1 1.1 / Fik Γ= D n x / Newton Γ= µ vx y / Fouie Q = κ T x 1. fx, tdx t x x + dx f t = D f x 1 fx, t = 1 exp x 4πDt 4Dt lim fx, t =δx 3 t + dxfx, t = 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1 1.1 / Fik Γ= D n x / Newton Γ= µ vx y / Fouie Q = κ T x 1. fx, tdx t x x + dx f t = D f x 1 fx, t = 1 exp x 4πDt 4Dt lim fx, t =δx 3 t + dxfx, t = 1"

Transcription

1 Bownian Motion Einstein Einstein Langevin Eq Navie-Stokes Benoulli Reynolds Boltzmann Kaman-Howath Reynolds Kolmogoov Taylo Kolmogoov -5/3 K K6 K K ɛ Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds Pandtl Hagen Poiseuille Kolmogoov MHD Kaman-Howath Navie-Stokes

2 1 1.1 / Fik Γ= D n x / Newton Γ= µ vx y / Fouie Q = κ T x 1. fx, tdx t x x + dx f t = D f x 1 fx, t = 1 exp x 4πDt 4Dt lim fx, t =δx 3 t + dxfx, t = 1 4 x =Dt W l, n n l n 1 W l, n = n C n+l 6 n! = 7 n + l/! n l/! πn exp l n l 1 8 n Stiling log n! n + 1 log n n + 1 log π 1.4 x = la, t = nτ 9 W x, n x = W l, n x a 1 = exp x x 1 4πDt 4Dt D = a τ 1.5 = [L] [T ] 11 n +1 x n x a x + a W x, n +1= 1 W x a, n+ 1 W x + a, n W t τ = a W x 13 n x n x n =x n x n 1 +x n 1 x n +...+x 1 x +x 14 ±a x n x n = na =Dt 15 /4/1 Bownian Motion.1 F x v = βfx β n t = Γ x = D n x x βfn 16

3 . Einstein Γ=D n βfn =, Ux = dxf x 17 x n = n exp Maxwell n = n exp Einstein βux D Ux kt D = βkt Bown Renolds β = 1 1 6πη Einstein D = kt 6πη, x =Dt = kt 3πη t x.3 Einstein Bow P = nkt f = 1 n kt 3 n x f = f f v = f/6πη Γ= D n x + nf 6πη = 4 D = kt/6πη.4 pq W l, n = n C l p l q n l 1 l np exp πnpq pqn 1 x vt exp πdt πdt 5 D = pqa /τ v = pa/τ Stiling.5 Langevin Eq. ζ mftf t ft =, ftft =Aδt t 6 Langevin Foke-Plank 1: m =,Ft = W x =, ζ dx dt W t m =,Ft W ζ dx dt x = F ζ t, W t = ft 7 x = A t 8 ζ = D W x 9 /4/17 = F t+ft 3 x = A t 31 ζ = D W x x βfxw 3 m,ft = Langevin d x dx dt = ζ + ft 33 dt <x > < v>=< dx/dt > d <x > dt + ζ d <x > = v = A dt ζ = kt 34 3

4 <v>=, v w < x >= A ζ t = kt ζ t 35 w t = w A x + ζvw 36 v w exp ζv /A t ζ 1 w W w exp v /kt, m,ft dv dt W exp x x /4Dt 37 = ζv + F x+ft 38 < x >= v t, < v >= ζv + F t, < x > < v x >=, < v >=A t 39 v w Foke-Plank w t.6 = v w x + v ζv F w + A w v 4 Langevin <vtvt >= A ζ e ζ t t,<vt >= kt 41 <vtv >= kt ζ β = 1 ζ = 1 kt ζ = 1 kt, < ftf >= ζktδt 4 dt < vtv > 43 dt < ftf > 44 m d dt <v>= mζ < v > +ee, J = ne < v > 45 < v > = ee/mζσ = J/E = ne /mζ jt = n i ev i d jt = ζjt+e dt m n ɛ i t 46 i=1 e4 m <ɛ i tɛ l t >= Aδ il δt t σ = 1 dt < jtj > 47 kt 1 σ = 1 dt < ɛtɛ > 48 kt.7 P = P t + t P t P t + t =bt P t+ft 49 ft bt Langevin d P t = ν P t+ft dt ν =1 bt/ t F t =ft/ t bt > 1 P 49 P t + t = bt P t + ft P t ft = 1 bt bt P 1/4/18 m d x dt + mω x = F t 5 Fouie mω x + mω 1 + iφ x = F 51 φ β = F ω x ω ω φ m ω ω + ω 4 5 φ x = v /ω kt ω φ mω ω ω + ω 4 53 φ φ ω ω ω ω 4

5 3 3.1 ρ + ρ v = 54 t ρ ρ = onst. 3. substantial mateial deivative 3.3 ρ v t v = 55 D Dt = + v 56 t + ρ v v = + 57 ρ v vdv = ρ v v nds 58 ρ gdv ρ v v v ρ t 59 σ xy :y x σ xy = µ dv x dy 6 σ nds = σ Navie-Stokes σ = p I τ σ ij = pδ ij τ ij 63 τ i j vi τ ij = µ + v j 64 x j x i µ Navie-Stokes τ = µ v 65 D v Dt = 1 ρ p + ν v + g 66 ν = µ/ρ 3.5 1/4/5 v N-S Eq. t + v v = 1 ρ p + ν v φ g = φ ω v v + ω v = t + P + φ ν ω 67 p/ρ = P ω t + v ω =ω v + ν ω Benoulli t =, g = φ, ν = v v ω = +P+φ 69 v +P+φ = onst. 7 ρ D v Dt = σ + ρ g ν = ωds = onst. 5

6 3.8 Reynolds N-S Eq. U, L N-S Eq. v = U v,x= Lx,y= Ly, z = Lz, t =L/Ut, P = ρu P Dv Dt = P + ν UL v 71 R = UL/ν:Reynolds numbe 3.9 1/5/ v / ρ D v Dt = ρ v D v Dt = v p τ + ρ g 7 54 ρv t ρv v = p v+p v τ v+ τ v + ρ v g µ vi τ v = + v j x j x i < U dv ρu + ρv / v q q p v τ v ρ g v 73 ρ D Dt U = q p v τ v Boltzmann δf δt f q, p, t Liouville df dt = f F δf + v f + t m v f = 76 δt Boltzmann n n fd v 77 g <g> fgd v <g> 78 fd v f, n, g g f t d v = t n<g> n t g f gv i d v = n<v i g> n v i g x i x i x i g F i f d v = n gf i 79 m v i m v i Boltzmann g t n<g> n + n <g v> t n< g v > n F m δf v g = g d v8 δt g =1 n t + n< v>= δf δt d v 81 6

7 8 g = m v mn < v >+ mn < v j v> n < F>= t x δf m v d v j δt 8 v =< v>+ v mn D Dt < v>= n< F> P τ + R 83 P = nm < v >/3 τ ij = nm < v i v j <v >δ ij /3 > R = m v δf δt d v 8 g = m v/ nm > t <v + nm <v v> n F v v mv δf = d v 84 δt v =< v>+ v nm t <v> + 3 p nm + <v> + 5 p < v>+τ < v>+ q = nf < v>+ R < v>+ Q + m δf <v> d v 85 δt q = nm <v v > andom motion Q = m δf v δt d v 81, 83 nm t <v> = m δf n <v> < v>+ d v δt mn < v > < v> < v>+n < F> < v> < v> p < v> τ + R < v> p + 3 t p< v>+p < v>+ τ < v>+ q = Q 87 3 ndt Dt + p < v>= q τ < v>+ Q 88 1/5/16 4 Reynolds 4.1 Reynolds Reynolds Navie-Stokes v t + v v = 1 ρ p + 1 ρ τ v = V + v V = v p = P + p τ = T + τ Vi T ij = µ + V j x j x i v,τ ij = µ i + v j x j x i Reynolds Navie-Stokes V V + v v = 1 ρ P 1 ρ T 89 v = v v 89 V V = 1 ρ P T + ρ v v 9 ρ v v Reynolds Boltzmann P ij = nm < v i v j > 4. Reynolds Reynolds τ 1 µ V 1 x µ U L 91 ρv 1 v ρv 9 ρv 1 v τ 1 v R 93 U Reynolds Reynolds 4.3 Pandtl ξ x = ξ V 1 x 1 v th x = 7

8 <mv 1 ξ mv 1 > ρ m <mv 1 ξ mv 1 >v th ρ V 1 x ξv th = µ V 1 x 94 µ = ρξv th ρv l ρv = ρv 1 l ρv 1 + ρv 1 l ρv 1 ρ V 1 x l 95 l Pandtl ρ V1 x lv Reynolds ρv v V1 x v 1 v 1 v ρl V 1 V 1 96 x x ρl V 1 x ρlv 1, µ = ρv th ξ 97 ρlv µ = lv ν Reynolds n v =, v =n, v n t + n v = n t + v n = 99 γ n e γt 1 γn + v n = v = n L n n L nγ 11 L n l= n = n l L n 1 Γ=<n v > D n = D n L n 13 11,1 D = l γ = γ k 14 k Hagen Poiseuille N-S Eq. z ν v p d ρ = ν d + 1 d v z 1 dp d ρ dz = 15 v z = 1 dp 4ρν dz a 16 Hagen Poiseuille V a V = πv zd πa = a dp 17 8ρν dz λ dp dz = λ 1 ρv a 18 λ = R R = V a/ν Reynolds Reynoolds R< 3 R > 3 λ =.3164R 1/4 11 8

