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1 仮想世界システム 7/5, 7/12 皮膚感覚 触覚 力覚の提示と感覚レンダリング

2 触覚 = 体性感覚 + 皮膚感覚 Haptic Sense = Proprioception + Cutaneous Sense 触覚 = 接触によって生じる感覚 (Haptic= 接触 (Contact) ( ギリシャ語 /in Greece)) 皮膚表面の変形 ( 皮膚感覚 /Cutaneous Sense, Skin Sense) 筋肉の伸縮, 関節角 ( 深部感覚 力覚 /Proprioception, Force Sense)

3 力覚提示 力覚フィードバック 力覚インタフェース 力覚 : 触感 ( ハプティック ) のうち, 力で表現できる部分 提示の都合でできた言葉 表面の材質感, テクスチャ 温度, 熱伝導などは含まない 反力

4 触覚提示

5 Reproduce the World (Shape)

6 Tactile Display for the blind 大量の高密度実装 アクチュエータの小ささ 安さが鍵 Numerous, dense arrays Actuator needs to be small and cheap

7 Xmen2000 より (SF 実現していない )

8 より細いアクチュエータ = 形状記憶合金? Thinnest actuator = SMA? Coil-Type SMA(Shape Memory Alloy) Extremely thin and moves large

9 Lumen (Ivan Poupyrev, 2005) Pop UP! (Masashi Nakatani, 2004)

10 Is Actuator really necessary?:sandscape (Yao Wang et al., 2002) プロジェクタ ホットミラー 赤外カメラ 砂場 ( ビーズ ) 赤外光源

11 温度感覚ディスプレイ /Thermal Display 接触瞬間から 2~3 秒間の温度変化が材質感推定の強力な手がかり 2 to 3s temperature change is the key to detect object property. Peltier device with temperature sensor is used to reproduce the time course. Yamamoto, Control of Thermal Tactile Display Based on Prediction of Contact Temperature, ICRA2004

12 Thermoesthesia (Kushiyama, 2006)

13 Reproduce Skin Deformation Carpet is expensive. Shoes are enough! Lets Wear. Small and light-weight tactile display (KAIST) Problem: How can the actuator be so small and dense? (again)

14 超音波の音圧による提示

15

16 上下変位とは限らない Vertical Deformation is not Enough 出発点 : 触覚ディスプレイ研究者の共通疑問 なぜ現行の触覚ディスプレイでザラザラ感が出せないのか? Although many researchers made dense tactile displays, No one succeeded to reproduce texture sensation. 皮膚ー対象間のすべりが触覚の本質ではないか? Horizontal Slip is Essential??

17 凹凸感にとって重要なものは何か (1/2) What is essential for bump sensation? 指なぞり時の凹凸 横方向の 力 ( ブレーキ ) と縦方向の 形状 という手がかり 形状 よりも 力 を優先して形状知覚をしている Gabriel Robles-De-La-Torre & Vincent Hayward: Force can overcome object geometry in the perception of shape through active touch Nature 2001.

18 凹凸感にとって重要なものは何か (2/2) What is essential for bump sensation? 大域的な凹凸感の手がかり : 板の 傾き >> 板の高さ Maarten W. A. Wijntjes, Akihiro Sato, Vincent Hayward, Astrid M. L. Kappers Local Surface Orientation Dominates Haptic Curvature Discrimination, Trans. On Haptics, 2009.

19 水平変位の実現 Moving skin horizontally. 能動的手法 : 皮膚を水平に駆動 Active type: actively drive skin horizontally. 装着型に向く /Good for wear type. 受動的手法 : 摩擦係数を変化 皮膚が動いて初めて知覚 Passive type: friction coefficient is controlled, and perceived by skin motion. 環境型に向く / Good for environmental type.

20 Active type Horizontal Display Horizontal Vibration is achieved by Micro-Machine Hayward, Tactile display device using distributed lateral skin stretch, ASME, DSC, 2000.

21

22 Active type Horizontal Display 静電アクチュエータによる皮膚水平方向力の生成 Horizontal force generated by electro-static actuator 山本 静電気力による摩擦力制御とフィルム移動子を用いた薄型皮膚感覚ディスプレイ 日本 VR 学会大会 2002.

