320 Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi Vol. /., No.1, -,* -,/ (,**1) 8 * ** *** * ** *** E#ect of Superheated Steam Treatment on the Preservation an

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1 320 Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi Vol. /., No.1, -,* -,/ (,**1) 8 * ** *** * ** *** E#ect of Superheated Steam Treatment on the Preservation and Sensory Characteristics of Buckwheat Noodles Kazuhiro Ono, Hiroshi Endo, Junichi Yamada*, Ichiro Shoji** and Seiichiro Isobe*** Fukushima Technology Centre Aizuwakamatsu Technical Support Centre, 22 + Shimoyanagihara, Tsuruga, Ikki- machi, Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima 30/ ***0 * Abe Flour Milling Co., Ltd.,, + Dojyo, Hiwadamachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 30- */-. ** Koriyama Women s University, -,/, Kaisei, Koriyama, Fukushima 30-22/+ *** National Food Research Institute,, + +, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki -*/ 20., We examined the e#ectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) for sterilizing buckwheat flour, for preserving raw buckwheat noodles and for processing preservable and savory buckwheat noodles. Commercial buckwheat flour has been found to contain more than / log CFU/g of viable bacterial cells, which exceeds the number of cells found in wheat flour (,.0 log CFU/g). Most bacteria were found on the pericarp and surface of the grains, and some were present inside the grains. Treatment with SHS was found to reduce populations of total bacteria and coliforms on buckwheat grains to less than, log CFU/g viable cells. Viable cell counts of buckwheat flour milled from grain treated with SHS were also less than, log CFU/g, and SHS treatment significantly improved the preservation of buckwheat noodles. Furthermore, SHS treatment did not a#ect the color tone of buckwheat flour or the sensory characteristics of buckwheat noodles. These results suggest that SHS treatment may be useful for processing buckwheat noodles that are superior in savor and preservation. (Received Feb. 3,,**1 ; Accepted Apr. +1,,**1) Keywords : buckwheat, superheated steam, sterilization, preservation, sensory characteristic : + -, -. 30/ *** * 30- */-., + ** 30-22/+ -,/, *** -*/ 20.,, + +, Corresponding author / * ++ Superheated steam SHS SHS +, SHS +** +- +1

2 9 : 321 SHS / SHS,**/ SP M, SK-+0*,* +,* SHS SHS SHS.*,* +.* cm SHS,.* ++* +-* +/* / +* - +*. ++* +-* +* SHS,, mm.- /* g / +* CR-.+C / 2* +* +2 ZE,*** - L* a* b* 0 +2 cm,* -* -* * - / /,, +3 + Table + n 2 /..../ -.+ logcfu g n 0, * logcfu g - logcfu g,, logcfu g +* + n -..0, logcfu g, n, 0.+ / logcfu g n - /.3 /.,,.+ logcfu g / logcfu g,.. -.* logcfu g *., +.1 logcfu g /, Table, 2.* * logcfu g , -.* logcfu g, * logcfu g ,.2 logcfu g +..,.0 *., logcfu g

3 322 /. 1,** Table + Viable cell counts of commercial buckwheat flour and wheat flour Sample Viable cell counts (log CFU/g) + Total bacteria Coliforms Aerobic sporeformer Buckwheat flour, Foreign (n -) Domestic (n,) Fukushima (n -).40 * *4- /43 *4-, /42 *4- /4, * * *42, mean /4. *4/ a.4/ +4* a -4+ *43 a Wheat flour - Foreign (n -) Domestic (n,) Fukushima (n +),40 +4*,4/ *4,,43 *43 * * *4, *41 *4/ +4* mean,40 *40 b +4- *40 b +4* *4- b + Values are mean standard deviation4, Foreign : three China (,**.) Domestic : two Hokkaido (,**/) Fukushima : Minamiaizu,Yamato, Inawashiro (,**.)4 - Foreign : two Australia, America (,**.) Domestic : Miyagi, Hokkaido (,**.) Fukushima : Souma (,**/)4 Mean values with the di#erent letters in the same row were significantly di#erent (P *4*+)4 Table, Bacterial counts of buckwheat seeds and grain treated with polishing and water washing and surface sterilization Sample Treatment method Viable cell counts (log CFU/g) + Total bacteria Coliforms Aerobic sporeformer Buckwheat seeds Polishing Water washing Surface sterilization 24* *4+ a 143 *4+ a 142 *4+ a 040 *4, b 14- *4, a 14, *4+ a 14+ *4+ a.41 *4- b -4* *4+ a -4* *4+ a -4* *4, a,42 *4+ a Grain Water washing Surface sterilization 04- *4+ a 04+ *4. a,4. *4/ b /4/ *4, a /4/ *4, a N4D4 b +42 *4, a +42 *4, a N4D4 b + Distilling water washing and surface sterilization treatment were washed for +min at room temperature4 Surface sterilization were used for formaldehyde solution (-1 )4 Values are mean standard deviation (n -)4 N4D4 : under detection limit4 Mean values with the same letter (a, b) in the same row were not significantly di#erent (P *4*/)4 0 logcfu g. logcfu g 0.- /./ +.2 logcfu g +, logcfu g 0.+ /./ +.2 logcfu g,.. logcfu g - SHS Table - ++* +-* +/* / +* SHS / ++* ,.- logcfu g, +-* ,., logcfu g, +/* 0.1 /.3,., logcfu g *./ +.+ * *.. *./ logcfu g +* ++* /.- -.2,.* logcfu g, +-*

