1. Mobile Air Conditioning and Global Warming 2. Refrigerant Emission Reduction 3. Energy Efficiency Improvement 2/34

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1 Mobile Air-conditioning Actions for Global Warming Reduction Toshio Hirata DENSO CORPORATION 1/34

2 1. Mobile Air Conditioning and Global Warming 2. Refrigerant Emission Reduction 3. Energy Efficiency Improvement 2/34

3 Mobile Air-conditioning and Global Warming 3/34

4 MAC s Refrigeration Cycle Compressor Refrigeration Cycle Evaporator cool air High press. & high temp. gas Condenser Low press. & low temp. gas Expansion Valve 4/34

5 GHG Effects on Global Warming (Japan) Dinitrogen Monoxide 2.7% Methane 1.5% HFC 1.0% PFC 0.7% SF6 0.4% CO % Breakdown of CO 2 Emission by Sectors Total Amount of CO 2 Emission in ,330.8 [Mt CO 2 eq.] Waste Disposal 2.0% Limestone Consumption 4.2% Others 0.0% Energy Conversion 6.4% Transport 22.0% Residential 12.7% Industry 37.2% Business Use 15.5% 5/34

6 Influence of A/C on Fuel Consumption 25 (50%RH) No Solar Radiation Fuel Consumption (km/l) A/C Off A/C on (yearly) 9 % Actual Running Mode: Compact Car LA4: Stop Ratio 17% Temperature ( o C) Humidity (%) Sun Load (W/m 2 ) Fresh / Recirculated Air Blower Speed Evaporator Outlet Air Temperature ( o C) Yearly Fresh Low 10 6/34

7 TEWI(kgCO 2 ) Example of TEWI Calculation (JAMA) Emission into atmosphere at scrapping (present level) Emission into atmosphere at scrapping (future level) Leakage in use, leakage at accident and repair Contribution by air-conditioner weight Contribution for driving alternator Direct (refrigerant) Contribution for driving compressor FF2L S/D In-direct (compressor power) 7/34

8 Refrigerant Emission Reduction (JAMA s Action) JAMA: Japan Automobile Manufactures Association 8/34

9 JAMA s Action Plan Reduction of refrigerant emission from HFC-134a A/C 1.Recommend to use small refrigerant charge components; Target is 20% reduction from 1995 to In 2004, the average of charge has been reached to 21% of 1995 s charge (1995:700gram, 2004:553gram) 2.Recovery and destruction of Refrigerant: Fluorocarbons Recovery and Destruction Law enforced from October, Reported recovery rate of scrapped vehicles is approx. 40%. This law was incorporated into Automobile recycling law from January, Recommend to use lower refrigerant leakage components; According to self-assessment of OEM, leakage in operation has been reduced from 15g/yr Field survey test was done from 2004 to 2005 to seek actual value. 9/34

10 Refrigerant Charge Reduction from 1995 to 2006 Average charge (g)* Reduced by 23% Total charging amount at vehicle production *Average refrigerant charge = The number of produced vehicles 10/34

11 The Refrigerant Recovery Data when scrapping in Japan Refrigerant recovered vehicle numbers Recovered amount (kg) CFC , , , ,545 HFC-134a 1,083,231 1,500, , ,971 Total 2,045,135 2,375, , ,516 (+16.2%) (+12.8%) 11/34

12 Reduction in Refrigerant Leakage in Operation 45 Refrigerant Leakage(gram/yr) Others Fittings Hoses Comp. CFC-12 HFC-134a (1992) HFC-134a (2004) 12/34

13 Location Refrigerant Leakage Field Test (From April, 2004 to December, 2005) Tokyo, Nagoya (average temperature 16C) Number of test vehicles 78 vehicles (seven auto makers) A/C system Single AC (16 type vehicles) Dual AC (6 type vehicles) Charge amount Single: Average: 516gram Max: 760gram Min:409gram Dual: Average: 804gram Max: 1141gram Min:663gram Driving distance Single: Average: 17,402km Max: 38,381km Min:1,952km Dual: Average: 20,590km Max: 40,983km Min:4,803km Compressor running time Single: Average: 211.3hrs Max: 938.0hrs Min:24.4hrs Dual: Average: 248.9hrs Max: 758.9hrs Min:51.5hrs Compressor cycling number Single Average: 32,544 Max: 97,627 Min:253 Dual Average: 36,302 Max: 98,777 Min: /34

14 Annual Refrigerant Leakage 12 Region: Tokyo & Nagoya (Normal load), average temp.: 16C Dual (22 vehicles) 10 8 Single (56 vehicles) Average leakage Single: 8.6g/yr Dual: 13.3g/yr Leakage (g/yr) 14/34

15 Estimated Breakdown of Refrigerant Leakage from MAC in Japan Reported to METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) Emission when vehicle is totally lost 98.6t/yr Emission at the end of life 134.7t/yr Emission when manufacturing 33.2t/yr Emission when MAC broken 628.3t/yr Total emission: ton/year Emission during usage 899.3t/yr 2.33 M CO2-ton/yr 0.2% of baseline (1237 M CO2-ton/Yr) 15/34

16 Energy Efficiency Improvement Fuel Consumption 90% 10% Driving Air-conditioning Driving MAC power saving Engine efficiency improvement Light weight of vehicle Thermal management 16/34

17 Trend of MAC Power Saving 100 MFSTEP MAC Power Consumption MFSTEP Sub-Cool condenser MFSTEP SCS oil separator SC10S E/G cooperation Control Humidity Control MFSTEP 40% reduction (compared to 1992) SCX (intl. Heat exchanger) 50 More 25% reduction (compared to 2004) /34