23 モータによる水平力提示 嵯峨他 剪断力を用いた 2.5 次元触覚ディスプレイにおける定量的凹凸感提示手法 VR 学会大会 2011

24 Passive type Horizontal Display 超音波振動による摩擦係数変化の利用 Controlling friction coefficient by ultrasonic vibration スクイーズ効果 : 高周波振動で摩擦係数が減少する Squeeze effect: friction is reduced by high freq. vibration 指位置計測と組み合わせ 摩擦係数の提示が可能 Combined with pos. sensing, friction distribution is displayed. Nara et al., Surface Acoustic Wave Tactile Display, IEEE CG&A, Winfield et al., TPaD: Tactile Pattern Display Through Variable Friction Reduction", World Haptics Conf. 2007

25 TPaD(Laura Winfield, 2007)

26 Passive type Horizontal Display 高圧電極と皮膚の電気的吸引利用 Using adhesion between skin and electrode by high voltage Kaczmarek et al., Polarity Effect in Electrovibration for Tactile Display, IEEE Trans. Biomedical Engineering,, Olivier Bau et al., TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfaces, UIST2010

27 TeslaTouch (2010)

28 電気刺激により神経活動を再現 Reproducing Nerve Activity by Electrical Stimulation 脳内解釈された刺激点 Sensation point 神経発火点 Stimulation point 利点 : エネルギー効率 / 機械的脆弱性 共振特性から開放 課題 : 空間的なマッピング 選択刺激の実現 Good point: Energy efficienty, no mechanical parts so mechanical resonance free. Bad point: Stimulation point and Sensation point is different

29 皮膚表面からの電気刺激 Electrical Stimulation from Skin Surface 神経末端の刺激され易さから空間マッピング実現各受容器の神経配置の特徴を利用した選択刺激 Electrical Stimulation from Surface: Stimulate Nerves directly. If we can Selectively Stimulate the Nerves, we can generate ANY tactile Sensations. Just Like we make colors by mixing primary colors. 梶本 皮膚感覚神経を選択的に刺激する電気触覚ディスプレイ 電子情報通信学会誌, 2001.

30 神経束への電気刺激 Stimulation to nerve bundle 埋め込み型マトリクス電極 神経再生時に電極を通過して学習による空間マッピング. 福祉用途 Matrix electrodes (holes) are embedded, and nerve will grow into the holes. 鈴木 神経再生型電極に関する研究 東京大学博士論文, 1998

31 Tactile AR

32 触覚の AR?/Tactile AR? 新しい人工受容器として機能

33 触覚 AR としての乳がん診断具 / Breast Cancer Checker as Tactile AR 乳がん自己診断具 /Checking Breast Cancer 潤滑オイルの入った袋ごしに撫でると 表面のテクスチャに依存せず内部のしこり ( 腫瘍 tumor) を知覚できる Rub breast through oil-contained thin plastic bag. The oil reduces surface texture, and internal tumor can be observed

34 触覚の AR: 触覚コンタクトレンズ Tactile Contact Lens as Tactile AR 佐野他 : 触覚コンタクトレンズ (ROBOMEC 04)

35 触覚の AR/Tactile AR オプタコン : 視触覚変換装置 /Optacon:Vision-Tactile Converter Kajimoto et.al, SmartTouch, SIGGRAPH2003.

36 視覚 - 触覚変換 Vision-Tactile Conversion for the blind Collins, Tactile television - mechanical and electrical image projection, IEEE Man-Machine Systems, 1970.

37 Forehead Retina System 梶本 電気刺激 : 小型 軽量 低消費電力 携帯型視覚触覚変換装置の開発

38 簡便な触覚 AR: クリック感の付与 Simplest Tactile AR: Adding Clicking Sensation クリック音のかわりに短時間の振動を与える 接触という元の触覚にクリック触覚が追加されているという意味で触覚 AR? Fukumoto et al., Active click: tactile feedback for touch panels CHI2001

39 Skin Sensation Mechanism 皮膚感覚

40 Skin Strunture (Hairless Parts) 表皮 /Epidermis Skin surface 機械受容器 : 機械的変形に応答 Mechanoreceptor: Sense Mechanical Deformation 浅部 /Shallow part マイスナー小体 /MeissnerCorpuscle メルケル細胞 /Merkel Cell 真皮 /Dermis 深部 /Deep part ルフィニ終末 /Ruffini Ending パチニ小体 /Pacinian Corpuscle 皮下組織 / Deeper Tissue その他 /Misc 自由神経終末 ( 痛覚 温度感覚 ) FreeEnding (Pain, Temperature)

41 メルケル細胞 /Merkel Cell 皮膚下 0.9mm に密に存在. 唯一の細胞性受容器. 神経とシナプス接合 静的な歪に応答 発火頻度は歪の大きさに比例 単独の活動では純粋な圧覚を生成 Densely Populated at mm depth. Sense Static Deformation. Pulse Frequency is Proportional to Deformation. When activated, Pure Pressure Sensation is generated.

