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1 Analog experiments for outreach Kitchen Volcanology Akira Takada Geological Survey of Japan, AIST Nov. 17, 2007, COV5 Field Trip A3: Fuji-Hakone volcanoes Nov. 19, 2008, APEC 2008 Training Course, GSJ, AIST 火山 Volcano ふんか 噴火はキケンだ. An eruption is dangerous! きぼもデカイ. Huge! めったに起 ( 怒 ) こらない. ちか み お 地下は見えない. Unusual! We cannot see the underground. 1

2 噴火をビデオで見てみよう Let s see eruption in vedeo ふしぎ Why そうだキッチンへ行こう Let s go to kitchen み ざいりょう かざん 身のまわりの材料で火山をつくり, じょうしょうふんかさいげんマグマの上昇から噴火までを, 再現してみよう. Let s simulate magma ascent and eruption, using analog material easy to get. 2

3 かざんじっけん キッチン火山実験 Magic by Kitchen experiments on volcanology かざん へんしん 火山シェフに変身 Volcano Shef なるほど I understand Pyroclastic flow かさいりゅう どせきりゅう 土石流 Lahar 火砕流 Explosive eruption ばくはつてきふんか 爆発的噴火 こうかかざんばい 降下火山灰 われめふんか 割れ目噴火 Fissure eruption ようがんりゅう Lava flow 溶岩流 Airfall みず 水 Water ちかく 地殻 Crust マントル Mantle マグマの上昇 Magma ascent じょうしょう 火山 Volcano ふんかさいがい 噴火災害 Hazard めぐみ 恵み Wealth 3

4 Magma ascent and eruption using gelatin 1986 年伊豆大島の噴火 1986 Eruption of Izu-Ohsima Volcano (Video of Geological Museum, GSJ) 4

5 ちいさく てがるに Reduce the scale Eruption ふんか噴火 Deformation ちかくへんどう前兆の地殻変動 マグマの上昇じょうしょう Magma ascent レシピ ちきゅう 地球をゼラチンに, マグマをジュースにしてみようか Recipe The earth gelatin: Magma juice 5

6 ふんか噴火 Eruption ちかくへんどう 前兆の地殻変動 Deformation じょうしょうマグマの上昇 Magma ascent キッチン実験 Kitchin experiment Fissure eruption Crustal deformation Uprift Subsidence Just before eruption Eruption 6

7 Under differential stress Hydrostatic Extension Coalescence Two phase Horizontally compressive sress Stress grad. With bubble Various experiments Lava flow simulation using analog materials 7

8 Fuji volcano Volcano Fuji Sabo Office 8

9 Cocoa lava flow Lava flows of dissolved wheat flour in ethanol Airfall simulation using analog materials 9

10 Isopacks of major tephra in Fuji Volcano Isopack map of Hoei 1707 tephra 10

11 (1) Analog air fall (2) (3) Result Fuji Tokyo 100 km Analog experimets on magma ascent by gelatin Fiske, R.S., and Jackson, E. D. (1972) Orientation and growth of Hawaiian volcanic rifts: Effects of regional structure and gravitational stress. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, vol. 329, Ito, G. and Martel, S. J. (2002) Focusing of magma in the upper mantle through dike interaction. J. Geophys. Res., 107(B10), 2223, doi: /2001jb Koyaguchi, T. and Takada, A., (1994) An experimental study on the formation of composite intrusions from zoned magma chambers. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 59, Maaloe, S. (1987) The generation and shape of feeder dyke from mantle sources. Contrib.Mineral. Petrol., 96, Menand, T. and Tail, S. R. (2002) The propagation of a buoyant liquid-filled fissure from a source under constant pressure: An esperimental approach. J. Geophys. Res., 107(B11),2306, doi: /2001JB Muller, J. R., Ito, G., and Martel, S. J. (2001) Effects of volcano loading on dyke propagation in an elastic half-space. J. Geophys. Res., 106, Takada, A.(1990) Experimental study on propagation of liquid-filled rack in gelatin: Shape and velocity in hydrostatic condition. J. Geophys. Res., vol.95, Takada, A., (1994) Development of a subvolcanic structure by the interaction of liquid-filled cracks. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 61: Takada, A., (1994) The influence of regional stress and magmatic input on styles of monogenetic and polygenetic volcanism. J. Geophys. Res., 99: Takada, A., (1994) Accumulation of magma in space and time by crack interaction. In: M. P. Ryan (Editor), Magmatic Systems. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp Takada, A. (1999) Variations in magma supply and magma partioning: the role of tectonic settings. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 93, Watanabe, T., Masuyama, T., Nagaoka, K., and Tahara, T. (2002) Analog experiments on magmafilled cracks: Competition between external stresses and internal pressure. Earth Planets Space, 54,

12 Analog experimets on lava flow Fink, J. H. and Griffiths, R. W. (1992) A laboratory analog study of the surface morphology oflavaflows extended from point and line sources. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 54, Gregg., T. K. P. and Fink, J. H. (1995) Quantification of submarine lava flow morphology through analog experiments. Geology, 23, Hallworth, M., Huppert, H., and Sparks, S. S. (1987) A laboratory simulation of basaltic lava flows. Modern Geology, vol. 11, Analog experiments for outreach Takada (2003) Enjoy a volcano with analog experiments. Chishitsu News, GSJ, 591, (in Japanese). Takada (2006) Analog experiments on magma ascent ans eruption. Chishitsu News, 627, GSJ, 7-12 (in Japanese). Takada, A., Hayashi., S., Koyama, M., Aramaki, S. (2007) Training course for school teachers: learning a volcano with experience. YIES, 94p (in Japanese). 12