Synonym discriminations were neglected Joseph E. Worcester A Dictionary of the English Language 1860 S. I. Landau (1984, p.104) Worcester 1

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1 Trusler Whately WNDS Trusler Whately WNDS Synonymous Dictionaries : From Trusler to Whately Based on the Introductory Matter of WNDS Department of English Literature SUGAWARA Mitsuho (Received September 14, 2000) This is a brief survey of synonymous dictionaries published by the middle of the 19th century. It begins with Rev. John Trusler's The Difference between Words Esteemed Synonymous (1776), which is said to be the first English synonymous dictionary. After Trusler the survey covers Hester Lynch Piozzi, William Perry, William Taylor, George Crabb and Elizabeth Jane Whately. The paper also mentions a little about George F. Graham, whose book was published about 10 years before Whately. The paper is mainly based on the data given in the "Introductory Matter" of Webster's New Dictionary of Synonyms (Springfield Mass.:Merriam-Webster Inc., 1984). The data concerning the publication of dictionaries are based on R. C. Alston, BMGC, Arther G. Kennedy, Paul S. Koda, Robert Keating O'Neill and Mitsuho Sugawara (Research paper on the hundred significant dictionaries in the 19th century, in print, 1999). Each dictionary of synonyms is surveyed from the viewpoints of (1) its characteristic features, (2) author's basic principle for synonymizing, and (3) the history of editions after the first book. Synonymous dictionary Webster's New Dictionary of Synonyms, Merriam-Webster, 1984 Trusler Whately 19 synonymicons synonymies synonymizing 18 (1) On Some Deficiencies in Our English Dictionaries 69

2 Synonym discriminations were neglected Joseph E. Worcester A Dictionary of the English Language 1860 S. I. Landau (1984, p.104) Worcester 19 1) John Trusler. The Difference between Words Esteemed Synonymous (1766) 2) Hester Lynch Piozzi. British Synonymy (1794) 3) William Perry. Synonymous, Etymological, and Pronouncing English Dictionary (1805) 4) William Taylor. English Synonymy Discriminated (1813) 5) George Crabb. English Synonymous Explained (1816) 6) Goerge F. Graham. English Synonymous Classified and Explained (1846) 7) Elizabeth Jane Whately. A Selection of English Synonymy (1851) Roget 185 Whitney 1891 Funk & Wagnall 1896 March & March 1902 C. O. Sylvester Mawson 1911 F. Sturges Allen 1927 C. O. Sylvester Mawson 1931 Webster' New International 1934 (1) Alston R. C. A Bibliography of the English Language from the Invention of Printing to the Year Menston, Leeds: Scolar Press, <A> (2) British Museum General Catalogue of Printed Books. 263 vols. London: Trustees of the British Museum, <BMGC> (3) Kennedy, Arthur G. A Bibliography of Writings on the English language from the Beginning of Printing to the End of New York : Hafner Publishing Co <K> (4) Koda, Paul S. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Warren N. Cordell Collection of Dictionaries. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, <Koda> (5) The National Union Catalog Pre-1956 Imprints. 754 vols. London: Mansell Information / Publishing Limited, , <M> (6) through vols. <NUC 56-67> (7) through vols. <NUC68-72> (8) through vols. <NUC73-77> (9) R. K. O'Neill. English-Language Dictionaries, The Catalog of the W. N. and S. B. Cordell Collection. New York: Greenwood Press <O> 70

3 Trusler Whately WNDS [ 1 ] Rev. John Trusler ( ) The difference, between words, esteemed synonymous, in the English language ; and, the proper choice of them determined...london: Printed, for J. Dodsley, A 3:515, BMGC 241:898, M 603:144, O T-37 18cm Scolar Press English Linguistics, R. C. Alston NUC [ ] 95:34, O T-38 Books on synonymy Trusler Difference 1766 Webster's New Dictionary of Synonyms (WNDS) Abbe Gabriel Girard ( ) La Justesse de la langue Fran oise ou les Diff rentes significations des mots qui passent pour tre synonymes (1718) Trusler Girard Trusler Girard Trusler 1783 WNDS 6 Trusler Girard Trusler Trusler [ ] Hester Lynch Piossi ( ) British Synonymy 8 British synonymy; or, an attempt at regulating the choice of words in familiar conversation...by Hester Lynch Piozzi. In two volumes...london: Printed for G. G. and J. Robinson A 3:524, BMGC 238:683, M 459:330, O P-65 23cm William Porter 516 A 3:525, M 459:330, O P