42 マイスナー小体 /Meissner Corpuscle 皮膚下 0.7mm に密に存在. 低周波振動 (15-100Hz) に応答 ( 共振 30Hz) 発火周波数 ~ 振動周波数 単独の活動では振動感覚, パタパタ感を生じる Densely populated at mm depth. Sense Low Frequency Vibration (15-100Hz) Has Resonant Frequency (30Hz) Pulse Frequency ~Vibration Frequency Single Activity Generates Flutter Vibratory Sensation

43 パチニ小体 /Pacinian Corpuscle 皮膚下 2mm 以上の深部にまばらに存在. 高周波振動に応答 (60-800Hz)( 共振 250Hz) 発火周波数 ~ 振動周波数 単独の活動では音叉に触れたような振動感覚, 指全体の痺れ Sparsely populated at deep region (2mm~) Sense High Frequency Vibration (60-800Hz) Has Resonant Frequency (250Hz) Pulse Frequency~Vibration Frequency Single Activity Generates numb sensation, just like touching a tuing fork or speaker

44 ルフィニ終末 /Ruffini Ending 皮膚下 2mm 以上の深部に疎らに存在. 静的な横ずれに応答 発火頻度は横ずれの大きさに比例 単独の活動では感覚を生じない Sparcely Populated in a deep region (2mm~ depth) Senses Static Horizontal Deformation Pulse Frequency is Proportional to Horizontal Deformation. Single activation does not generate sensation

45 時間的役割分担 /Temporal Roles Threshold [μm] Merkel Meissner Pacinian Frequency[Hz] Merkel: 直流成分 / 圧力 Meissner: 低周波成分 / 速度 Pacinian: 高周波成分 / 加速度 Merkel:DC / Displacement & Pressure Meissner:Low Freq. Vibration / Velocity Pacinian:High Freq. Vibration / Acceleration

46 時間的役割分担 /Temporal Roles Threshold [μm] Merkel Meissner Pacinian Frequency[Hz] Merkel: 直流成分 / 圧力 Meissner: 低周波成分 / 速度 Pacinian: 高周波成分 / 加速度 Merkel:DC / Displacement & Pressure Meissner:Low Freq. Vibration / Velocity Pacinian:High Freq. Vibration / Acceleration

47 空間的役割分担 /Spatial Roles Meissner Merkel Pacinian Merkel: 細かいパターン /Small Pattern Meissner: 皮膚上の細かい動き /Small Area Movement Pacini: 広い面積の動き /Large Area Movement

48 各機械受容器の役割分担 We only see through narrow slit Spatial Resolution Merkel Meissner ポイント : 時間的, 空間的な相補性 Pacinian Temporal Resolution We combine Spatially Fine, but Temporally Rough sensation and Spatially Rough, but Temporally Fine sensation. In other words, we see the world through very narrow slit.

49 皮膚構造と受容器 Skin Structure and Mechanoreceptors 表皮 : 硬い 真皮 : 柔らかい Merkel と Meissner は境界に存在 Epidermis:Hard Dermis:Soft Merkel and Meissner are at the interface of the two layers. Stress is Concentrated at Merkel Strain is Largest at Meissner Gregory J. Gerling, Fingerprint lines may not directly affect SA-I mechanoreceptor response, Somatosensory and Motor Research 2008.

50 形状は主に Merkel によってコーディングされる Shape is mainly coded by Merkel Cells Merkel の活動 Meissner の活動

51 周波数は受容器の活動比率でコーディングされる Frequency is mainly coded by combination of receptor activities. 人間の振動知覚閾 Vibration Amplitude(μm) Frequency 振動子が小さいと Pacini の 空間加算 効果が無くなり 高周波が感じにくくなる If the vibrator size is small, high freq. threshold rizes, because spatial summation effect of Pacinian corpuscle is reduced.

