -3.SG.NOM ( ) : dar ィCaka sardィサ ィCy bard ィC01 Tree ィCDEF coldness ィCOBL take.past-3.sg.nom ( ) sipィサl ィCaka mahnィサz ィCi 08et ィC01 clothes ィCDEF Mahnaz ィC OBL wash.past -3.SG.NOM ( )

8 Old Information 24 New Chun ks Information of Discourse 21 Sacapultec ( ) (1987) (Du Bois, 1987: 807) ( )

9 1325 Intonation U nit (Du Bois, 1987: 812) ( )

10 1326 Accessible Information ( ) : : : : ( Du Bois, 1980, 1987 & 2003) (O) (S) (O) 1 7 (S) (A) (S) (A) (A) (O)

11 1327 Definiteness (Du Bois, 1987: 837) (Ibid) (Ibid: 843) /

12 Tense-based ( ) : (2003 :1987) : ) ( ュ ュPiya ィC ewa Man - Indef be ュ... to be (past)

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