4 11 : 323 Table - Comparison of bacterial counts of buckwheat seeds and grain treated with SHS Sample Treatment temperature Treatment time Viable cell counts (log CFU/g) + Total bacteria Coliforms Aerobic sporeformer Buckwheat seeds 142 *4+ a 14- *4+ a,41 *4+ a ++* 14- *4+ b /4- *4+ c 043 *4, b -42 *4+ d,4- *4+ a,4* *4+ a +-* 14+ *4+ b.40 *4+ d 042 *4, b -41 *4+ de,4, *4+ a,4+ *4+ a +/* 041 *4+ b.4- *4+ d /43 *4, c -4- *4+ e,4, *4+ a,4+ *4+ a Grain 04- *4+ a /43 *4+ a +42 *4+ a ++*,4- *4, b +42 *4+ cd +42 *4+ b N4D4 d *43 *4. a +4* *4- a +-* +43 *4+ bc +40 *4+ d +40 *4+ bc N4D4 d +4+ *4. a *43 *4. a +/* +42 *4+ bc +4. *4, d +4- *4+ c N4D4 d +4+ *4+ a +4+ *4+ a + Values are mean standard deviation (n -)4 N4D4 : under detection limit4 Mean values with the same letter (a, b, c, d) in the same row were not significantly di#erent (P *4*/)4 Table. Total bacterial counts and color tone of buckwheat grain and flour treated with SHS Grain Flour Total bacteria (log CFU/g) ++* +-* 04- * * * *4, +42 * *4, L* a* b* L* a* b* Color tone ++* +-* 004*- *4-, 0/431 *4+1 0/432 *4-- o*4*1 *4,. o*4*. *4,, o*4+0 *4+-,24/3 *4-/,34*0 *4,/,34** *4,3 2/413 *4*0 2/40/ *4+, 2/4/3 *4,1 o*4-- *4*, o*4-+ *4*, o*4-- *4*+ +*4-1 *4*2 +*4-. *4+2 +*4.2 *4++ Values are mean standard deviation (n -)4 Data are not di#erent significantly among treatment conditions (P *4*/) ,.+ logcfu g, +/* ,.+ logcfu g,./ -./ -./..* *.0 *.1 logcfu g +* / / +.2, * logcfu g..*../ *.1 *.3 logcfu g +* * logcfu g. / logcfu g / SHS, logcfu g. Table. SHS ++* +-* +* SHS logcfu g logcfu g

5 324 /. 1,** Fig. + E#ect of SHS treatment on viable cell counts change of buckwheat noodles SHS Table + L*, a*, b* 00.*- *.*1,2./3 L* 0/.31 0/.32 a* *.*. *.+0 b*,3.**,3.*0 L* a* b* 2/.13 *.-- +*.-1 L* 2/./3 2/.0/ a* *.-+ *.-- b* +*.-. +*..2 SHS a*,* a* SHS SHS / Fig. + ++* +-* +* SHS / +* SHS ++* +-* -.1 logcfu g, /.2 logcfu g SHS,.+ logcfu g / +-* +. *.2 logcfu g../ logcfu g ++* +* +-* +* logcfu g /.+ logcfu g - 1.* logcfu g +* / ++* +-* -. logcfu g. ++* +-* logcfu g /,.,,.1 logcfu g /, 1.2 logcfu g,+ 0./ logcfu g Fig. + SHS 0./ logcfu g SHS 0 SHS Table / ++* +-* +-* ++*,, SHS

6 13 : 325 Table / Sensory evaluation of buckwheat flour and noodles treated with SHS Sample Flavor Brightness Taste Hardness Overall Buckwheat flour Non treatment ++* +-* *4,1 *4-3 *4,1 *4-, *4*3 *4,1 *4+2 *4.. *4*3 *40+ *4+2 *4/. *4** *4-, *4,1 *4-3 *4+2 *4-* Buckwheat noodle Non treatment ++* +-* *4-0 *4/+ *4./ *4-. *4// *4/, *4** *4/* *4-0 *4.0 *4,1 *4/* *4+2 *4.. *40. *4,/ *4+2 *4/2 *4// *4,0 *4// *4-. +4** *4-3 *4-0 *4.* *4// *4-. *4./ *4.1 Values are mean standard deviation (Number of panelists ++)4 Data are not di#erent significantly among treatment conditions (P *4*/)4 SHS / logcfu g,.0 logcfu g ++* +-* +* SHS, logcfu g SHS, logcfu g SHS SHS + +* -* 0. 1*,**.,.,.+*./ ,**0.. p,.* +333 / -/ / * * 1, / / * ,, /* / , /- +1, +12,**0 +- / ,**. +., ,**- +/ /-./+./2,** *.0 // ,**, +2 P+/3,**. +3 p ,* No. + F+,-F +1,**0,+ +2 p+00*,**0,,, * +3,

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