52 その他の触覚 /Other cutaneous sensations 無毛部 Glabrous part 有毛部 Hairy part 皮膚表面付近の自由神経終末 (C 繊維 ) Free nerve ending near skin surface (C fiber) 温度感覚 : 冷繊維と温繊維 /Temperature sensation by two fibers. 痛覚 : 鋭痛と鈍痛は Aγ 繊維と C 繊維が担当 /Pain sensation by two fibers 有毛部 /Hairy skin 毛包受容器 /Follicle Receptor 毛の根元を取り巻き, 毛が曲がるときのみ活動 ( 速度検出 ) ただしこれに代わり,Meissner 小体は無い. Activated by low frequency vibration, substituting Meissner corpuscle

53 興奮性シナプス 抑制性シナプス Excitatory Synapse, Inhibitory Synapse x 1 x 2 + ー Y Y=F(X 1 -X 2 -X 3 ) x 3 ー F(X)=1 when X Threshold =0 when X < Threshold Cell Body: Take Summation Σ Excitatory Synapse: Plus(+) input Inhibotory Synapse: Minus(-) input Synaptic weight change = Learning and Memory

54 軸索上の電位伝搬 /Axonal Transmission Dendrite Cell Body Nerve Axon Nerve Ending Chemical ion is exchanged via membrane. Ion exchange propagates. Voltage Difference ~70mV

55 軸索のタイプ /Axon types Axon length: Reaches to 1m. ミエリン髄鞘 /Myelin Sheath: Insulator Electrical Current is limited to very small gap ( ランビエ絞輪 /Ranvier Node) Very Fast Skip 有髄神経 :Myelinated axon=very fast 無髄神経 :Unmyelinated axon = very slow

56 信号伝搬速度 /Conduction Velocity name diameter(μm) velocity(m/s) role Aα Many muscle nerves 有髄神経 Myelinated 無髄神経 Unmyelinated Aβ 8 50 Many sensory nerves Aγ 5 20 Some muscle and sensory nerves Aδ 3 15 Fast pain C Slow pain, heat, cold sensation, etc Rule: Thicker = Faster Myelinated Axon: Invention of vertebrate animals (animals with back-bone). Other animal s strategy: Thicker the better. ex)squid s gigantic nerve (diameter: 0.5mm)

57 どうやって調べる How we know? By using needle, we can directly measure nerve activities. Vallbo, Sensations evoked from the glabrous skin of the human hand by electrical stimulation of unitary mechanoseisitive afferents, Brain Res., 1981.

58 Procedure (Medical Doctor s License Required) (0)See where the nerve bundle is. (by ultrasonography) (1)Insert a needle (φ0.1mm), which is connected to Amp&Speaker (2)Identify Location and Type of Receptor by the Sound. (3)Do Experiment on that Location. 50μV

59 Tactile Perception & Illusion

60 触覚の ( 狭義の ) 錯覚 : 錯触 Tactile Illusions アリストテレスの錯覚 Barber Pole Illusion 滝の残効 (Motion Aftereffect) 仮現運動 ファントムセンセーション (Funneling) ベルベットイリュージョン ラバーハンドイリュージョン etc 特に近年, 触覚研究の発展に伴って増加. 視覚研究者による研究多. Recent works revealed new tactile illusions

61 視覚で類推できる錯触例 仮現運動 Tactile Illusion similar to vision: Apparent motion 輝度 振動 地点A 地点B 地点A 時間 地点B

62 聴覚で類推できる錯触例 : ファントムセンセーション Tactile Illusion similar to audio: Phantom Sensation(Funneling) 地点 A 知覚位置 地点 B 短パルス刺激で発生 複数刺激子の間に知覚 位置は移動できる Generated by short pulses Image generated between stimulators Position can be controlled 地点 A 地点 B 時間

63 触覚独自の錯触 : ベルベットイリュージョン Tactile Unique Illusion: Velvet Illusion 荒い網の目 ( テニスラケットなど ) を両手で挟み, 前後に動かすと, モワッとしたベルベット感を生じる. Sandwiching coarse mesh of a net, such as tennis racket by two hands, and moves. Then, smooth surface like velvet is felt.

64 触覚独自の錯触 : サーマル グリル イリュージョン Tactile Unique Illusion: Thermal Grill Illusion Skin 熱冷熱冷熱冷 近い距離で温感と冷感を同時に提示すると痛覚を生じる Close presentation of hot and cold temperature generates pain sensation. 実験上 皮膚を損傷せずに痛みを生成するためによく用いられる Used for the generation of pain sensation without skin damage.

65 皮膚受容器の特性を生かしたディスプレイ

66 受容器活動再現型ディスプレイ Reproducing Receptor Activity 歪到達深度調整による選択刺激 ( 従来の上下に 引っ張り 付与 ) Depth Selective Stimulation by vibrators paired movement Asamura, A method of selective stimulation to epidermal skin receptors for realistic touch feedback, IEEE VR, 1999.

