規則帰納における方向性

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1 JCSS-TR Copyright c 2002 by Masasi Hattori, Koji Nakajima, & Masanori Nakagawa. All rights reserved : FAX :

2 Keywords: logical reasoning rule acquisition cognitive directionality goal and motivation conditional inference (, 2000) A A Directionality in Rule Induction, by Masasi Hattori, Koji Nakajima, and Masanori Nakagawa. (, 2000) (2002) 1

3 (, 1990; Hattori & Nakagawa, 1996;, 2000;, 2001) 24 3 p, q, r 1 3 p, q, r 1. (p q r) p q r p q r T T T F (0) T T F T (4) T F T T (8) T F F F (0) F T T T (4) F T F F (0) F F T F (0) F F F T (8) T F p q r (exclusive disjunction) (material equivalence) p q r (1) p q p q p q (p q r) (p q r) ( p q r) ( p q r) (2) 1 3 p, q, r S, W C p, q, r 3 2

4 r p q 1 p, q, r r S r r W r r C 3 p, q, r 24 p, q r p, q 4 r p r q q r p S, W, C 1 3 S, W, C 11, 12, 11 p, q, r 3

5 4 1. r : r p q r 2. p/q : r p q 2 r r 2 q r p 2 3. : 2 4. : 3 1 S01 p q r (1) p q r (2) p q r (3) 3 (4) (5) 1 (1), (2), (3) r (4), (5) (1) (3) 3 1 (4) (1) (3) 4 1 (5) (1) (4) r (1) (4) (5) 2 (5) 1/2 (1) (4) (4) (1) (3) (1) (3) r r 1/2 r 1/2 1 (weighted frequency score; WFS) WFS WFS W 1 (W08) 4

6 WFS 1 S, W 40 % r C C 70 % vs. 50 % C r 0 C χ 2 S W χ 2 (2, N = 23) = 0.188, p =.66 r C S, C W S W r p q r p q r (W01) 2 (W04) 2 1 (C03) 3 (C03) 12 S: 10/11 W: 11/12 W08 C: 10/11 WFS 1 1 p q r p q r (S07) 2 5

7 1. WFS WFS C, W, S C F(2, 31) = 3.20, MSE = 6.62, p =.05 Dunnett C S, W 10 % r WFS F(2, 31) = 8.31, MSE = 4.62, p <.01 Dunnett S, W C 1% 6

8 2. p/q 2 1 S WFS WFS S F(1, 10) = 3.92, MSE = , p < S W S, W 7

9 S r r p, q r

10 (Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991) (, 2002) r r (2000, 2002) (, 2002) r 1 Evans (Evans, 1993; Evans & Over, 1996) Stanovich (1999) 2 ( Evans, 1989; Sloman, 1996) Stanovich (1999) (2000, 2002) (, 2000) r r r 9

11 3 (2000) p q p q q p (Hattori, in press) 2 (, 2001) 3 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Evans, J. St. B. T. (1993). Bias and rationality. In K. I. Manktelow & D. E. Over (Eds.), Rationality: Psychological and philosophical perspectives (pp. 6 30). London: Routledge. Evans, J. St. B. T., & Over, D. E. (1996). Rationality and reasoning. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.. (2000) (2001) (2002) Hattori, M. (in press). A quantitative model of optimal data selection in Wason s selection task. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology. Hattori, M., & Nakagawa, M. (1996). A new experimental method to identify the process of logical reasoning. Japanese Psychological Research, 38, (2001) Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (1991). Deduction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.. (1990) Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 119, Stanovich, K. E. (1999). Who is rational? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (Anderson, 1990) Anderson, J. R. (1990). The adaptive character of thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Evans, J. St. B. T. (1989). Bias in human reasoning: Causes and consequences. Hillsdale, NJ: 10

12 (WFS) 2 (e 1,, e n ) e i WFS, s i = 1/n (i = 1,, n) e i c i1,, c im ; s i m c ij WFS, s ij = 1/nm ( j = 1,, m) 2 WFS WFS WFS WFS C03 11

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