4 WNDS 1968 Scolar Press NUC < >75:717, O P Girard Piozzi (2) " I should be too happy, could I imitate his delicacy of discrimination, and felicity of expression... (p. vii)" 1784 Piozzi (3) idiot Piozzi senseless Piozzi An attempt at regulating the choice of words in familiar conversation Girard Trusler propriety instinct the drawing-room usage 72

5 Trusler Whately WNDS synonymy truth elegance (We must not... retard our own progress with studied definitions of every quality coming under consideration... And although the final cause of definition is to fix the true and adequate meaning of words or terms, without knowledge of which we stir not a step in logic; yet here we must not suffer ourselves to be so detained, as synonymy has more to do with elegance than truth... Preface pp. iv-v) discrimination of meaning Piozzi honour HONOUR, DELICACY OF CONDUCT, REFINEMENT UPON VIRTUE, SCRUPULOSITY OF BEHAVIOUR, NICENESS, REPUTATION THE first and the last of these terms are synonymous, when a woman's chastity, a soldier's bravery, or trader's punctuality of payment are in question: let any of those be doubted for a moment, HONOUR is sullied and REPUTATION torn. Piozzi logic lexicography Piozzi William Perry (?) The Synonymous, Etymological, and Pronouncing English Dictionary Perry (4) 1805 The synonymous, etymological, and pronouncing English dictionary. In which the words are deduced from their originals, their parts of speech distinguished, their pronunciation pointed out, and their synonyms collected, which are occasionally illustrated in their different significations, by examples from the best writers. Extracted from the labours of the late Dr. Samuel Johnson; being an attempt to synonymise his 73

6 folio dictionary of the English language. To which is prefixed an English grammar. By William Perry...London: Printed for John Walker, Cuthell and Martin, Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, [and others] cm (BMGC 187:311, M 451:573, O P-39) 2 Perry Ch. A. Goodrich 1847 American Dictionary Royal Octavo Perry Royal Standard English Dictionary (1775) 1797 Piozzi British Synonymy Perry Piozzi Girard Perry good 29 Perry Perry Perry radicals marches : borders, limits, confines, BOUNDARIES BOUNDARY : limit, bound, bourn, term, mere, bit, abuttal, border, barrier, marches, confines, precinct, line of demarcation, utmost reach or verge of territory; a landmark, a mere-stone BOUNDARIES Perry Perry (5) The rigour of interpretative lexicography requires that the explanation, and the word explained, should be always reciprocal ; this I have always endeavoured but could not always attain. Words are seldom exactly synonymous (sic.), a new term was not introduced, but because the former was thought inadequate: names, therefore, have often 74

7 Trusler Whately WNDS many ideas, but few ideas have many names. It was then necessary to use the proximate word, for the deficiency of single terms can very seldom be supplied by circumlocution... Perry Perry Perry Perry we by no means contend, that the whole of the explanations collected under such initial words as...we call RADICALS, are all strictly synonymous; neither, on the other hand, can we agree with those who roundly assert, that there are not two words in the whole English language of precisely the same signification; but this we take upon us to say, that we have no less than Dr. Johnson's authority for their selection and disposition as explanatory of their meaning Perry [ ] William Taylor ( ) Taylor English Synonymes (sic.) Discriminated cm BMGC 235 : 639, M 585:132, O T-3 William Taylor Burger Lenore Lessing Nathan the Wise Goethe Iphigenia in Tauris