67 周波数特性に着目した受容器活動再現 Reproducing Receptor Activity by Frequency 受容器の共振周波数を利用 Utilizing each receptor s resonant frequency Konyo, Tactile feel display for virtual active touch, IEEE Int. Conf. Intelligent Robotics & Systems, 2003.

68 物体の固有振動再現 接触時に起きる物体の振動を提示 振動によって材質の違いが表現可能 力覚インタフェースで提示可能 特殊なデバイスを必要としない Allison.M.Okamura

69

70 ひずみエネルギー再現に着目した受容器活動再現 Reproducing Receptor Activity by Strain Energy 空気吸引による圧覚生成 /Using air suction 吸引と押下で, 受容器位置に生じる歪エネルギーが同じ 人は区別できない Suction and push produces the same amount of strain energy, so that human cannot distinguish. Makino A cutaneous feeling display using suction pressure, SICE Annu. Conf., 2003.

71 力覚提示

72 How to reconstruct the world? Reconstruct Shape 遭遇型 /Encounter Type High Cost, but free hand True Contact =Natural Tactile Sensation Reconstruct Hand Shape 装着型 把持型 / Wear Type, or Grip Type Low Cost but must equip Most Commercial Haptic Interface

73 遭遇型 /Encounter Type(1) Active Environment Display (Tachi et al., 1994) S. Tachi, T. Maeda, R. Hirata and H. Hoshino: A Construction Method of Virtual Haptic Space, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele-Existence (ICAT '94), pp , Tokyo, Japan (1994.7)

74 Encounter Type II TELESAR II master hand (2005) Space between finger and display is kept constant. Flexion When Virtual Object contacts, it is displayed. Extension No Contact! Syuhei Nakagawara, Hiroyuki Kajimoto, Naoki Kawakami, Susumu Tachi and Ichiro Kawabuchi: An Encounter- Type Multi-Fingered Master Hand Using Circuitous Joints, ICRA2005

75 TELESAR II master hand

76 TELESAR II master hand (thumb)

77 How to reconstruct the world? Reconstruct Shape 遭遇型 /Encounter Type High Cost, but free hand True Contact =Natural Tactile Sensation Reconstruct Hand Shape 装着型 把持型 / Wear Type, or Grip Type Low Cost but must equip Most Commercial Haptic Interface

78 Wear Type: CyberGrasp/CyberForce

79 Wear Type(2)SPIDAR-8(WALAIRACHT et al., 1999) (left) 4 finger, (right) 4 finger One finger is pulled by 3 wires Somsak WALAIRACHT, Yasuharu KOIKE, Makoto SATO: `A New Haptic Display for Both-Hands-Operation: SPIDAR-8, ISPACS 99

80 対向型多指触覚インターフェイス (Kawasaki et al.) Five-Fingered Haptic Interface

81 Wear Type(3) Electrical Stimulation 拮抗筋の電気刺激で抵抗力を提示 軽量 ただし刺激場所での触覚も生じる Antagonist Muscle is electricall stimulated. Light weight, but strong tactile sensation also.

82 IVRC1993

83 参考 指を動かす筋肉 Muscles for fingers 手外筋 前腕中にあり大まかな動きを担当 手内筋 掌中にあり細かな動きを担当 Extrinsic hand muscles: Large & coase finger motion Intrinsic hand muscles: Small & fine finger motion.

84 機能的電気刺激 Functional Electrical Stimulation 主にリハビリテーションで用いられる 日常生活の補助 (= 長期的な刺激 ) にはなお課題 Mainly used in rehabilitation. Several problems remains for long-term stimulation.

85 ( 参考 ) 外骨格型パワーアシスト Power support by exoskeleton php 筑波大学山海研究室 HAL General Electric Hardiman (1965)

86 How to reconstruct the world? Reconstruct Shape 遭遇型 /Encounter Type High Cost, but free hand True Contact =Natural Tactile Sensation Reconstruct Hand Shape 装着型 把持型 / Wear Type, or Grip Type Low Cost but must equip Most Commercial Haptic Interface

87 Grip type(1)phantom (SensAble) 最も有名なハプティックデバイス 6 自由度をサポート 指サックタイプも開発されたが多くはペングリップタイプ Most Famous Haptic Interface with 6DOF Fingerstall type was developed, but most are pen-grip type Massie T. H., Salisbury J. K., The PHANTOM Haptic Interface: A Device for Probing Virtual Objects, Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environmet and Teleoperator Systems, 1994.