9 1/5/3 Kolmogoov Kolmogoov 5 kolmogoov 5/3 5.1 Kolmogoov ɛ ɛ d v dt v v v3 111 L L k L 1 µ v τ v ρ ρ v ν l 11 l l ɛ l 1 ɛ L K ɛ V 3 K L K ν V K l 113 ɛ, ν L K = T K = ν 3 1/4 ɛ ν 1/ ɛ V K = νɛ 1/ Kolmogoov Ek Ekdk = v 115 [Ek] = L3 T 116 [ɛ] = L T ɛ, k Ek k α ɛ β L 3 =[Ek] = L α T 3=β α, =3β α = 5 3, β = 3 L T 3 β 118 Ek ɛ /3 k 5/3 Kolomogoov 5/3 ν v l νv k νek k νk 5/3 k k νk 1/3 k 119 k Kolomogoov 5/3 5.3 MHD MagnetohydodynamiMHD v b Ek, F k MHD v A = B µρ T [ɛ] = [v3 ] [L] = [v3 ] B T = L3 T 4 1 B 1 9

10 Ek k α ɛ β L 3 L 3 β 1 =[Ek] = L α T T 4 B 3=3β α, =4β α = 3, β = 1 11 Ek ɛb 1/ k 3/ Kaihnann 6. Kaman-Howath A, B < u A p B >: < u A u B >: < u A u A u B >: 17 6 Kaman-Howath : : : B i =A i B ij =A 1 i j + B 1 δ ij B ijk =A i j k + B k δ ij +C j δ ik + D i δ jk Reynolds Kamann-Howath N-S Eq. t u i ν u i = u j 1 p 1 x j ρ x j OpeatoL, M, L 1 L u = M u u + L 1 p 13 L < u>= M < u u >+L 1 <p> 14 u Reynolds Pandtl < u u > < u> 14 L < u u >= M < u u u >+L 1 <p u> 15 L < u u u >= M < u u u u >+L 1 <p u u > 16 Kaman-Howath 15 Q ij Q ij = u ia u jb AB Q ij =Q ji A 1,B 1 1/5/3 =,, Q ij Q ll = u la u lb Q nn = u na u nb Q ij = i j Q ll Q nn +Q nn δ ij 19 S ij,k S ij,k = u ia u ja u kb =,, S ij,k = S ji,k C = D S S 11,1 = Q lll S,1 = S 33,1 = Q nnl S 1, = S 13,3 = Q lnn S ij,k = i j k 3 Q lll Q nnl Q lnn + kδ ij Q nnl + iδ jk + j δ ik Q lnn 13 1

11 S ij,k = S k.ij Kaman-Howath K-H Eq Navie-Stokes N-S Eq. A B N-S Eq. u i t + u i u k = 1 p + ν u i x k ρ x i u j t + x u j u k = 1 p + ν u j 13 k ρ x i u j, u i t ν Q ij = = S ik,j S i,jk k S ik,j + S jk,i T ij 133 k pu j = p u i = 6.3. i Q ij = Q nn = Q ll + Q ll = 1 Q ll Q ii = i S ik,j = Q nnl = 1 Q lll Q lnn = 1 4 Q lll S ik.i = k Kaman-Howath +3 Q ll Q lll i = j t Q ll ν + +3 Q ll Q lll [ t ν + 4 ] Q ll = + 4 Q lll 136 Kaman-Howath N-S Eq. t u i ν u i = u i u k 1 x k ρ p 137 x i u Al u Bl = Q ll u Al u Al u Bl = Q lll k Q ij =u ia u jb = + Φ ij ke i k d 3 k 138 S ij,k Φ ij,k 133 t Φ ij = ik α Φ iα,j +Φ jα,i νk Φ ij 139 t Ek, t =4πk6 Γk, t νk Ek, t 14 Ek, tdk = u i / Γk, t Φ iα,j /6/6 l e v e mve/ ρlev 3 e/ µ v y l e µl ev e = µl e vet t t ρl3 e v e µl e v e ρl e µ l e ν 6.4. Reynolds 141 Reynolds ρu i u j l E v E Reynolds ρve l E ρve 3 l E 11

12 ve 3 /l E ɛ ɛ K-H Eq.136 Q ll t + 4 Q lll 14 t E v E t E v3 E l E t E l E v E Kolmogoov K-H Eq.136 Q ll ν t + 4 Q ll 143 t K v K t K ν v K l K ɛ t K l K /v K v K ν l K lk R K v Kl K ν v K ν l K ɛ ν3 l 4 K 1 Kolomogoov 114 GOY i k u i k N-S Eq. d dt u i k+νk u i k= i k j δ il k ik l k u j pu l q p+ q= k 144 p + q = k GOYGledze-Ohkitani-Yamada k i = i k i =,..N 1 u i t i ii iii d dt + νk u i =+i 1 i u i+1 u i+ + i u i 1u i i u i 1u i i = k i, i = 1 k i 1, 3 i = 1 k i 1 N =1 N 1 =, = N 1 =3 = 3 1 = GOY Kolmogoov Taylo Q ll = MioSale : λ l Q ll Q ll Q ll MaoSale : Λ l Q ll d l K <λ l < Λ l 6.5 N-S Eq. 6.6 Kolmogoov -5/3 K41 ɛ K41 ɛ ɛ v p /ɛ/k p/3 k 6.7 K6 K41 1/6/13 ɛ ɛ ɛ x, t = 3 4π 3 ɛ x + y, tdy 146 y < 1

13 ɛ ln ɛ L l n L l 1 = L/Γ l = l 1 /Γ l n = L/Γ n ɛ = ɛ ɛ 1 ɛ ɛ n ɛ = ɛ n = ɛ ɛ 1 ɛ ɛ ɛ 1 ɛ n 1 ln ɛ = lnɛ +lne 1 +lne + +lne n 147 e i ɛ i /ɛ i 1 ln ɛ 1 P ɛ = exp ln ɛ m 148 πσ ɛ σ m =lnɛ σ, σ = A + µ ln L/ µ ln L/ ɛ /3 = ɛ /3 ɛ /3 P ɛ dɛ ɛ /3 ɛ n µ/9 L 149 v ɛ/k 1/3 Ek v k ɛ/3 k 5/3 k µ/9 15 K41-5/3 µ/9 v p /ɛ/k p/3 k µpp 1/ /k N N = k D D k D /k 3 ɛ ɛ ɛ = k3 k D ɛ = ɛ k 3 D ɛ /3 = ɛ /3 k D /k 3 = ɛ /3 k D 3/3 Ek = ɛ /3 k 5 /3 = ɛ /3 k D 3/3 k 5/ /6/ 7 Reynolds Reynolds x y U s x lx x Lx Ux, y L l L U y/lx U s x x, y U, V, u, v U s, L, l U x + V y = V = OU s l/lreynolds N-S Eq. y U V V +V x y + x uv+ y v = 1 P ρ y +ν U x + V y 15 y v = 1 P ρ y 153 L l, Reynolds Rynolds U s l L u l 156 x v = 1 P 154 ρ x N-S Eq. x U U x + V U y + x u v + y uv = ν U x + V y U U x + V U y + uv = 156 y O U s u = O L l ξ = y/l, lx, U s x U = U s fξ 157 uv = Us gξ

14 f = O1, g = Ol/L V y V = U dy = l x ξ 156 dus dx f U s dl l dx ξf dξ 159 ξ ξ g = l du s U s dx f dl dx ξff l du s U s dx f fdξ+ dl dx f ξf dξ 16 x l = onst., du s U s dx dl dx = onst. l x x y x Us l = onst. l x U s 1/ x ν T Reynolds R T U s l/ν T Reynolds U uv = ν T y Us g = ν T l f g = f 16 f = 1 ξ R T f + f fdξ f = seh ξ/ = 8 R T 161 e ξ/ +e ξ/ Navie-Stokes Diet Numeial Simulation DNS DNS Reynolds UL/ν Kolmogoov l K ν 3 /ɛ 1/4, t K ν/ɛ 1/ ɛ v 3 /l l k ν 3/4 L = R 3/4 UL T L/U t K ν 1/ T = R 1/ UL R 9/4 R 1/ = R.75 U = 1m/s 36km/h ν = 1 5 m /s L =m R /6/7 Kaman-Howath Reynolds Reynolds Rynolds 14

15 8.3 Reynolds x U y U y l u v U y l Reynolds uv = l U y U y 164 Businesque Reynolds uv = ν T U y ν T 165 Reynolds Reynolds 8.4 N-S Eq. U i t + U j U i = P x j x i ρ + ν x j x j U i u i t + U u i U i j + u j = p x j x j x i ρ + ν x i Reynolds x j u j u i 166 ui + u j x j x i x i u i u j u i u j 167 K 1 u i 168 u j ɛ τ ij = ν uj u i uj u i x i x i x j x i x j K t + U K U j i = R ij x i x i x j [ pu j ρ + U i u j uj νu i + u i x i x j 169 ] 17 ɛ ɛ ɛ t + U i = W H j + ν ɛ 171 x i x j ui u k W ν + u j u j Ui +ν u i u i u j x j x j x k x i x k x k x j x k ν U i x j x k H j ν ρ 8.5 +νu j U j x k U i x j x k 17 u j p u i u i + νu j 173 x k x k x k x k K = u i u i / Reynolds K ν T R ij = u i u j = 3 Kδ Ui ij ν T + U j 174 x j x i Pandtl u i u j l U U x x ν T lu l K ν T U x ν T = Kl 175 l K 17 K t + U U i U j j + R ij x j x i = νt K K3/ x j σ k x j l 176 σ K, σ k ɛ = K3/ l K N-S Eq.166 U i x i, σ K l 8.6 K ɛ ɛ K ɛ ɛ µ ν T = C µ K ɛ 171 ɛ t + U ɛ ɛ i = C ɛ1 x i K R U i ɛ ij C ɛ x j K + x j ɛ νt σ ɛ 177 ɛ x j