8 Taylor austere severe rigid Austerity says Blair relates to the manner of living: severity, of thinking, rigour, of punishing. To austerity is opposed effeminacy; to severity, relaxation; to rigour, clemency. A hermit is austere in his life; a casuist, sever in his decision; a judge, rigourous in his sentence. In this discrimination there is little exactness. Austerity is applied not only to habit, but to doctrine, and to infliction. Solitary confinement is a severe form of life, and a severe punishment. Rigid observances, rigid opinions, are oftener spoken of than rigid sentences. A hermit is austere, who lives harshly; is severe who lives solitarily; is rigid who lives unswervingly. A casuist is austere who commands mortification, severe, who forbids conviviality, rigid, whose exactions are unqualified. A judge is austere, who punished slight transgressions; severe, who punishes to the utmost; rigid, who punishes without respect of persons and circumstances. (Austerity Hugh Blair severity rigour Austerity effeminacy severity relaxation rigour clemency Austerity habit doctrine infliction solitary confinement severe severe Rigid observances rigid opinions rigid sentences A hermit austere severe rigid a casuist austere severe rigid judge austere severe, rigid.) severe Austere bitter-tasting rigid stiff stiff with cold austere rigid Taylor George Crabb Taylor 76

9 [ ] George Crabb ( ) Trusler Whately WNDS English synonyms explained, in alphabetical order; with copious illustrations and examples drawn from the best writers. By George Crabb... London: Printed for Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; and T. Boosey (BMGC 45:453, M 126:87, O C-145) cm Crabb Crabb Crabb English Synonyms Explained (1816) Piozzi British Synonymy Piozzi Crabb Crabb Crabb synonym closely allied words between which there are nice shades of distinction Crabb distinction My first object certainly has been to assist the philological inquirer in ascertaining the force and comprehension of the English language; yet I should have thought my work but half completed had I made it a mere register of verbal distinctions. While others seize every opportunity unblushingly to avow and zealously to propagate opinions destructive of good order, it would ill become any individual of contrary sentiments to shrink from stating his convictions, when called upon as he seems to be by an occasion like that which has now offered itself. 77

10 (closely allied words) Crabb SOUL MIND There are minute philosophers, who... deny that we possess any thing more than what this poor composition of flesh and blood can give us; and yet, methinks, sound philosophy would teach us that we ought to prove the truth of one position, before we assert the falsehood of its opposite; and consequently that if we deny that we have any thing but what is material in us, we ought first to prove that the material is sufficient to produce the reasoning faculty of man... But not to lose sight of the distinction drawn between the words soul and mind, I simply wish to show that the vulgar and the philosophical use of these terms altogether accord, and are both founded on the true nature of things. Poets and philosophers speak of the soul in the same strain, as the active and living principle. ( soul mind soul mind soul Crabb financial foppish financial gentleman foppish gentleman Beautiful fine handsome the beautiful the fine the handsome The beautiful is determined by fixed rules; it admits of no excess or defect; it comprehends regularity, proportion, and a due distribution of colour, and every particular which can engage the attention: the fine must be coupled with grandeur, majesty, and strength of figure; it is incompatible with that which is small; a little woman can never be fine: the handsome is a general assemblage of what is agreeable; it is marked by no particular characteristic, but the absence of all deformity... the beautiful 78

11 Trusler Whately WNDS the fine fine the handsome gift present The gift is an act of generosity or condescension; it contributes to the benefit of the receiver: the present is an act of kindness, courtesy, or respect; it contributes to the pleasure of the receiver. ( Gift Present ) Crabb The active and living principle soul Thomson "In bashful coyness or in maiden pride, The soft return conceal'd save when it stole In side-long glances from her downcast eyes, Or from her swelling soul in stifled sighs" Crabb Taylor Piozzi Crabb Crabb INGENUITY WIT...Both these terms, imply acuteness of understanding, and differ mostly in the mode of displaying themselves... TO DISPARAGE, DETRACT, TRADUCE, DEPRECIATE, DEGRADE, DECRY...The ideal of lowering the value of an object is common to all these words, which differ in the circumstances and object of the action... DISCERNMENT, PENETRATION, DISCRIMINATION, JUDGMENT... The first three of these terms do not express different powers, but different modes of the same power; namely the power of seeing intellectually, or exerting the intellectual sight... 79

12 Ingenuity, Wit To disparage, detract, traduce, depreciate, degrade decry Discernment, penetration, discrimination, judgment Crabb Crabb form, ceremony, rite, observance short brief, concise, succinct, summary apparel, attire, array belief, credit, trust, faith execute, fulfill, perform Crabb Crabb John H. Finley ( ) "Long life to Crabb and to that for which his name is as a synonym!" [ ] George F. Graham Crabb (1816) Whatley (1851) English synonymes classified and explained; with practical exercises designed for schools and private tuitions..by G. F. Graham...Edited, with an introduction and illustrative authorities, by Henry Reed...New York: D. Appleton and Company. M 209:446, O G-27 O'Neill O G cm O'Neill Henry Reed