88 装着型と把持型の小さくて大きな違い Small but significant difference between wear type and grip type 装着型 Wear type 指ごとにサポートする必要 Each finger must be supported 古典的VR/ Classical VR 把持型 Grip type ペン 等の類推の利く道具に対して力提 示 道具再現型 指への力提示は間接的 Force is presented to Tool, and presentation to hand is indirect. 現実的解/ Practical solution for many applications

89 Grip type(1)phantom (SensAble)

90 Grip type(1)phantom Omni Cheaper version with 3DOF

91 Omega (force dimension)

92 Falcon (Novint) ted 格安ハプティックデバイス ゲーム用途で販売 Very cheap haptic device is sold for gaming use

93 SPIDAR-G

94 Magrev

95 Large Field Haptic Display Antonia Perez (2009) A NOVEL HAPTIC INTERFACE FOR EXTENDED RANGE TELEPRESENCE: CONTROL AND EVALUATION

96 HapticMaster (MOOG FCS) S6I Van der Linde R.Q., Lammertse P., Frederiksen E., Ruiter B(2002) The HapticMaster, a new high-performance haptic interface 産業用ロボット的なバックドライバビリティのない剛構造 + 力センサ Rigid structure without back-drivability, like industrial robot. With force sensor

97 軽く作るかしっかりつくるか? Make it light, or make it rigid? バックドライバビリティ / back-drivability = 出力軸を直接動かせるかどうか Whether output shaft can be moved directly 通常の歯車 / Ordinary gear バックドライバビリティ有. ただしギア比が大きいほど減少 (1:50 程度 ) Back-drivable, but reduced if gear ratio is higher. ウオームギア / Worm gear: バックドライバビリティ無 Not back-dribable. ハプティックインタフェースは出力軸を直接触るから バックドライバブルかどうかで制御方式が変わってくる As Human handles output shaft directly, control method is closely related to back-drivability

98 軽く作るかしっかりつくるか? Make it light, or make it rigid? 軽い 装置 : ワイヤ駆動等. 低ギア比. バックドライバビリティ有 ) 固い 装置 : 産業用ロボットなど. 高ギア比. ユーザは動かせない. ハンドル先端の力センサに応答.

99 軽い 装置の制御方法 How to control light haptic interface? m x f cx kx インピーダンス型のシミュレート手法 手先の位置を計測. 位置や速度に応じた力を出力. 手先が壁にめり込むところから開始するから, 力覚ディスプレイは操作者の力だけで動かせる必要 =バックドライバビリティ有 Impedance based method Measure grip position. Output force according to the position and velocity. As in the first step, position must be changed by the user, the haptic interface must be back-drivable.

100 堅い 装置の制御方法 How to control rigid haptic interface? m x f cx kx アドミッタンス型のシミュレート手法 操縦者の力を計測 その力に基づき, 手先がどう動くか計算 その軌道を出力. 手先に力センサ必須だが, バックドライバビリティは不要, 産業用ロボット等の固い装置を利用可能 Admittance based method Measure operator s force Calculate world s behavior according to the force, and change position of the grip. Force sensor is necessary, but back-drivability is not. Rigid robot can be used such as industrial robot.

101 力覚レンダリング

102 力覚提示のためのモデル 形状の提示 侵入量に比例した力 慣性 重力の提示 物体を運動方程式に従って動かす 物理ベースモデリング

103 形状の提示 力覚制御の処理ループ Virtual World Force display F=kx 指の位置を計測 2. 衝突判定と提示力の計算 3. 力を出力

104 高速制御の必要性 仮想物体の外 指位置 仮想物体の中 time 処理 侵入しすぎ 大きすぎる反力

105 高速制御の必要性 指位置 物体の外 安定な接触 物体の中 処理 time 安定な接触には 1kHz 程度の高速な制御ループが必要 グラフィックは 30Hz-60Hz

106 形状の提示 力覚による形状提示 侵入距離に比例して力を出す 力覚ポインタ =VR 世界内で 力覚インタフェースに対応するもの 力の向きが突然変わる

107 形状の提示 Proxy (God Object) 法 Proxy 力覚インタフェースの位置 Proxy の動き 力覚インタフェースにできるだけ近づく 物体の内部には侵入しない