16 N-S Eq. Reynolds 174 K K t + U U i U j j + R ij x j x i = νt K ɛ 179 x j σ k x j C µ, C ɛ1 C ɛ, σ ɛ 8.7 Lage Eddy Simulation, 1, G G U = Gx x ux dx = G u 18 u i = U i + u Rynolds G u i u j = G U i U j +G u i U j + U i u j + u i u j = U i U j + L ij + M ij 181 N-S Eq. U i t + U i U j = 1 P x j ρ x i x j L ij x j M ij + U i L ij = G U i U j U i U j M ij = Ui 3 K δ ij + ν SG + U j x j x i L ij Lenad ν SG = C S 4/3 ɛ 1/3 u K = G i u j =C K /3 ɛ 1/3 184 C S, C K ɛ ɛ = M ij U i x j 185 Lage Eddy Simulation 9 1/7/4 Kolmogoov 9.1 Se.4.4 λ P. dx = λρv 186 d λ = R λ =.316 R 1/4 188 λ N-S Eq. v t + v v = 1 ρ P + ν v x λ 1 x, v λ v, t λ 3 t, P/ρ λ 4 P/ρ, ν λ 5 ν, λ 1,λ, N-S Eq. λ λ 1 3 = λ λ 1 1 = λ 1 1 λ 4 = λ 5 λ 1 λ λ 3 = λ 1 λ 1, λ 4 = λ, λ 5 = λ 1 λ x λ 1 x, v λ v, t λ 1 λ 1 t, P/ρ λ P/ρ, ν λ 1λ ν, 189 dp/ρ dx = Cd α V β ν γ C λ λ 1 1 = λ α 1 λβ λ 1λ γ 19 α = 1 γ, β = α 191 dp dx = Cd 1 γ V γ ν γ = C V d ν γ dv γ dp dx = C V d F R 16

17 9. τ τ MHD τ v mn + v v = p + j B t n + n v = t v = E + v e B = η j p e en B t = E p 3/ η T 3/ 19 n x λ 1 x, v λ v, t λ 3 t, n λ 4 n, B λ 5 B, E λ 6 E, P λ 7 P, j λ 8 j, η λ 9 η 193 λ 4 λ λ 1 3 = λ 4 λ λ 1 1 λ 7λ 1 1 = λ 8 λ 5 λ 4 λ 1 3 = λ 1 1 λ 4λ λ 6 = λ λ 5 = λ 9 λ 8 = λ 7 λ 1 1 λ 1 4 λ 8 = λ 1 1 λ 5 λ 5 λ 1 3 = λ 1 1 λ 6 λ 9 = λ 3/ 7 λ 3/ λ = λ P x λ 4 x, v λv, t λ 5 t, n λ 8 n, B λ 5 B, E λ 6 E, P λ 1, j λ 9 j, η λ 3 η 195 τ n T B a τ = Cn p T q B a s 196 C λ 5 = λ 8p λ q λ 5 λ 4s p + q s = τ n p T q B a p+ q na p T a q +Ba 5/4 +1 B τ = 1 B F na,t a, Ba 5/4 17

. ev=,604k m 3 Debye ɛ 0 kt e λ D = n e n e Ze 4 ln Λ ν ei = 5.6π / ɛ 0 m/ e kt e /3 ν ei v e H + +e H ev Saha x x = 3/ πme kt g i g e n

. ev=,604k m 3 Debye ɛ 0 kt e λ D = n e n e Ze 4 ln Λ ν ei = 5.6π / ɛ 0 m/ e kt e /3 ν ei v e H + +e H ev Saha x x = 3/ πme kt g i g e n 003...............................3 Debye................. 3.4................ 3 3 3 3. Larmor Cyclotron... 3 3................ 4 3.3.......... 4 3.3............ 4 3.3...... 4 3.3.3............ 5 3.4.........

More information

Part () () Γ Part ,

Part () () Γ Part , Contents a 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7. 8.. 8.. 8.3. 8 Part. 9. 9.. 9.. 3. 3.. 3.. 3 4. 5 4.. 5 4.. 9 4.3. 3 Part. 6 5. () 6 5.. () 7 5.. 9 5.3. Γ 3 6. 3 6.. 3 6.. 3 6.3. 33 Part 3. 34 7. 34 7.. 34 7.. 34 8. 35

More information

30

30 3 ............................................2 2...........................................2....................................2.2...................................2.3..............................

More information

II ( ) (7/31) II ( [ (3.4)] Navier Stokes [ (6/29)] Navier Stokes 3 [ (6/19)] Re

II ( ) (7/31) II (  [ (3.4)] Navier Stokes [ (6/29)] Navier Stokes 3 [ (6/19)] Re II 29 7 29-7-27 ( ) (7/31) II (http://www.damp.tottori-u.ac.jp/~ooshida/edu/fluid/) [ (3.4)] Navier Stokes [ (6/29)] Navier Stokes 3 [ (6/19)] Reynolds [ (4.6), (45.8)] [ p.186] Navier Stokes I Euler Navier

More information

微分積分 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます. このサンプルページの内容は, 初版 1 刷発行時のものです.

微分積分 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます.   このサンプルページの内容は, 初版 1 刷発行時のものです. 微分積分 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます. ttp://www.morikita.co.jp/books/mid/00571 このサンプルページの内容は, 初版 1 刷発行時のものです. i ii 014 10 iii [note] 1 3 iv 4 5 3 6 4 x 0 sin x x 1 5 6 z = f(x, y) 1 y = f(x)

More information

9. 05 L x P(x) P(0) P(x) u(x) u(x) (0 < = x < = L) P(x) E(x) A(x) P(L) f ( d EA du ) = 0 (9.) dx dx u(0) = 0 (9.2) E(L)A(L) du (L) = f (9.3) dx (9.) P

9. 05 L x P(x) P(0) P(x) u(x) u(x) (0 < = x < = L) P(x) E(x) A(x) P(L) f ( d EA du ) = 0 (9.) dx dx u(0) = 0 (9.2) E(L)A(L) du (L) = f (9.3) dx (9.) P 9 (Finite Element Method; FEM) 9. 9. P(0) P(x) u(x) (a) P(L) f P(0) P(x) (b) 9. P(L) 9. 05 L x P(x) P(0) P(x) u(x) u(x) (0 < = x < = L) P(x) E(x) A(x) P(L) f ( d EA du ) = 0 (9.) dx dx u(0) = 0 (9.2) E(L)A(L)

More information

K E N Z U 2012 7 16 HP M. 1 1 4 1.1 3.......................... 4 1.2................................... 4 1.2.1..................................... 4 1.2.2.................................... 5................................

More information

No δs δs = r + δr r = δr (3) δs δs = r r = δr + u(r + δr, t) u(r, t) (4) δr = (δx, δy, δz) u i (r + δr, t) u i (r, t) = u i x j δx j (5) δs 2

No δs δs = r + δr r = δr (3) δs δs = r r = δr + u(r + δr, t) u(r, t) (4) δr = (δx, δy, δz) u i (r + δr, t) u i (r, t) = u i x j δx j (5) δs 2 No.2 1 2 2 δs δs = r + δr r = δr (3) δs δs = r r = δr + u(r + δr, t) u(r, t) (4) δr = (δx, δy, δz) u i (r + δr, t) u i (r, t) = u i δx j (5) δs 2 = δx i δx i + 2 u i δx i δx j = δs 2 + 2s ij δx i δx j

More information

S I. dy fx x fx y fx + C 3 C dy fx 4 x, y dy v C xt y C v e kt k > xt yt gt [ v dt dt v e kt xt v e kt + C k x v + C C k xt v k 3 r r + dr e kt S dt d

S I. dy fx x fx y fx + C 3 C dy fx 4 x, y dy v C xt y C v e kt k > xt yt gt [ v dt dt v e kt xt v e kt + C k x v + C C k xt v k 3 r r + dr e kt S dt d S I.. http://ayapin.film.s.dendai.ac.jp/~matuda /TeX/lecture.html PDF PS.................................... 3.3.................... 9.4................5.............. 3 5. Laplace................. 5....

More information

1 (Berry,1975) 2-6 p (S πr 2 )p πr 2 p 2πRγ p p = 2γ R (2.5).1-1 : : : : ( ).2 α, β α, β () X S = X X α X β (.1) 1 2

1 (Berry,1975) 2-6 p (S πr 2 )p πr 2 p 2πRγ p p = 2γ R (2.5).1-1 : : : : ( ).2 α, β α, β () X S = X X α X β (.1) 1 2 2005 9/8-11 2 2.2 ( 2-5) γ ( ) γ cos θ 2πr πρhr 2 g h = 2γ cos θ ρgr (2.1) γ = ρgrh (2.2) 2 cos θ θ cos θ = 1 (2.2) γ = 1 ρgrh (2.) 2 2. p p ρgh p ( ) p p = p ρgh (2.) h p p = 2γ r 1 1 (Berry,1975) 2-6

More information

( )

( ) 7..-8..8.......................................................................... 4.................................... 3...................................... 3..3.................................. 4.3....................................