13 Trusler Whately WNDS Graham Synonymy Graham Synonymy General and Specific Active and Passive Intensity Positive and Negative Miscellaneous Graham answer - reply bravery - courage burden - load actual - real agony - anguish intention - purpose [ ] Elizabeth Jane Whately (? ) "Whately's book on synonyms" A Selection of English Synonyms 1851 Crabb Richard Whately ( ) S. I. Landou 104 Richard Whately A Section of English Synonyms Elizabeth Jane Whately 1828 Boston House of Lothrop, Lee & Shepard "English Synonyms Discrimated, by Richard Whately D. D." Elizabeth 2 Richard Whately Richard Whately, 81

14 Richard Whately beauty tree beauty tree Elizabeth Whately Synonyms pseudo-synonyms swine's flesh pork "May I take the liberty?" liberty freedom Just righteous just righteous Righteous Inference proof infer prove Elizabeth Crabb 'Contentment ' may be classed among those words in the English language which adhere strictly to their 82

15 Trusler Whately WNDS etymology. Its root was undoubtedly the verb 'to contain,' and the substantive and its adjective have not departed from this meaning. A contented person does not indulge in fruitless wishes for what is beyond his reach; his desires are limited by what he possesses. 'Satisfaction ' implies more: this word has likewise retained the signification of its root, and means that we have obtained all we want; not that our desires are limited, but that they have been gratified. A poor and needy man may be 'contented,' but he cannot feel 'satisfaction' with his condition. Contentment contain Contented person Satisfaction contented satisfaction Elizabeth Whately Crabb Crabb Piozzi a) Implication Obstinacy stubbornness A trifling matter a trivial matter Trivial contempt trifling "He never neglects a trifling matter." "He is always engrossed with trivial matters." b) Application Obstinacy stubbornness Obstinacy stubbornness 83

16 c) To understand to comprehend Comprehend understand understand comprehend "I did not comprehend his exposition." "I understand the language ( the grammatical import of each sentence)." understand d) Righteous just just just righteous e) Anger wrath Anger wrath Whately S. I. Landau Zugusta (6) Zugusta The designatum connotation range of application Whately c) a) Implication d) b) Whately [ ] Peter Mark Roget Thesaurus of English Words and Phases (1852) Charles J. Smith A Complete Collection of Synonyms and Antonyms (1867) Synonyms Discriminated (1871), Richard Soule A Dictionary of English Synonymes (sic.) and Synonymous or Parallel Expressions (1871) James C. Fernald English Synonyms and Antonyms with Notes on the Correct Use of Prepositions (1896) 20 WNDS 19 Wately Piozzi 84

17 Trusler Whately WNDS Taylor English Synonyms Discriminated S. I. Landau, p. 105 Piozzi Mrs. Thrale Dr. Johnson The Royal Standard English Dictionary (1775) The General Dictionary of the English Language (1795) Perry To interpret a language by itself is very difficult; many words cannot be explained by synonimes (sic.), because the idea signified by them has not more than one appellation; nor by paraphrase, because simple ideas cannot be described. Landislav Zgusta. Manual of Lexicography. The Hague: Mouton, Zgusta specifies three aspects of lexical meaning; the designatum, connotation, and range of application. Designatum refers to the essential properties of the thing or concept that define it; connotation refers to associated features; and range of application refers to the variety of contexts in which the word may be used. Zgusta defines absolute synonymy as occurring when two term correspond in all three aspects of designatum, connotation, and range.... If the correspondence is exact in one or two of the three aspects but not in all, the two words are near synonyms.... (S. I. Landau, p.105) Landau, Sidney I. Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 1984, [ 1984 ] : 1993 Webster's New Dictionary of Synonyms. (Introductory Matter). (WNDS ). Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster

Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, College Edition. N. Y. : The World Publishing Co., 1966. [WNWD) Webster 's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language-Unabridged.

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