108 摩擦力の提示 Proxy 法に摩擦提示を加える Friction cone 静止摩擦力 < 0 n 0 0 =tan 0 = tan

109 6 自由度力覚提示 任意形状同士の接触を提示 点群 力覚ポインタを点群で表す 凸多面体同士の接触体積 力覚ポインタと物体形状を凸多面体の組み合わせで表す Virtual Coupling 質量を持つ Proxy と力覚インタフェースがバネ ダンパでつながっていると考え 運動をシミュレーション 6DOF Proxy Proxy の質量 0 の時の運動を考える

110 点群による方法 1 (McNeely et.al (Boeing)) 物体 Voxel(b), ポインタ 点群 (c) Voxel の中心からの侵入距離だけ力が働く Virutal Coupling で ポインターを動かす

111 点群による方法 2 ( 足立ら ( 鈴木自動車 )) ポインタ 点群 物体 3 角形メッシュ 3 角形の辺に壁を立て 壁に囲まれた点の侵入量に比例した力を出す

112 凸多面体同士の接触体積 物体を凸多面体で表す 交差部分の形状 ( 体積 ) を求める 体積を積分して提示力を求める 3 角形ごとに積分

113 なぜ, 凸形状 一般には, 極小は簡単, 最小は難しい 凸形状は極小が一つ極小 = 最小 凸形状 非凸形状は極小が複数 極小 極小最小 極小 非凸形状 非凸は凸の組み合わせに分解

114 接触解析 接触部分 = 2つの凸多面体の交差部分. D. E. Muller and F.P.Preparata: Finding the intersection of two convex (1978) 2つの凸多面体と交差部分上の1 点が与えられたとき, 交差部分の形状を求める 114

115 接触解析 (2) 接触領域の頂点の計算 双対変換 : 面を点に 点を面に変換 双対変換 O n O 1 n

116 接触解析 (3) 接触領域の頂点の計算 内部の点 半空間表現 共通領域の頂点 双対変換 双対変換

117 3 角形ごとの積分 p 3 p p 2 3 h 3 p 1 h 2 抗力バネモデルによる力 f k h p tri p nds 1 k ( h h h3 ) n 抗力バネモデルによるトルク τ k k p tri p h p nds 1 (( h h 36 h ) ( p p p ) 3( hp h p h p )) 117

118 Virtual Coupling による方法 質量を持つ Proxy と 力覚インタフェースを 3 自由度並進と 3 自由度回転のバネダンパでつなぐ 力覚インタフェースの位置 運動を動力学シミュレーション Proxy

119 6 自由度 Proxy 法 Virtual Coupling の Proxy の質量 0 とする の状態にならずに 一瞬で 3 に移行する

120 Haptic Perception Mechanism (other than skin sensation) a. Haptic Illusions I. Vision + Haptics II. Cutaneous+Haptics

121 Antagonistic Muscles 拮抗筋 Two muscles are responsible for one joint. Isn t it redundant? Answer1: Muscle can only exert force when it shrinks. Answer2: By Two muscles, Force and Impedance(softness) is independently presented. Muscle A Muscle B = Exerted Force Muscle A + Muscle B = Joint Softness

122 Receptors around Muscle and Joint Muscle Spindle 筋紡錘 Inside Muscle React to Muscle Length Change =Velocity Golgi Tendon Organ At the Tendon (Muscle-Bone Connection) React to Muscle Force =Force Joint Mechanoreceptor Inside Joint React to Joint Angle =Position

123 錯触 ( 皮膚感覚による錯触のぞく ) の一部 Haptic Illusions (part of. other than purely cutaneous illusion) 1. Vision + Haptics 2. Cutaneous( 皮膚感覚 ) + Haptics

124 視覚によるハプティック錯覚 (1): サイズ - 重さ錯覚 Vision Induced Haptics(1): Size-Weight Illusion 同じ重量であれば 小さいものをより重く感じる If two objects are the same weight, smaller one felt hevier. ipadやmacbookairを 意外に重く 感じる理由?

125 視覚によるハプティック錯覚 (2): シュードハプティクス Vision Induced Haptics(2): Pseudo-Haptics 視覚的な動きによって 触覚的な抵抗感を感じる マウスカーソルの動きを遅くしたときのブレーキ感 Visual motion induces haptic resistance. (ex) Braking feeling when mouse cursor is suddenly slowed down.