More information

I ( ) 1 de Broglie 1 (de Broglie) p λ k h Planck ( Js) p = h λ = k (1) h 2π : Dirac k B Boltzmann ( J/K) T U = 3 2 k BT

I ( ) 1 de Broglie 1 (de Broglie) p λ k h Planck ( Js) p = h λ = k (1) h 2π : Dirac k B Boltzmann ( J/K) T U = 3 2 k BT I (008 4 0 de Broglie (de Broglie p λ k h Planck ( 6.63 0 34 Js p = h λ = k ( h π : Dirac k B Boltzmann (.38 0 3 J/K T U = 3 k BT ( = λ m k B T h m = 0.067m 0 m 0 = 9. 0 3 kg GaAs( a T = 300 K 3 fg 07345

More information

TOP URL 1

TOP URL   1 TOP URL http://amonphys.web.fc2.com/ 1 6 3 6.1................................ 3 6.2.............................. 4 6.3................................ 5 6.4.......................... 6 6.5......................

More information

n (1.6) i j=1 1 n a ij x j = b i (1.7) (1.7) (1.4) (1.5) (1.4) (1.7) u, v, w ε x, ε y, ε x, γ yz, γ zx, γ xy (1.8) ε x = u x ε y = v y ε z = w z γ yz

n (1.6) i j=1 1 n a ij x j = b i (1.7) (1.7) (1.4) (1.5) (1.4) (1.7) u, v, w ε x, ε y, ε x, γ yz, γ zx, γ xy (1.8) ε x = u x ε y = v y ε z = w z γ yz 1 2 (a 1, a 2, a n ) (b 1, b 2, b n ) A (1.1) A = a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + + a n b n (1.1) n A = a i b i (1.2) i=1 n i 1 n i=1 a i b i n i=1 A = a i b i (1.3) (1.3) (1.3) (1.1) (ummation convention) a 11 x

More information

S I. dy fx x fx y fx + C 3 C vt dy fx 4 x, y dy yt gt + Ct + C dt v e kt xt v e kt + C k x v k + C C xt v k 3 r r + dr e kt S Sr πr dt d v } dt k e kt

S I. dy fx x fx y fx + C 3 C vt dy fx 4 x, y dy yt gt + Ct + C dt v e kt xt v e kt + C k x v k + C C xt v k 3 r r + dr e kt S Sr πr dt d v } dt k e kt S I. x yx y y, y,. F x, y, y, y,, y n http://ayapin.film.s.dendai.ac.jp/~matuda n /TeX/lecture.html PDF PS yx.................................... 3.3.................... 9.4................5..............

More information

master.dvi

master.dvi 4 Maxwell- Boltzmann N 1 4.1 T R R 5 R (Heat Reservor) S E R 20 E 4.2 E E R E t = E + E R E R Ω R (E R ) S R (E R ) Ω R (E R ) = exp[s R (E R )/k] E, E E, E E t E E t E exps R (E t E) exp S R (E t E )

More information

Maxwell

Maxwell I 2018 12 13 0 4 1 6 1.1............................ 6 1.2 Maxwell......................... 8 1.3.......................... 9 1.4..................... 11 1.5..................... 12 2 13 2.1...................

More information

構造と連続体の力学基礎

構造と連続体の力学基礎 II 37 Wabash Avenue Bridge, Illinois 州 Winnipeg にある歩道橋 Esplanade Riel 橋6 6 斜張橋である必要は多分無いと思われる すぐ横に道路用桁橋有り しかも塔基部のレストランは 8 年には営業していなかった 9 9. 9.. () 97 [3] [5] k 9. m w(t) f (t) = f (t) + mg k w(t) Newton

More information

untitled

untitled 0. =. =. (999). 3(983). (980). (985). (966). 3. := :=. A A. A A. := := 4 5 A B A B A B. A = B A B A B B A. A B A B, A B, B. AP { A, P } = { : A, P } = { A P }. A = {0, }, A, {0, }, {0}, {}, A {0}, {}.

More information

pdf

pdf http://www.ns.kogakuin.ac.jp/~ft13389/lecture/physics1a2b/ pdf I 1 1 1.1 ( ) 1. 30 m µm 2. 20 cm km 3. 10 m 2 cm 2 4. 5 cm 3 km 3 5. 1 6. 1 7. 1 1.2 ( ) 1. 1 m + 10 cm 2. 1 hr + 6400 sec 3. 3.0 10 5 kg

More information

(3) (2),,. ( 20) ( s200103) 0.7 x C,, x 2 + y 2 + ax = 0 a.. D,. D, y C, C (x, y) (y 0) C m. (2) D y = y(x) (x ± y 0), (x, y) D, m, m = 1., D. (x 2 y

(3) (2),,. ( 20) ( s200103) 0.7 x C,, x 2 + y 2 + ax = 0 a.. D,. D, y C, C (x, y) (y 0) C m. (2) D y = y(x) (x ± y 0), (x, y) D, m, m = 1., D. (x 2 y [ ] 7 0.1 2 2 + y = t sin t IC ( 9) ( s090101) 0.2 y = d2 y 2, y = x 3 y + y 2 = 0 (2) y + 2y 3y = e 2x 0.3 1 ( y ) = f x C u = y x ( 15) ( s150102) [ ] y/x du x = Cexp f(u) u (2) x y = xey/x ( 16) ( s160101)

More information

tomocci ,. :,,,, Lie,,,, Einstein, Newton. 1 M n C. s, M p. M f, p d ds f = dxµ p ds µ f p, X p = X µ µ p = dxµ ds µ p. µ, X µ.,. p,. T M p.

tomocci ,. :,,,, Lie,,,, Einstein, Newton. 1 M n C. s, M p. M f, p d ds f = dxµ p ds µ f p, X p = X µ µ p = dxµ ds µ p. µ, X µ.,. p,. T M p. tomocci 18 7 5...,. :,,,, Lie,,,, Einstein, Newton. 1 M n C. s, M p. M f, p d ds f = dxµ p ds µ f p, X p = X µ µ p = dxµ ds µ p. µ, X µ.,. p,. T M p. M F (M), X(F (M)).. T M p e i = e µ i µ. a a = a i

More information

2013 25 9 i 1 1 1.1................................... 1 1.2........................... 2 1.3..................................... 3 1.4..................................... 4 2 6 2.1.................................

More information

4. ϵ(ν, T ) = c 4 u(ν, T ) ϵ(ν, T ) T ν π4 Planck dx = 0 e x 1 15 U(T ) x 3 U(T ) = σt 4 Stefan-Boltzmann σ 2π5 k 4 15c 2 h 3 = W m 2 K 4 5.

4. ϵ(ν, T ) = c 4 u(ν, T ) ϵ(ν, T ) T ν π4 Planck dx = 0 e x 1 15 U(T ) x 3 U(T ) = σt 4 Stefan-Boltzmann σ 2π5 k 4 15c 2 h 3 = W m 2 K 4 5. A 1. Boltzmann Planck u(ν, T )dν = 8πh ν 3 c 3 kt 1 dν h 6.63 10 34 J s Planck k 1.38 10 23 J K 1 Boltzmann u(ν, T ) T ν e hν c = 3 10 8 m s 1 2. Planck λ = c/ν Rayleigh-Jeans u(ν, T )dν = 8πν2 kt dν c

More information

v v = v 1 v 2 v 3 (1) R = (R ij ) (2) R (R 1 ) ij = R ji (3) 3 R ij R ik = δ jk (4) i=1 δ ij Kronecker δ ij = { 1 (i = j) 0 (i

v v = v 1 v 2 v 3 (1) R = (R ij ) (2) R (R 1 ) ij = R ji (3) 3 R ij R ik = δ jk (4) i=1 δ ij Kronecker δ ij = { 1 (i = j) 0 (i 1. 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.1.1 v v = v 1 v 2 v 3 (1) R = (R ij ) (2) R (R 1 ) ij = R ji (3) R ij R ik = δ jk (4) δ ij Kronecker δ ij = { 1 (i = j) 0 (i j) (5) 1 1.1. v1.1 2011/04/10 1. 1 2 v i = R ij v j (6) [

More information

(5) 75 (a) (b) ( 1 ) v ( 1 ) E E 1 v (a) ( 1 ) x E E (b) (a) (b)

(5) 75 (a) (b) ( 1 ) v ( 1 ) E E 1 v (a) ( 1 ) x E E (b) (a) (b) (5) 74 Re, bondar laer (Prandtl) Re z ω z = x (5) 75 (a) (b) ( 1 ) v ( 1 ) E E 1 v (a) ( 1 ) x E E (b) (a) (b) (5) 76 l V x ) 1/ 1 ( 1 1 1 δ δ = x Re x p V x t V l l (1-1) 1/ 1 δ δ δ δ = x Re p V x t V

More information

: 2005 ( ρ t +dv j =0 r m m r = e E( r +e r B( r T 208 T = d E j 207 ρ t = = = e t δ( r r (t e r r δ( r r (t e r ( r δ( r r (t dv j =

: 2005 ( ρ t +dv j =0 r m m r = e E( r +e r B( r T 208 T = d E j 207 ρ t = = = e t δ( r r (t e r r δ( r r (t e r ( r δ( r r (t dv j = 72 Maxwell. Maxwell e r ( =,,N Maxwell rot E + B t = 0 rot H D t = j dv D = ρ dv B = 0 D = ɛ 0 E H = μ 0 B ρ( r = j( r = N e δ( r r = N e r δ( r r = : 2005 ( 2006.8.22 73 207 ρ t +dv j =0 r m m r = e E(

More information

25 7 18 1 1 1.1 v.s............................. 1 1.1.1.................................. 1 1.1.2................................. 1 1.1.3.................................. 3 1.2................... 3

More information

newmain.dvi

newmain.dvi 数論 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます. http://www.morikita.co.jp/books/mid/008142 このサンプルページの内容は, 第 2 版 1 刷発行当時のものです. Daniel DUVERNEY: THÉORIE DES NOMBRES c Dunod, Paris, 1998, This book is published

More information

2 G(k) e ikx = (ik) n x n n! n=0 (k ) ( ) X n = ( i) n n k n G(k) k=0 F (k) ln G(k) = ln e ikx n κ n F (k) = F (k) (ik) n n= n! κ n κ n = ( i) n n k n

2 G(k) e ikx = (ik) n x n n! n=0 (k ) ( ) X n = ( i) n n k n G(k) k=0 F (k) ln G(k) = ln e ikx n κ n F (k) = F (k) (ik) n n= n! κ n κ n = ( i) n n k n . X {x, x 2, x 3,... x n } X X {, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} X x i P i. 0 P i 2. n P i = 3. P (i ω) = i ω P i P 3 {x, x 2, x 3,... x n } ω P i = 6 X f(x) f(x) X n n f(x i )P i n x n i P i X n 2 G(k) e ikx = (ik) n

More information

K E N Z OU

K E N Z OU K E N Z OU 11 1 1 1.1..................................... 1.1.1............................ 1.1..................................................................................... 4 1.........................................

