Sustainable Use and Conservation of Biological Diversity - A challenge for Society Berlin, 1-4 December 2003

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1 Development of indicators in urban contexts: DPSIR and ecosystem services IALE August Session Benchmarking biodiversity towards a sustainable city Dr. Ryo Kohsaka Associate Prof. Nagoya City Univ. Visiting Researcher at United Nations University IAS

2 Table of Contents 1. DPSIR 2. Role of indicators 3. Case Studies: A Tale of Two Cities CBIs

3 What is "DPSIR? Driving force-pressure-state-impact-response [Original Model] Pressure-State-Response Land-use change Species loss Protected areas OECD instantiated in the 1990s EEA adopt the framework Response Drivers Response Pressure Pressure Impacts State State

4 (Source)http://www.biodic.go.jp/biodiversity/jbo/20-1/mat2.pdf (Min. Environment ) Example) Coral Reefs and DPSIR model Economic/Recreation Climate Change Driver Response Rules regulations Restoration Protection area Pressure Overuse Development Rising Temperature State Loss of Habitat Breaching Loss of species Impact Degradation resources (tourism/education) Loss of resilience

5 EEA The UN Convention on Biological Diversity - Follow-up in EEA Member Countries 1996

6 State Pressure Response 出典 : Butchart etal 2010

7 Example) MA Framework Human Well-being and Poverty Reduction Basic material for a good life Health Good Social Relations Security Freedom of choice and action Human Well-being Ecosystem Services Indirect Drivers of Change (governance and institutionademographic Economic Indirect (globalization, trade, market and policy framework) Sociopolitical Drivers l framework) Science and Technology Cultural and Religious Direct Drivers of Change Changes in land use Species Direct introduction or removal Technology adaptation and use Drivers External inputs (e.g., irrigation) Resource consumption Climate change Natural physical and biological drivers (e.g., volcanoes)

8 Strength of DPSIR paradigm Causal Chains Logical structure from drivers to policies Linking assessment/science with policy Justifiable for policy-makers Out put for scientists for their data

9 Table of Contents DPSIR Role of indicators Case Studies

10 Role of indicators Indicator show changes in D, P, S, I (P) * A tool to interpret reality (but not reality itself) Communication Tool * Visualization for policy makers & public * Biodiversity Dependent on Scale of Space and Time

11

12 City as... Development of Indicators Geographic scales and time frames Indicator Focus Characters of formation of indicators Extrapolated from OECD (1997) in Urban Contexts Classic scheme ( s) Transposed from national/regional level Economic/Social/Envir onment Development of indicators Modern scheme (1990s - ) Benchmark Site of economic Is activities the city sustainable or not? Point-to-point Benchmarks Conceptualized system Special considerations for urban settings Sustainability Policy institutions Causal-Chains (Pressure, Driving force, State, Impact, Response)

13 Challenges for policy makers Bias in choice of Indicators - availability of data - category of existing administrative units Resistance to changes - Development of Indicators itself become goals - Less focus on institutional changes Competing goals - Recreational vs Conservation

14 Challenges for science Capturing Ecosystem services Identifying scales city/urban contexts / up- down grading Complexity casual network instead of casual chains Communication with stakeholders Backward Looking vs Forward Looking

15 Table of Contents DPSIR Role of indicators 3. Case Studies: A Tale of Two Cities CBIs

16 Singapore Index on Cities Biodiversity Structure CBI Singapore Index (i) Profile (ii) Ecosystem Service (iii) Engagement Biodiversity (10 index) Ecosystem Services (4 index) Governance (9 index)

17 Case : Kawasaki Kawasaki Index (Modified CBI) Consists of (i) Biodiversity (ii) Ecosystem Service (iii) Engagement of City Structure Kawasaki Index (i) Biodiversity (ii) Ecosystem Service (iii) Engagement Provisional Service (2 index) Regulating Service (2 index) Cultural Service (6 index)

18 Kawasaki Index (cont.) Ecosystem Service Category Item Criteria Provisional (Food) Food shops with locally produced shops Open farms for citizens Yes/No (existence in area) Yes/No (existence in area) Regulation Water Permeable area / Terrestrial area Climate Cultural Urban parks green Number Preserved trees, hedges tree of the city Schools with biodiversity activities Learning Activities by civil society Tree canopy cover/ Terrestrial area Number Number Number Yes/No