126 PseudoHaptics

127 視覚によるハプティック錯覚 (3): Rubber Hand Illusion 見えていない実際の手に触覚的な刺激を与え 同時にゴムの手に視覚的な刺激を与える しばらくするとゴムの手が自分の手であるように感じる Watching a rubber hand being stroked synchronously with one s own unseen hand causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one s own body, to feel like it s my hand. Botvinick, M., & Cohen, J.: Rubber hands "feel" touch that eyes see, Nature, 391, 756 (1998) Armel, K. C., & Ramachandran, V. S. : Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response, Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 270, (2003)

128 Rubber Hand Illusion

129 視覚によるハプティック錯覚 (4): ミラーボックスによる幻肢痛の緩和 Reduction of phantom pain by mirror box 幻肢痛 : 手足を失った後に 切断部位は問題ないのに激しい痛みを感じる現象 ひとつの仮説 : 失った手足の脳内座標 ( ボディマップ ) が狂い 体内に 食い込む ことで脳内で痛みシグナルが発生 姿勢をもとに戻せないために痛みを生じ続ける Phantom pain: After one s hand/arm/leg was removed, pain seems to occur from the removed site. One hypo.: Removed limb s body map in the brain comes wrong, and the brain generates pain signal.

130 ミラーボックスセラピー Mirror box therapy ミラーボックスを使い 両手を使っていることをイメージさせることで 脳内で無いはずの手を動かすことができる これにより幻肢痛を劇的に低減できる Using mirror box, patients can move their lost limb in their brain, so that the phantom pain is dramatically reduced.

131 ( 参考 ) 視覚による痛みの低減 Visually small reduces pain 反転させた双眼鏡を使って痛みの患部を観察すると痛みが減る Observing the pain region with reverted binocular, the pain is reduced. G. Lorimer Moseley, Timothy J. Parsons 1 and Charles Spence Visual distortion of a limb modulates the pain and swelling evoked by movement, 2008

132 皮膚感覚によるハプティック錯覚 Cutaneous Induced Haptics: ピノキオ錯覚 -1/Pinocchio Illusion-1 自分の前の人の鼻を撫でつつ 自分の鼻も撫でると 1 分程度で半分程度の人が自分の鼻が伸びたように感じる Rubber Hand Illusion の視覚無し版として理解可能

133 皮膚感覚によるハプティック錯覚 Cutaneous Induced Haptics: 伸展錯覚とピノキオ錯覚 -2/Extention Illusion & Pinocchio Illusion- 2 伸展錯覚 : 筋肉に強い振動刺激を与えると 反射によって収縮する 収縮を妨害すると 筋肉が伸びたような錯覚 Extention Illusion: Strong vibration to muscle induces shrink reflex. If this shrink is blocked, illusion of muscle extention occurs. 鼻を摘んだ状態でやると鼻が伸びる Doing while pinching nose, the nose grows like Pinocchio. 友田達也上杉繁三輪敬之ヒューマンインタフェースシンポジウム 2007 腱振動刺激による運動錯覚創出インタフェースの開発

134 皮膚感覚によるハプティック錯覚 Cutaneous Induced Haptics: ハンガー反射 /Hanger Reflex 側頭部圧迫によって外力を知覚 頭部の回旋をも誘発 Front temporal pressure induces rotational force perception. Rotation itself is induced.

135 動きによる皮膚感覚の錯覚 (1) Ando H. et al., Novel Tactile Contour Presentation: Embossed Touch Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches 物体をなぞると同時に物体を動かす 物体の動きとは知覚できず 物体の形状の変化として認識 つまり皮膚上の運動と腕の運動の統合はかなり大まか

136 ( 逆 ) 皮膚感覚による動きの錯覚 (1) ぬめり せん断力 仮現運動 力と同時に触覚的な 流れ場 を提示すると 指の 運動 ( ぬめり 滑り ) を感じる Okabe et al., Fingertip Slip Illusion with an Electrocutaneous Display, ICAT2011

137 ( 逆 ) 皮膚感覚による動きの錯覚 (2) 手のひらへの回転状触刺激 + 振動による筋活動 手首が 回転し続ける 錯覚 Blanchard et al., Combined contribution of tactile and proprioceptive feedback to hand movement perception, Brain Res

138 皮膚圧迫による外力錯覚 Illusory external force by pressure 稲葉 藤田 : 指先圧迫による擬似反力提示装置の提案と試作, 日本バーチャルリアリティ学会論文誌,2007. Minamizawa, Haptic Interface for Middle Phalanx Using Dual Motors, EuroHaptics, 皮膚の圧迫により 本来は外力がない状況で外力を感じる Simple pressure sensation is perceived as external force.

139 手をベースに指に内力を提示

140 手をベースに指に内力を提示

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