More information

N/m f x x L dl U 1 du = T ds pdv + fdl (2.1)

N/m f x x L dl U 1 du = T ds pdv + fdl (2.1) 23 2 2.1 10 5 6 N/m 2 2.1.1 f x x L dl U 1 du = T ds pdv + fdl (2.1) 24 2 dv = 0 dl ( ) U f = T L p,t ( ) S L p,t (2.2) 2 ( ) ( ) S f = L T p,t p,l (2.3) ( ) U f = L p,t + T ( ) f T p,l (2.4) 1 f e ( U/

More information

201711grade1ouyou.pdf

201711grade1ouyou.pdf 2017 11 26 1 2 52 3 12 13 22 23 32 33 42 3 5 3 4 90 5 6 A 1 2 Web Web 3 4 1 2... 5 6 7 7 44 8 9 1 2 3 1 p p >2 2 A 1 2 0.6 0.4 0.52... (a) 0.6 0.4...... B 1 2 0.8-0.2 0.52..... (b) 0.6 0.52.... 1 A B 2

More information

t = h x z z = h z = t (x, z) (v x (x, z, t), v z (x, z, t)) ρ v x x + v z z = 0 (1) 2-2. (v x, v z ) φ(x, z, t) v x = φ x, v z

t = h x z z = h z = t (x, z) (v x (x, z, t), v z (x, z, t)) ρ v x x + v z z = 0 (1) 2-2. (v x, v z ) φ(x, z, t) v x = φ x, v z I 1 m 2 l k 2 x = 0 x 1 x 1 2 x 2 g x x 2 x 1 m k m 1-1. L x 1, x 2, ẋ 1, ẋ 2 ẋ 1 x = 0 1-2. 2 Q = x 1 + x 2 2 q = x 2 x 1 l L Q, q, Q, q M = 2m µ = m 2 1-3. Q q 1-4. 2 x 2 = h 1 x 1 t = 0 2 1 t x 1 (t)

More information

5 5.1 E 1, E 2 N 1, N 2 E tot N tot E tot = E 1 + E 2, N tot = N 1 + N 2 S 1 (E 1, N 1 ), S 2 (E 2, N 2 ) E 1, E 2 S tot = S 1 + S 2 2 S 1 E 1 = S 2 E

5 5.1 E 1, E 2 N 1, N 2 E tot N tot E tot = E 1 + E 2, N tot = N 1 + N 2 S 1 (E 1, N 1 ), S 2 (E 2, N 2 ) E 1, E 2 S tot = S 1 + S 2 2 S 1 E 1 = S 2 E 5 5.1 E 1, E 2 N 1, N 2 E tot N tot E tot = E 1 + E 2, N tot = N 1 + N 2 S 1 (E 1, N 1 ), S 2 (E 2, N 2 ) E 1, E 2 S tot = S 1 + S 2 2 S 1 E 1 = S 2 E 2, S 1 N 1 = S 2 N 2 2 (chemical potential) µ S N

More information

6kg 1.1m 1.m.1m.1 l λ ϵ λ l + λ l l l dl dl + dλ ϵ dλ dl dl + dλ dl dl 3 1. JIS 1 6kg 1% 66kg 1 13 σ a1 σ m σ a1 σ m σ m σ a1 f f σ a1 σ a1 σ m f 4

6kg 1.1m 1.m.1m.1 l λ ϵ λ l + λ l l l dl dl + dλ ϵ dλ dl dl + dλ dl dl 3 1. JIS 1 6kg 1% 66kg 1 13 σ a1 σ m σ a1 σ m σ m σ a1 f f σ a1 σ a1 σ m f 4 35-8585 7 8 1 I I 1 1.1 6kg 1m P σ σ P 1 l l λ λ l 1.m 1 6kg 1.1m 1.m.1m.1 l λ ϵ λ l + λ l l l dl dl + dλ ϵ dλ dl dl + dλ dl dl 3 1. JIS 1 6kg 1% 66kg 1 13 σ a1 σ m σ a1 σ m σ m σ a1 f f σ a1 σ a1 σ m

More information

2009 2 26 1 3 1.1.................................................. 3 1.2..................................................... 3 1.3...................................................... 3 1.4.....................................................

More information

I-2 (100 ) (1) y(x) y dy dx y d2 y dx 2 (a) y + 2y 3y = 9e 2x (b) x 2 y 6y = 5x 4 (2) Bernoulli B n (n = 0, 1, 2,...) x e x 1 = n=0 B 0 B 1 B 2 (3) co

I-2 (100 ) (1) y(x) y dy dx y d2 y dx 2 (a) y + 2y 3y = 9e 2x (b) x 2 y 6y = 5x 4 (2) Bernoulli B n (n = 0, 1, 2,...) x e x 1 = n=0 B 0 B 1 B 2 (3) co 16 I ( ) (1) I-1 I-2 I-3 (2) I-1 ( ) (100 ) 2l x x = 0 y t y(x, t) y(±l, t) = 0 m T g y(x, t) l y(x, t) c = 2 y(x, t) c 2 2 y(x, t) = g (A) t 2 x 2 T/m (1) y 0 (x) y 0 (x) = g c 2 (l2 x 2 ) (B) (2) (1)

More information

1: 3.3 1/8000 1/ m m/s v = 2kT/m = 2RT/M k R 8.31 J/(K mole) M 18 g 1 5 a v t πa 2 vt kg (

1: 3.3 1/8000 1/ m m/s v = 2kT/m = 2RT/M k R 8.31 J/(K mole) M 18 g 1 5 a v t πa 2 vt kg ( 1905 1 1.1 0.05 mm 1 µm 2 1 1 2004 21 2004 7 21 2005 web 2 [1, 2] 1 1: 3.3 1/8000 1/30 3 10 10 m 3 500 m/s 4 1 10 19 5 6 7 1.2 3 4 v = 2kT/m = 2RT/M k R 8.31 J/(K mole) M 18 g 1 5 a v t πa 2 vt 6 6 10

More information

006 11 8 0 3 1 5 1.1..................... 5 1......................... 6 1.3.................... 6 1.4.................. 8 1.5................... 8 1.6................... 10 1.6.1......................

More information

73

73 73 74 ( u w + bw) d = Ɣ t tw dɣ u = N u + N u + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 + [K ] {u = {F 75 u δu L σ (L) σ dx σ + dσ x δu b δu + d(δu) ALW W = L b δu dv + Aσ (L)δu(L) δu = (= ) W = A L b δu dx + Aσ (L)δu(L) Aσ

More information

( 12 ( ( ( ( Levi-Civita grad div rot ( ( = 4 : 6 3 1 1.1 f(x n f (n (x, d n f(x (1.1 dxn f (2 (x f (x 1.1 f(x = e x f (n (x = e x d dx (fg = f g + fg (1.2 d dx d 2 dx (fg = f g + 2f g + fg 2... d n n

More information

d ϕ i) t d )t0 d ϕi) ϕ i) t x j t d ) ϕ t0 t α dx j d ) ϕ i) t dx t0 j x j d ϕ i) ) t x j dx t0 j f i x j ξ j dx i + ξ i x j dx j f i ξ i x j dx j d )

d ϕ i) t d )t0 d ϕi) ϕ i) t x j t d ) ϕ t0 t α dx j d ) ϕ i) t dx t0 j x j d ϕ i) ) t x j dx t0 j f i x j ξ j dx i + ξ i x j dx j f i ξ i x j dx j d ) 23 M R M ϕ : R M M ϕt, x) ϕ t x) ϕ s ϕ t ϕ s+t, ϕ 0 id M M ϕ t M ξ ξ ϕ t d ϕ tx) ξϕ t x)) U, x 1,...,x n )) ϕ t x) ϕ 1) t x),...,ϕ n) t x)), ξx) ξ i x) d ϕi) t x) ξ i ϕ t x)) M f ϕ t f)x) f ϕ t )x) fϕ

More information

Maxwell

Maxwell I 2016 10 6 0 4 1 6 1.1............................ 6 1.2 Maxwell......................... 8 1.3.......................... 9 1.4..................... 11 1.5..................... 11 2 13 2.1...................

More information

gr09.dvi

gr09.dvi .1, θ, ϕ d = A, t dt + B, t dtd + C, t d + D, t dθ +in θdϕ.1.1 t { = f1,t t = f,t { D, t = B, t =.1. t A, tdt e φ,t dt, C, td e λ,t d.1.3,t, t d = e φ,t dt + e λ,t d + dθ +in θdϕ.1.4 { = f1,t t = f,t {

More information

医系の統計入門第 2 版 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます. このサンプルページの内容は, 第 2 版 1 刷発行時のものです.

