2007-Kanai-paper.dvi

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1 19 Estimation of Sound Source Zone using The Arrival Time Interval

2 S/N i

3 Abstract Estimation of Sound Source Zone using The Arrival Time Interval Koichiro Kanai The microphone array can control the directivity and presume the direction where the sound comes. Therefore, it is possible to separate a desired sound and an unnecessary sound from the direction of coming. Hence, the microphone array can improve S/N of the receiving sound. However, when the target of receiving sound moves, the microphone array always should match the direction of the microphone according to the movement. Information of the changing sound source position becomes necessary in order to automate directivity control of the microphone array. In this paper, estimation of sound source zone using two microphones is proposed. The proposed system is used for the correlation of two input signals. If the arrival time interval is estimated, the microphone which is near to the sound source is decided. The proposed system can estimate when two sound source exist at the same time. key words cross-correlation, omni directional microphone, directional microphone, sound source ii

4 iii

5 A 33 A A A iv

6 mm mm mm mm mm45deg (1) (2) A B mm45deg ( 4,410 ) v

7 mm45deg ( 4,410 ) mm ( 4,410 ) mm ( 4,410 ) mm45deg ( 4,410 ) mm45deg ( 4,410 ) mm ( 4,410 ) vi

8 mm mm mm mm45deg mm mm45deg vii

9 1 1.1 S/N [1] DFT [2] 2 2 1

10

11 ms m/s 200mm 44.1KHz 0.2(m) 44100(Hz) = (2.1) 340(m/s) 26 3

12 2.3 speaker microphone

13 kHz , Amplitude Time [sec] 2.2 5

14 Amplitude Time [sec] 2.3 6

15 B 0 A 7

16 A minus shift mic A lag plus shift mic B B cross correlation shift length > 0 YES NO A B N f = {f 0, f 1,..., f N 1 } g = {g 0, g 1,..., g N 1 } R (fg) R (fg) = < f, g > f g (3.1)

17 f = {f 0, f 1,..., f N 1 } g = {g 0, g 1,..., g N 1 } R (fg) n R (fg) n = 1 N 1 N N 1 i=0 N 1 i=0 f 2 i f i g i+n 1 N N 1 i=0 g 2 i+n (3.2) f g n g n = {g 0+n, g 1+n,..., g N 1+n } (3.3) 2 n R (fg) n = N 1 i=0 f i g i+n N 1 f 2 N 1 i gi 2 i=0 i=0 (3.4) 1 +1 ˆR (fg) n ˆR (fg) n = 1 N 1 N N 1 i=0 N 1 i=0 ˆf 2 i ˆf i ĝ i+n 1 N N 1 i=0 ĝ 2 i = N 1 i=0 N 1 i=0 ˆf i ĝ i+n ˆf i 2 N 1 ĝi 2 i=0 (3.5) 9

18 r < r < r < r mm 200mm 300mm 400mm 4 1,200mm A B 3.5 (A260)

19 3.6 speaker 1200mm A B C D E A-B 100mm A-C 200mm A-D 300mm A-E 400mm kHz 4,410 8,820 13,230 17, (0 n < N 1) h(n) = 0 (otherwise) (3.6) 1/2 11

20 3.6 A microphone A microphone B B 3.3 A 10 B ,098 2 A B 12

21 Amplitude Time [sec] x(t) y(t) S 13

22 3.7 sound source A H(z) y(k) e(k) B - target zone + output 3.6 sound source target zone A H(z) e(k) y(k) B + - output 3.7 A 10 B S = 10log 10 y(t) x(t) [db] (3.7) 0dB 14

23 y A B mm mm 100mm mm 4,410 S 0dB mm

24 mm Sample Number 4,410 8,820 13,230 17, , , , , , mm Sample Number 4,410 8,820 13,230 17, , , , , , mm Sample Number 4,410 8,820 13,230 17, , , , , ,

25 Shift Length ,410 8,820 13,230 17, Time [sec] mm 40 4,410 8,820 13,230 17,640 Shift Length Time [sec] mm mm 300mm 17

26 ,410 8,820 13,230 17, Shift Length Time [sec] mm ,410 8,820 13,230 17,640 Shift Length Time [sec] mm 18

27 3.9 mic A mic B (a) mic A mic B 45 (b) ,410 8,820 13,230 17,640 Shift Length Time [sec] mm45deg 19

28 B A A B

29 4.3 A minus shift mic A lag plus shift mic B B shift length cross > 0 correlation plus shift YES shift length A < 0 minus shift YES B kHz A , ,

30 4.3 A 1 10 B A B 10 A Amplitude Time [sec] 4.2 (1) Amplitude Time [sec] 4.3 (2) 22

31 Amplitude Time [sec] 4.4 A Amplitude Time [sec] 4.5 B

32 ,410 shift B B shift A A A B mm mm mm 70 24

33 mm45deg A B 4,410 (0.10sec) ,820 (0.20sec) ,230 (0.30sec) ,640 (0.40sec) mm A B 4,410 (0.10sec) ,820 (0.20sec) ,230 (0.30sec) ,640 (0.40sec)

34 mm45deg A B 4,410 (0.10sec) ,820 (0.20sec) ,230 (0.30sec) ,640 (0.40sec) shift B shift A Shift Length Time [sec] mm45deg ( 4,410 ) 26

35 shift B shift A Correlation Value Time [sec] mm45deg ( 4,410 ) 20 shift B shift A 10 Shift Length Time [sec] mm ( 4,410 ) 27

36 4.5 1 shift B shift A 0.8 Correlation Value Time [sec] mm ( 4,410 ) 20 shift B shift A 10 Shift Length Time [sec] mm45deg ( 4,410 ) 28

37 4.5 1 shift B shift A 0.8 Correlation Value Time [sec] mm45deg ( 4,410 ) Shift Lehgth shift B shift A Time [sec] mm ( 4,410 ) 29

38

39 2 4 31

40 [1] 2 (A) vol.j82-a no.6 pp Jun 1999 [2] (A) vol.j83-a no.12 pp Dec 2000 [3] 1995 [4] CQ

41 A A.1 A.2 LMS LMS 1960 Kalman 2 RLS RLS N 1 N 2 LMS N 33

42 A.3 RLS A.3 NLMS LMS t y(t) d(t) d(t) = h T N x N (t) (A.1) h N = w N x(t) A.1 A.1 h N (t) A.1 x N (t) w N h N (t) x N (t) w N h N (t) w N (t) w N h N (t + 1) h N (t + 1) = h N (t) + {h N (t + 1) h N (t)} = h N (t) + {w N h N (t)} T {h N (t + 1) h N (t)} h N (t + 1) h N (t) h N (t + 1) h N (t) h N (t + 1) h N (t) (A.2) 2 h N (t + 1) h N (t) h N (t + 1) h N (t) = x N(t) x N (t) (A.3) {w N h N (t)} T x N (t) = d(t) y(t) = e(t) (A.4) 34

43 A.3 A.2 h N (t + 1) = h N (t) + x N(t) x N (t) 2 e(t) (A.5) A.5 h N (t + 1) = h N (t) + α x N(t) x N (t) e(t) 2 (A.6) 35

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