19 Case 2 Nagoya Exploring to capture Ecosystem Services Quantifying measures Model areas familiar to citizens

20 Model areas Area Land Use Regulation Service Flood Water Regulating Water Quality Nanyo Fujimae Hisaya Atsuta Hachiryu Higashiyam a Paddy field Tide Park Shrine Secondary nature Climate Cultural Service Recreation Landscape Tradition Religion Education Supporting Spatial Habitat/ Species

21 Discussions (science) Scale / Communication Not upgradable/ more examples show case Capturing Ecosystem Services [Kawasaki] Cultural services > Provisional/Regulating [Nagoya] Regulating services > Provisional/Cultural Scale of Provisional Service Timber production / Watershed Managemnet

22 Discussions (policy makers) Trade-offs Competing goals Flowers Sign of care? Usefulness in Communication Mitigating heat-island Simplicity, clarity for citizens

23 Thank you! RyoKohsaka:

24 Table of Contents DPSIR Role of indicators Case Studies 4.Further Development Projections by scientists

25 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Env. Risks 環境リスク評価 / リスク管理 / リスクコミュニケーション Policy 環境経済政策 / 評価 / 指標 / 経営手法 Life Style Ethics ライフスタイルと環境 ( 環境倫理を含む ) Evaluation Simulation 環境評価 環境予測 環境シミュレーション技術 Monitoring 環境モニタリング ( 地上観測を含む ) Urban-Rural Envi. 都市 農村環境 ( 地域環境保全 ) Global warming 温暖化の評価と対策技術 生態系 ランドスケープ 生物種 ハビタット 遺伝子多様性保全 復元 Biodiversity/Habitat 関連政策 Waste Recycling 都市廃棄物極少化技術 / 物質循環技術 / 省資源 省エネルギー製品 Atmosphere 大気 水 土壌環境の汚染防止 / 循環型水資源利用技術 Total 総計 Source: MEXT Science Technology 2040 Global & Japan 世界 日本双方にとり重要 特に世界にとり重要 Global Japan Low Priority 特に日本にとり重要 重要度 優先度は低い

26 Time Lag: Technical achievement to social realization Env. Risks 環境リスク評価 / リスク管理 / リスクコミュニケーション 環境経済政策 / 環境経済評価 / 環境経済指標 / 環境経 Policy 営手法 Life Style Ethics ライフスタイルと環境 ( 環境倫理を含む ) Evaluation Simulation 環境評価 環境予測 環境シミュレーション技術 Monitoring 環境モニタリング ( 地上観測を含む ) 6.0 Urban-Rural Envi. 都市 農村環境 ( 地域環境保全 ) 6.8 Global warming 温暖化の評価と対策技術 6.6 生態系 ランドスケープ 生物種 ハビタット 遺伝子の多様 Biodiversity/Habitat 性保全 復元及び関連する政策都市廃棄物極少化技術 / 環境保全型物質循環技術 / 省 Waste Recycling 資源 省エネルギー製品 Atmosphere 大気 水 土壌環境の汚染防止 / 循環型水資源利用技術 Total 総計 6.3

27 Examples in Urban-Rural Settings 2007 marks that more than half of the world's population lives in cities State of the World's Cities 2006/7 by UN- HABITAT Figure : Growth of Megacities, : Source ABD (2008) computation based on figures from World Urbanization Persepcts, 2003 Revision, United Nations Secrtariat, 2004.

28 What is science-policy interface? as social processes which encompass relations between scientists and other actors in the policy process, and which allow for exchanges, co-evolution, and joint construction of knowledge with the aim of enriching decision-making Koetz, T., Bridgewater, P., van den Hove, S., Siebenhüner, B. (2008) The role of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to the Convention on Biological Diversity as science-policy interface. Environmental Science and Policy 2:

29 Structure of the Convention MOP Conference of the Parties (COP) Compl. L & R ABS 8 (j) PAs Impl. SBSTTA Financial Mechanism (GEF) AHTEG Secretariat

30

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