医系の統計入門第 2 版 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます.   このサンプルページの内容は, 第 2 版 1 刷発行時のものです. 医系の統計入門第 2 版 サンプルページ この本の定価 判型などは, 以下の URL からご覧いただけます. http://www.morikita.co.jp/books/mid/009192 このサンプルページの内容は, 第 2 版 1 刷発行時のものです. i 2 t 1. 2. 3 2 3. 6 4. 7 5. n 2 ν 6. 2 7. 2003 ii 2 2013 10 iii 1987

More information

I A A441 : April 21, 2014 Version : Kawahira, Tomoki TA (Kondo, Hirotaka ) Google

I A A441 : April 21, 2014 Version : Kawahira, Tomoki TA (Kondo, Hirotaka ) Google I4 - : April, 4 Version :. Kwhir, Tomoki TA (Kondo, Hirotk) Google http://www.mth.ngoy-u.c.jp/~kwhir/courses/4s-biseki.html pdf 4 4 4 4 8 e 5 5 9 etc. 5 6 6 6 9 n etc. 6 6 6 3 6 3 7 7 etc 7 4 7 7 8 5 59

More information

all.dvi

all.dvi 72 9 Hooke,,,. Hooke. 9.1 Hooke 1 Hooke. 1, 1 Hooke. σ, ε, Young. σ ε (9.1), Young. τ γ G τ Gγ (9.2) X 1, X 2. Poisson, Poisson ν. ν ε 22 (9.) ε 11 F F X 2 X 1 9.1: Poisson 9.1. Hooke 7 Young Poisson G

More information

21 2 26 i 1 1 1.1............................ 1 1.2............................ 3 2 9 2.1................... 9 2.2.......... 9 2.3................... 11 2.4....................... 12 3 15 3.1..........

More information

4................................. 4................................. 4 6................................. 6................................. 9.................................................... 3..3..........................

More information

2000年度『数学展望 I』講義録

2000年度『数学展望 I』講義録 2000 I I IV I II 2000 I I IV I-IV. i ii 3.10 (http://www.math.nagoya-u.ac.jp/ kanai/) 2000 A....1 B....4 C....10 D....13 E....17 Brouwer A....21 B....26 C....33 D....39 E. Sperner...45 F....48 A....53

More information

) ] [ h m x + y + + V x) φ = Eφ 1) z E = i h t 13) x << 1) N n n= = N N + 1) 14) N n n= = N N + 1)N + 1) 6 15) N n 3 n= = 1 4 N N + 1) 16) N n 4

) ] [ h m x + y + + V x) φ = Eφ 1) z E = i h t 13) x << 1) N n n= = N N + 1) 14) N n n= = N N + 1)N + 1) 6 15) N n 3 n= = 1 4 N N + 1) 16) N n 4 1. k λ ν ω T v p v g k = π λ ω = πν = π T v p = λν = ω k v g = dω dk 1) ) 3) 4). p = hk = h λ 5) E = hν = hω 6) h = h π 7) h =6.6618 1 34 J sec) hc=197.3 MeV fm = 197.3 kev pm= 197.3 ev nm = 1.97 1 3 ev

More information

simx simxdx, cosxdx, sixdx 6.3 px m m + pxfxdx = pxf x p xf xdx = pxf x p xf x + p xf xdx 7.4 a m.5 fx simxdx 8 fx fx simxdx = πb m 9 a fxdx = πa a =

simx simxdx, cosxdx, sixdx 6.3 px m m + pxfxdx = pxf x p xf xdx = pxf x p xf x + p xf xdx 7.4 a m.5 fx simxdx 8 fx fx simxdx = πb m 9 a fxdx = πa a = II 6 ishimori@phys.titech.ac.jp 6.. 5.4.. f Rx = f Lx = fx fx + lim = lim x x + x x f c = f x + x < c < x x x + lim x x fx fx x x = lim x x f c = f x x < c < x cosmx cosxdx = {cosm x + cosm + x} dx = [

More information

20 6 4 1 4 1.1 1.................................... 4 1.1.1.................................... 4 1.1.2 1................................ 5 1.2................................... 7 1.2.1....................................

More information

数学Ⅱ演習(足助・09夏)

数学Ⅱ演習(足助・09夏) II I 9/4/4 9/4/2 z C z z z z, z 2 z, w C zw z w 3 z, w C z + w z + w 4 t R t C t t t t t z z z 2 z C re z z + z z z, im z 2 2 3 z C e z + z + 2 z2 + 3! z3 + z!, I 4 x R e x cos x + sin x 2 z, w C e z+w

More information

genron-3

genron-3 " ( K p( pasals! ( kg / m 3 " ( K! v M V! M / V v V / M! 3 ( kg / m v ( v "! v p v # v v pd v ( J / kg p ( $ 3! % S $ ( pv" 3 ( ( 5 pv" pv R" p R!" R " ( K ( 6 ( 7 " pv pv % p % w ' p% S & $ p% v ( J /

More information

Introduction to Numerical Analysis of Differential Equations Naoya Enomoto (Kyoto.univ.Dept.Science(math))

Introduction to Numerical Analysis of Differential Equations Naoya Enomoto (Kyoto.univ.Dept.Science(math)) Introduction to Numerical Analysis of Differential Equations Naoya Enomoto (Kyoto.univ.Dept.Science(math)) 2001 1 e-mail:s00x0427@ip.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 1 Van der Pol 1 1 2 2 Bergers 2 KdV 2 1 5 1.1........................................

More information

untitled

untitled 20010916 22;1017;23;20020108;15;20; 1 N = {1, 2, } Z + = {0, 1, 2, } Z = {0, ±1, ±2, } Q = { p p Z, q N} R = { lim a q n n a n Q, n N; sup a n < } R + = {x R x 0} n = {a + b 1 a, b R} u, v 1 R 2 2 R 3

More information

20 4 20 i 1 1 1.1............................ 1 1.2............................ 4 2 11 2.1................... 11 2.2......................... 11 2.3....................... 19 3 25 3.1.............................

More information

( ) ,

( ) , II 2007 4 0. 0 1 0 2 ( ) 0 3 1 2 3 4, - 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1) 2) 3) 4) ( ) () H 2.79 10 10 He 2.72 10 9 C 1.01 10 7 N 3.13 10 6 O 2.38 10 7 Ne 3.44 10 6 Mg 1.076 10 6 Si 1 10 6 S 5.15 10 5 Ar 1.01 10 5 Fe 9.00

More information

Gauss Gauss ɛ 0 E ds = Q (1) xy σ (x, y, z) (2) a ρ(x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 (r, θ, φ) (1) xy A Gauss ɛ 0 E ds = ɛ 0 EA Q = ρa ɛ 0 EA = ρea E = (ρ/ɛ 0 )e

Gauss Gauss ɛ 0 E ds = Q (1) xy σ (x, y, z) (2) a ρ(x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 (r, θ, φ) (1) xy A Gauss ɛ 0 E ds = ɛ 0 EA Q = ρa ɛ 0 EA = ρea E = (ρ/ɛ 0 )e 7 -a 7 -a February 4, 2007 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 1 Gauss Gauss ɛ 0 E ds = Q (1) xy σ (x, y, z) (2) a ρ(x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 (r, θ, φ) (1) xy A Gauss ɛ 0 E ds = ɛ 0 EA Q = ρa ɛ 0 EA = ρea E = (ρ/ɛ 0 )e z

More information

Microsoft Word - 11問題表紙(選択).docx

Microsoft Word - 11問題表紙(選択).docx A B A.70g/cm 3 B.74g/cm 3 B C 70at% %A C B at% 80at% %B 350 C γ δ y=00 x-y ρ l S ρ C p k C p ρ C p T ρ l t l S S ξ S t = ( k T ) ξ ( ) S = ( k T) ( ) t y ξ S ξ / t S v T T / t = v T / y 00 x v S dy dx

More information

A

A A 2563 15 4 21 1 3 1.1................................................ 3 1.2............................................. 3 2 3 2.1......................................... 3 2.2............................................

More information

X G P G (X) G BG [X, BG] S 2 2 2 S 2 2 S 2 = { (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) R 3 x 2 1 + x 2 2 + x 2 3 = 1 } R 3 S 2 S 2 v x S 2 x x v(x) T x S 2 T x S 2 S 2 x T x S 2 = { ξ R 3 x ξ } R 3 T x S 2 S 2 x x T x S 2

More information

P F ext 1: F ext P F ext (Count Rumford, ) H 2 O H 2 O 2 F ext F ext N 2 O 2 2

P F ext 1: F ext P F ext (Count Rumford, ) H 2 O H 2 O 2 F ext F ext N 2 O 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 P F ext 1: F ext P F ext (Count Rumford, 1753 1814) 0 100 H 2 O H 2 O 2 F ext F ext N 2 O 2 2 P F S F = P S (1) ( 1 ) F ext x W ext W ext = F ext x (2) F ext P S W ext = P S x (3) S x V V

More information

i 18 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 + ( ) 3K

i 18 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 + ( ) 3K i 18 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 + ( ) 3K ii 1 1 1.1.................................. 1 1.2........................................ 3 1.3......................................... 3 1.4....................................