18 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Compressor Rotary Valve Suction Starts Compressing When Compressing When Suctioning Suction Gas 18/34

19 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Compressor Suction Port set up Shell Suction Refrigerant Gas Flow (Peripheral Suction) Fig.7 Comparison of Suction Form One Body Shell and Fixed Scroll Oil Separator 19/34

20 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Sub-Condenser 20/34

21 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Condenser Performance Q/F Multi-Flow Serpentine /34

22 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Compact Evaporator Conventional Type Enhanced type /34

23 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Engine-A/C Cooperation Control Acceleration Signal 1 ON OFF Start-up Acceleration Control Driving Speed Fast Output of Compressor Driving Capacity Acceleration Signal 1 Output of Compressor Driving Capacity Large Small ON OFF Large Small Time (Second) Passing Acceleration Control Time (Second) Cooperation Signal 1 Cooperation Signal 2 Output of Compressor Driving Capacity Fuel Cut Slow ON OFF ON OFF Large Small OFF ON Time (Second) Acceleration Control Deceleration Control 23/34

24 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: System with Humidity Sensor Power saving Control (External Variable Compressor) Temp. Tin Evap. Tin 20deg. Te Te 12deg. Effect H/C Tout Tout 15deg. Evap out air temp. ( ) 12 0 Windshield humidity target: 90% Demist Minimum dehumidification Cabin humidity Target: 60% Humidity Comfort Zone w/o Humidity control Conditions: 25 C-50% Blower: M1 Ambient temperature ( ) w/o Humidity Control With Humidity Control Power Consumption Ratio Demist Line -20% 0 1 No Reheat With Humidity control 24/34

25 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Internal Heat Exchanger Evaporator Compressor Condenser Double-pipe internal heat exchanger Outer tuber Inner tube 25/34

26 Cooling Performance (kw) Cooling Performance Improvements Bench Test Conventional system Rear A/C Front A/C +12% Conditions: Large car, idling, ambient temperature 45 C IHE Front and Rear Panel Outlet Vehicle test Front 20.3 Front Rear Conventional system IHE Rear /34

27 Fuel Consumption Improvement Conventional system IHE Vehicle Speed 0 km/h 40 km/h 100 km/h 0 km/h 40 km/h 100 km/h Conditions: Compact car, TEWI * evaluation in Tokyo, Japan A/C OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON 35 C Ambient Temperature & Fuel consumption (liter) 30 C 25 C 20 C Same as conventional system 13.9 Same as conventional system 29.1 Same as conventional system C Total Annual Fuel Consumption 400 L ( L with A/C ON) 395 L (-5liter or -1.3%) ( L with A/C ON) * TEWI: Total Equivalent Warming Impact 27/34

28 Example of Energy Efficiency Improvement: Recovery of Expansion Energy Ejector cycle condenser compressor Driving flow separator ejector Suction flow Ejector Driving flow nozzle evaporator Mixing region diffuser Suction flow 28/34

29 Development of World First Ejector Cycle Refrigerator : EJECS 50% of Energy Efficiency Improvement!! Truck transport refrigeration unit using ejector, Ejector Cycle and EJECS are registered trademarks of DENSO corporation 29/34

30 Truck Transport Refrigeration Unit using Ejector Cycle (EJECS) Purpose: Compressor power saving and and Fuel Fuel economy improvement Cross view of the structure Front Back Condenser Refrigerator compartment COP COP (*1) (*1) +50 Weight 40 Insulation Panel Evaporator Adopt World Over First view of EJECOR Ejector Cycle Engine Compressor 30/34

31 Result of Vehicle Monitor Test Example: Large truck transportation refrigeration unit Classification Load capacity: 10 ton Driving pattern Period & Method Kyusyu-Kansai (611 km) long-distance transporter for highway Load: frozen and refrigerated food From 2003 December to2006 November Fuel consumption measurement: Fill up method Refrigeration unit Company A Refrigerator (Sub engine system) Company A Refrigerator (direct coupling) Ejector Cycle Refrigerator (direct coupling) Weight 560kg Weight 234 kg Weight 186 kg # of vehicles Annual fuel consumption (liter) Average (l) 22% Average (l) 12% Average (l) Succeed to decrease fuel consumption by 12% to 22% compared to conventional refrigerators (sub-engine and direct coupling) 31/34

32 CO2 Emission Reduction Effects based on All Refrigerated Vehicle in Japan CO 2 emission ( ten thousands ton) Small Middle Large million CO2 tons The number of servicing (300,000 vehicles) About 200,000 vehicles About 70,000 vehicles About 30,000 vehicles Small Middle Large 230,000 CO2ton 320,000CO2ton 450,000CO2ton Conventional Ejector Effects of of CO2 CO2 emission reduction by by 1 1 million CO2 CO2 tons thanks to to the the ejector refrigerator 32/34

33 Trend of MAC Power Saving 100 MFSTEP MAC Power Consumption MFSTEP Sub-Cool condenser MFSTEP SCS oil separator SC10S E/G cooperation Control Humidity Control MFSTEP SCX (intl. Heat exchanger) 50 More 25% reduction (compared to 2004) /34

34 Current Situation for alternative refrigerant MAC directive 2008 Directive 2006/40/EC (Emission of R134a) 2011 Banning the use of R134a for new type of vehicle 2017 Banning the use of R134a for new vehicle Europe VDA 2008/07 : decided to use CO2 Other Not decided yet (French, Italy, US, Japan) Under evaluation of Low GWP refrigerant. We are discussing about not only direct effect but energy efficiency (fuel consumption) by refrigerant. The point is LCCP estimate. 34/34

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