More information

構造と連続体の力学基礎

構造と連続体の力学基礎 12 12.1? finite deformation infinitesimal deformation large deformation 1 [129] B Bernoulli-Euler [26] 1975 Northwestern Nemat-Nasser Continuum Mechanics 1980 [73] 2 1 2 What is the physical meaning? 583

More information

b3e2003.dvi

b3e2003.dvi 15 II 5 5.1 (1) p, q p = (x + 2y, xy, 1), q = (x 2 + 3y 2, xyz, ) (i) p rotq (ii) p gradq D (2) a, b rot(a b) div [11, p.75] (3) (i) f f grad f = 1 2 grad( f 2) (ii) f f gradf 1 2 grad ( f 2) rotf 5.2

More information

all.dvi

all.dvi 29 4 Green-Lagrange,,.,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,, E, σ, ε σ = Eε,,.. 4.1? l, l 1 (l 1 l) ε ε = l 1 l l (4.1) F l l 1 F 30 4 Green-Lagrange Δz Δδ γ = Δδ (4.2) Δz π/2 φ γ = π 2 φ (4.3) γ tan γ γ,sin γ γ ( π ) γ tan

More information

,,,17,,, ( ),, E Q [S T F t ] < S t, t [, T ],,,,,,,,

,,,17,,, ( ),, E Q [S T F t ] < S t, t [, T ],,,,,,,, 14 5 1 ,,,17,,,194 1 4 ( ),, E Q [S T F t ] < S t, t [, T ],,,,,,,, 1 4 1.1........................................ 4 5.1........................................ 5.........................................

More information

Dirac 38 5 Dirac 4 4 γ µ p µ p µ + m 2 = ( p µ γ µ + m)(p ν γ ν + m) (5.1) γ = p µ p ν γ µ γ ν p µ γ µ m + mp ν γ ν + m 2 = 1 2 p µp ν {γ µ, γ ν } + m

Dirac 38 5 Dirac 4 4 γ µ p µ p µ + m 2 = ( p µ γ µ + m)(p ν γ ν + m) (5.1) γ = p µ p ν γ µ γ ν p µ γ µ m + mp ν γ ν + m 2 = 1 2 p µp ν {γ µ, γ ν } + m Dirac 38 5 Dirac 4 4 γ µ p µ p µ + m 2 p µ γ µ + mp ν γ ν + m 5.1 γ p µ p ν γ µ γ ν p µ γ µ m + mp ν γ ν + m 2 1 2 p µp ν {γ µ, γ ν } + m 2 5.2 p m p p µ γ µ {, } 10 γ {γ µ, γ ν } 2η µν 5.3 p µ γ µ + mp

More information

phs.dvi

phs.dvi 483F 3 6.........3... 6.4... 7 7.... 7.... 9.5 N (... 3.6 N (... 5.7... 5 3 6 3.... 6 3.... 7 3.3... 9 3.4... 3 4 7 4.... 7 4.... 9 4.3... 3 4.4... 34 4.4.... 34 4.4.... 35 4.5... 38 4.6... 39 5 4 5....

More information

ω 0 m(ẍ + γẋ + ω0x) 2 = ee (2.118) e iωt x = e 1 m ω0 2 E(ω). (2.119) ω2 iωγ Z N P(ω) = χ(ω)e = exzn (2.120) ϵ = ϵ 0 (1 + χ) ϵ(ω) ϵ 0 = 1 +

ω 0 m(ẍ + γẋ + ω0x) 2 = ee (2.118) e iωt x = e 1 m ω0 2 E(ω). (2.119) ω2 iωγ Z N P(ω) = χ(ω)e = exzn (2.120) ϵ = ϵ 0 (1 + χ) ϵ(ω) ϵ 0 = 1 + 2.6 2.6.1 ω 0 m(ẍ + γẋ + ω0x) 2 = ee (2.118) e iωt x = e 1 m ω0 2 E(ω). (2.119) ω2 iωγ Z N P(ω) = χ(ω)e = exzn (2.120) ϵ = ϵ 0 (1 + χ) ϵ(ω) ϵ 0 = 1 + Ne2 m j f j ω 2 j ω2 iωγ j (2.121) Z ω ω j γ j f j

More information

7 π L int = gψ(x)ψ(x)φ(x) + (7.4) [ ] p ψ N = n (7.5) π (π +,π 0,π ) ψ (σ, σ, σ )ψ ( A) σ τ ( L int = gψψφ g N τ ) N π * ) (7.6) π π = (π, π, π ) π ±

7 π L int = gψ(x)ψ(x)φ(x) + (7.4) [ ] p ψ N = n (7.5) π (π +,π 0,π ) ψ (σ, σ, σ )ψ ( A) σ τ ( L int = gψψφ g N τ ) N π * ) (7.6) π π = (π, π, π ) π ± 7 7. ( ) SU() SU() 9 ( MeV) p 98.8 π + π 0 n 99.57 9.57 97.4 497.70 δm m 0.4%.% 0.% 0.8% π 9.57 4.96 Σ + Σ 0 Σ 89.6 9.46 K + K 0 49.67 (7.) p p = αp + βn, n n = γp + δn (7.a) [ ] p ψ ψ = Uψ, U = n [ α

More information

Sturm-Liouville Green KEN ZOU Hermite Legendre Laguerre L L [p(x) d2 dx 2 + q(x) d ] dx + r(x) u(x) = Lu(x) = 0 (1) L = p(x) d2 dx

Sturm-Liouville Green KEN ZOU Hermite Legendre Laguerre L L [p(x) d2 dx 2 + q(x) d ] dx + r(x) u(x) = Lu(x) = 0 (1) L = p(x) d2 dx Sturm-Liouville Green KEN ZOU 2006 4 23 1 Hermite Legendre Lguerre 1 1.1 2 L L p(x) d2 2 + q(x) d + r(x) u(x) = Lu(x) = 0 (1) L = p(x) d2 2 + q(x) d + r(x) (2) L = d2 2 p(x) d q(x) + r(x) (3) 2 (Self-Adjoint

More information

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) 20 21 2 8 1 2 2 3 21 3 22 3 23 4 24 5 25 5 26 6 27 8 28 ( ) 9 3 10 31 10 32 ( ) 12 4 13 41 0 13 42 14 43 0 15 44 17 5 18 6 18 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 2 2 21 t (x(t) y(t)) 2 x(t) y(t) γ(t) (x(t) y(t))

More information

ii 3.,. 4. F. (), ,,. 8.,. 1. (75%) (25%) =7 20, =7 21 (. ). 1.,, (). 3.,. 1. ().,.,.,.,.,. () (12 )., (), 0. 2., 1., 0,.

ii 3.,. 4. F. (), ,,. 8.,. 1. (75%) (25%) =7 20, =7 21 (. ). 1.,, (). 3.,. 1. ().,.,.,.,.,. () (12 )., (), 0. 2., 1., 0,. 24(2012) (1 C106) 4 11 (2 C206) 4 12 http://www.math.is.tohoku.ac.jp/~obata,.,,,.. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.,,. 1., 2007 (). 2. P. G. Hoel, 1995. 3... 1... 2.,,. ii 3.,. 4. F. (),.. 5... 6.. 7.,,. 8.,. 1. (75%)

More information

Z: Q: R: C: 3. Green Cauchy

Z: Q: R: C: 3. Green Cauchy 7 Z: Q: R: C: 3. Green.............................. 3.............................. 5.3................................. 6.4 Cauchy..................... 6.5 Taylor..........................6...............................

More information

24 I ( ) 1. R 3 (i) C : x 2 + y 2 1 = 0 (ii) C : y = ± 1 x 2 ( 1 x 1) (iii) C : x = cos t, y = sin t (0 t 2π) 1.1. γ : [a, b] R n ; t γ(t) = (x

24 I ( ) 1. R 3 (i) C : x 2 + y 2 1 = 0 (ii) C : y = ± 1 x 2 ( 1 x 1) (iii) C : x = cos t, y = sin t (0 t 2π) 1.1. γ : [a, b] R n ; t γ(t) = (x 24 I 1.1.. ( ) 1. R 3 (i) C : x 2 + y 2 1 = 0 (ii) C : y = ± 1 x 2 ( 1 x 1) (iii) C : x = cos t, y = sin t (0 t 2π) 1.1. γ : [a, b] R n ; t γ(t) = (x 1 (t), x 2 (t),, x n (t)) ( ) ( ), γ : (i) x 1 (t),

More information

dynamics-solution2.dvi

dynamics-solution2.dvi 1 1. (1) a + b = i +3i + k () a b =5i 5j +3k (3) a b =1 (4) a b = 7i j +1k. a = 14 l =/ 14, m=1/ 14, n=3/ 14 3. 4. 5. df (t) d [a(t)e(t)] =ti +9t j +4k, = d a(t) d[a(t)e(t)] e(t)+ da(t) d f (t) =i +18tj

More information

V 0 = + r pv (H) + qv (T ) = + r ps (H) + qs (T ) = S 0 X n+ (T ) = n S n+ (T ) + ( + r)(x n n S n ) = ( + r)x n + n (d r)s n = ( + r)v n + V n+(h) V

V 0 = + r pv (H) + qv (T ) = + r ps (H) + qs (T ) = S 0 X n+ (T ) = n S n+ (T ) + ( + r)(x n n S n ) = ( + r)x n + n (d r)s n = ( + r)v n + V n+(h) V I (..2) (0 < d < + r < u) X 0, X X = 0 S + ( + r)(x 0 0 S 0 ) () X 0 = 0, P (X 0) =, P (X > 0) > 0 0 H, T () X 0 = 0, X (H) = 0 us 0 ( + r) 0 S 0 = 0 S 0 (u r) X (T ) = 0 ds 0 ( + r) 0 S 0 = 0 S 0 (d r)

More information

2 1 x 2 x 2 = RT 3πηaN A t (1.2) R/N A N A N A = N A m n(z) = n exp ( ) m gz k B T (1.3) z n z = m = m ρgv k B = erg K 1 R =

2 1 x 2 x 2 = RT 3πηaN A t (1.2) R/N A N A N A = N A m n(z) = n exp ( ) m gz k B T (1.3) z n z = m = m ρgv k B = erg K 1 R = 1 1 1.1 1827 *1 195 *2 x 2 t x 2 = 2Dt D RT D = RT N A 1 6πaη (1.1) D N A a η 198 *3 ( a =.212µ) *1 Robert Brown (1773-1858. *2 Albert Einstein (1879-1955 *3 Jean Baptiste Perrin (187-1942 2 1 x 2 x 2

More information

II 1 II 2012 II Gauss-Bonnet II

II 1 II 2012 II Gauss-Bonnet II II 1 II 212 II Gauss-Bonnet II 1 1 1.1......................................... 1 1.2............................................ 2 1.3.................................. 3 1.4.............................................

More information

6 2 T γ T B (6.4) (6.1) [( d nm + 3 ] 2 nt B )a 3 + nt B da 3 = 0 (6.9) na 3 = T B V 3/2 = T B V γ 1 = const. or T B a 2 = const. (6.10) H 2 = 8π kc2

6 2 T γ T B (6.4) (6.1) [( d nm + 3 ] 2 nt B )a 3 + nt B da 3 = 0 (6.9) na 3 = T B V 3/2 = T B V γ 1 = const. or T B a 2 = const. (6.10) H 2 = 8π kc2 1 6 6.1 (??) (P = ρ rad /3) ρ rad T 4 d(ρv ) + PdV = 0 (6.1) dρ rad ρ rad + 4 da a = 0 (6.2) dt T + da a = 0 T 1 a (6.3) ( ) n ρ m = n (m + 12 ) m v2 = n (m + 32 ) T, P = nt (6.4) (6.1) d [(nm + 32 ] )a

More information

() n C + n C + n C + + n C n n (3) n C + n C + n C 4 + n C + n C 3 + n C 5 + (5) (6 ) n C + nc + 3 nc n nc n (7 ) n C + nc + 3 nc n nc n (

() n C + n C + n C + + n C n n (3) n C + n C + n C 4 + n C + n C 3 + n C 5 + (5) (6 ) n C + nc + 3 nc n nc n (7 ) n C + nc + 3 nc n nc n ( 3 n nc k+ k + 3 () n C r n C n r nc r C r + C r ( r n ) () n C + n C + n C + + n C n n (3) n C + n C + n C 4 + n C + n C 3 + n C 5 + (4) n C n n C + n C + n C + + n C n (5) k k n C k n C k (6) n C + nc

More information

A 2 3. m S m = {x R m+1 x = 1} U + k = {x S m x k > 0}, U k = {x S m x k < 0}, ϕ ± k (x) = (x 0,..., ˆx k,... x m ) 1. {(U ± k, ϕ± k ) 0 k m} S m 1.2.

A 2 3. m S m = {x R m+1 x = 1} U + k = {x S m x k > 0}, U k = {x S m x k < 0}, ϕ ± k (x) = (x 0,..., ˆx k,... x m ) 1. {(U ± k, ϕ± k ) 0 k m} S m 1.2. A A 1 A 5 A 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1.1 1.1 (). Hausdorff M R m M M {U α } U α R m E α ϕ α : U α E α U α U β = ϕ α (ϕ β ϕβ (U α U β )) 1 : ϕ β (U α U β ) ϕ α (U α U β ) C M a m dim M a U α ϕ α {x i, 1 i m} {U,

More information

W u = u(x, t) u tt = a 2 u xx, a > 0 (1) D := {(x, t) : 0 x l, t 0} u (0, t) = 0, u (l, t) = 0, t 0 (2)

W u = u(x, t) u tt = a 2 u xx, a > 0 (1) D := {(x, t) : 0 x l, t 0} u (0, t) = 0, u (l, t) = 0, t 0 (2) 3 215 4 27 1 1 u u(x, t) u tt a 2 u xx, a > (1) D : {(x, t) : x, t } u (, t), u (, t), t (2) u(x, ) f(x), u(x, ) t 2, x (3) u(x, t) X(x)T (t) u (1) 1 T (t) a 2 T (t) X (x) X(x) α (2) T (t) αa 2 T (t) (4)

More information

23 7 28 i i 1 1 1.1................................... 2 1.2............................... 3 1.2.1.................................... 3 1.2.2............................... 4 1.2.3 SI..............................

More information

i

i 009 I 1 8 5 i 0 1 0.1..................................... 1 0.................................................. 1 0.3................................. 0.4........................................... 3

More information

: , 2.0, 3.0, 2.0, (%) ( 2.

: , 2.0, 3.0, 2.0, (%) ( 2. 2017 1 2 1.1...................................... 2 1.2......................................... 4 1.3........................................... 10 1.4................................. 14 1.5..........................................

More information

Z: Q: R: C:

Z: Q: R: C: 0 Z: Q: R: C: 3 4 4 4................................ 4 4.................................. 7 5 3 5...................... 3 5......................... 40 5.3 snz) z)........................... 4 6 46 x

More information

x () g(x) = f(t) dt f(x), F (x) 3x () g(x) g (x) f(x), F (x) (3) h(x) = x 3x tf(t) dt.9 = {(x, y) ; x, y, x + y } f(x, y) = xy( x y). h (x) f(x), F (x

x () g(x) = f(t) dt f(x), F (x) 3x () g(x) g (x) f(x), F (x) (3) h(x) = x 3x tf(t) dt.9 = {(x, y) ; x, y, x + y } f(x, y) = xy( x y). h (x) f(x), F (x [ ] IC. f(x) = e x () f(x) f (x) () lim f(x) lim f(x) x + x (3) lim f(x) lim f(x) x + x (4) y = f(x) ( ) ( s46). < a < () a () lim a log xdx a log xdx ( ) n (3) lim log k log n n n k=.3 z = log(x + y ),

More information

meiji_resume_1.PDF

meiji_resume_1.PDF β β β (q 1,q,..., q n ; p 1, p,..., p n ) H(q 1,q,..., q n ; p 1, p,..., p n ) Hψ = εψ ε k = k +1/ ε k = k(k 1) (x, y, z; p x, p y, p z ) (r; p r ), (θ; p θ ), (ϕ; p ϕ ) ε k = 1/ k p i dq i E total = E

More information

http://www.ike-dyn.ritsumei.ac.jp/ hyoo/wave.html 1 1, 5 3 1.1 1..................................... 3 1.2 5.1................................... 4 1.3.......................... 5 1.4 5.2, 5.3....................

More information

OHP.dvi

OHP.dvi 7 2010 11 22 1 7 http://www.sml.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/members/nabe/lecture2010 nabe@sml.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp 2 1. 10/ 4 2. 10/18 3. 10/25 2, 3 4. 11/ 1 5. 11/ 8 6. 11/15 7. 11/22 8. 11/29 9. 12/ 6 skyline 10. 12/13

More information

III 1 (X, d) d U d X (X, d). 1. (X, d).. (i) d(x, y) d(z, y) d(x, z) (ii) d(x, y) d(z, w) d(x, z) + d(y, w) 2. (X, d). F X.. (1), X F, (2) F 1, F 2 F

III 1 (X, d) d U d X (X, d). 1. (X, d).. (i) d(x, y) d(z, y) d(x, z) (ii) d(x, y) d(z, w) d(x, z) + d(y, w) 2. (X, d). F X.. (1), X F, (2) F 1, F 2 F III 1 (X, d) d U d X (X, d). 1. (X, d).. (i) d(x, y) d(z, y) d(x, z) (ii) d(x, y) d(z, w) d(x, z) + d(y, w) 2. (X, d). F X.. (1), X F, (2) F 1, F 2 F F 1 F 2 F, (3) F λ F λ F λ F. 3., A λ λ A λ. B λ λ

More information

2011de.dvi

2011de.dvi 211 ( 4 2 1. 3 1.1............................... 3 1.2 1- -......................... 13 1.3 2-1 -................... 19 1.4 3- -......................... 29 2. 37 2.1................................ 37

More information

,. Black-Scholes u t t, x c u 0 t, x x u t t, x c u t, x x u t t, x + σ x u t, x + rx ut, x rux, t 0 x x,,.,. Step 3, 7,,, Step 6., Step 4,. Step 5,,.

,. Black-Scholes u t t, x c u 0 t, x x u t t, x c u t, x x u t t, x + σ x u t, x + rx ut, x rux, t 0 x x,,.,. Step 3, 7,,, Step 6., Step 4,. Step 5,,. 9 α ν β Ξ ξ Γ γ o δ Π π ε ρ ζ Σ σ η τ Θ θ Υ υ ι Φ φ κ χ Λ λ Ψ ψ µ Ω ω Def, Prop, Th, Lem, Note, Remark, Ex,, Proof, R, N, Q, C [a, b {x R : a x b} : a, b {x R : a < x < b} : [a, b {x R : a x < b} : a,

More information

I 1

I 1 I 1 1 1.1 1. 3 m = 3 1 7 µm. cm = 1 4 km 3. 1 m = 1 1 5 cm 4. 5 cm 3 = 5 1 15 km 3 5. 1 = 36 6. 1 = 8.64 1 4 7. 1 = 3.15 1 7 1 =3 1 7 1 3 π 1. 1. 1 m + 1 cm = 1.1 m. 1 hr + 64 sec = 1 4 sec 3. 3. 1 5 kg

More information