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1 17 IP A study on IP path quality forecasting from the IP path delay measurements

2 IP RTP 2 QoS i

3 Abstract A study on IP path quality forecasting from the IP path delay measurements Kotaro TAMURA In recent years The reliability and the stability of the transmission path are requested from the standpoint of the quality of the applications. However, the Internet is based on a best effort transferring technologies, the stable transfer of packets is not guaranteed. It is difficult to guarantee the service quality of a streaming application. On viewing and listening of a streaming movie, the jitter that is fluctuation of delays causes a big problem. The jitter is generated because the path bandwidth might not be enough everytime. Especially, the processing performance of the router is influenced by it s buffer capacity and queuing algorithm. Therefore, the state of the transmission path might be measured by observing the jitters. I measured the jitter on the client site to reduce the measurement load additional to the network. First of all, I thought that the distribution at the delay time observed might affect to the possible packet loss occurence. Moreover, the delay time value relates to the number of the following packet losses. It is thought that the interval from the jitter enlargement timing to the packet loss appearance seems to be in inverse proportional to the time span that the packet loss is being obserbed. The quality of transmission path is forecasted from the number of generated packet losses, time of the packet loss appearance and the changes in packet loss as time goes by. As the result, most appearances of the packet loss are predictable. key words Network QoS forecasting Jitter Packetloss Streaming ii

4 RTP RTCP RTP LAN RTP RTP Ethereal RTP Frame Interval iii

5 3.2.2 Packet Loss Amount Frame Interval Packet Loss Amount F(i) G F(i) Q F(i) p F(i) R iv

6 33 34 A 60Mbps 35 B 65Mbps 38 C 70Mbps 42 D 75Mbps 46 E 80Mbps 50 F 85Mbps 54 G 90Mbps 57 H 95Mbps 60 I 63 I.1 Shaping( ) I v

7 Smartbits 1 (60Mbps 95Mbps) Smartbits 1 (60Mbps 95Mbps) Frame Interval Mbps 0.6s t1 65Mbps 5s t Mbps 0.6s t1 95Mbps 5s t Mbps 5 (4 ) Mbps 5 (4 ) (65Mbps 0.6s t4) (5 ) (1 ) Frame Interval A.1 60Mbps 0.3s t A.2 60Mbps 0.3s t A.3 60Mbps 0.3s t vi

8 A.4 60Mbps 0.3s t A.5 60Mbps 0.6s t A.6 60Mbps 0.6s t A.7 60Mbps 0.6s t A.8 60Mbps 0.6s t A.9 60Mbps 1s t A.10 60Mbps 1s t A.11 60Mbps 1s t A.12 60Mbps 1s t A.13 60Mbps 3s t A.14 60Mbps 3s t A.15 60Mbps 3s t A.16 60Mbps 3s t A.17 60Mbps 5s t A.18 60Mbps 5s t A.19 60Mbps 5s t A.20 60Mbps 5s t B.1 65Mbps 0.3s t B.2 65Mbps 0.3s t B.3 65Mbps 0.3s t B.4 65Mbps 0.3s t B.5 65Mbps 0.6s t B.6 65Mbps 0.6s t B.7 65Mbps 0.6s t B.8 65Mbps 0.6s t vii

9 B.9 65Mbps 1s t B.10 65Mbps 1s t B.11 65Mbps 1s t B.12 65Mbps 1s t B.13 65Mbps 3s t B.14 65Mbps 3s t B.15 65Mbps 3s t B.16 65Mbps 3s t B.17 65Mbps 5s t B.18 65Mbps 5s t B.19 65Mbps 5s t B.20 65Mbps 5s t B.21 65Mbps 5s t B.22 65Mbps 5s t C.1 70Mbps 0.3s t C.2 70Mbps 0.3s t C.3 70Mbps 0.3s t C.4 70Mbps 0.3s t C.5 70Mbps 0.6s t C.6 70Mbps 0.6s t C.7 70Mbps 0.6s t C.8 65Mbps 5s t C.9 65Mbps 5s t C.10 70Mbps 1s t C.11 70Mbps 1s t viii

10 C.12 70Mbps 1s t C.13 70Mbps 1s t C.14 70Mbps 3s t C.15 70Mbps 3s t C.16 70Mbps 3s t C.17 70Mbps 3s t C.18 70Mbps 5s t C.19 70Mbps 5s t C.20 70Mbps 5s t D.1 75Mbps 0.3s t D.2 75Mbps 0.3s t D.3 75Mbps 0.3s t D.4 75Mbps 0.3s t D.5 75Mbps 0.6s t D.6 75Mbps 0.6s t D.7 75Mbps 0.6s t D.8 75Mbps 0.6s t D.9 75Mbps 1s t D.10 75Mbps 1s t D.11 75Mbps 1s t D.12 75Mbps 1s t D.13 75Mbps 3s t D.14 75Mbps 3s t D.15 75Mbps 3s t D.16 75Mbps 3s t ix

11 D.17 75Mbps 5s t D.18 75Mbps 5s t D.19 75Mbps 5s t D.20 75Mbps 5s t E.1 80Mbps 0.3s t E.2 80Mbps 0.3s t E.3 80Mbps 0.3s t E.4 80Mbps 0.3s t E.5 80Mbps 0.6s t E.6 80Mbps 0.6s t E.7 80Mbps 0.6s t E.8 80Mbps 0.6s t E.9 80Mbps 1s t E.10 80Mbps 1s t E.11 80Mbps 1s t E.12 80Mbps 1s t E.13 80Mbps 3s t E.14 80Mbps 3s t E.15 80Mbps 3s t E.16 80Mbps 3s t E.17 80Mbps 5s t E.18 80Mbps 5s t E.19 80Mbps 5s t E.20 80Mbps 5s t F.1 85Mbps 0.3s t x

12 F.2 85Mbps 0.3s t F.3 85Mbps 0.3s t F.4 85Mbps 0.3s t F.5 85Mbps 0.6s t F.6 85Mbps 0.6s t F.7 85Mbps 0.6s t F.8 85Mbps 0.6s t F.9 85Mbps 1s t F.10 85Mbps 1s t F.11 85Mbps 1s t F.12 85Mbps 3s t F.13 85Mbps 3s t F.14 85Mbps 3s t F.15 85Mbps 3s t F.16 85Mbps 5s t F.17 85Mbps 5s t F.18 85Mbps 5s t F.19 85Mbps 5s t G.1 90Mbps 0.3s t G.2 90Mbps 0.3s t G.3 90Mbps 0.3s t G.4 90Mbps 0.3s t G.5 90Mbps 0.6s t G.6 90Mbps 0.6s t G.7 90Mbps 0.6s t xi

13 G.8 90Mbps 0.6s t G.9 90Mbps 1s t G.10 90Mbps 1s t G.11 90Mbps 1s t G.12 90Mbps 1s t G.13 90Mbps 3s t G.14 90Mbps 3s t G.15 90Mbps 3s t G.16 90Mbps 3s t G.17 90Mbps 5s t G.18 90Mbps 5s t G.19 90Mbps 5s t G.20 90Mbps 5s t H.1 95Mbps 0.3s t H.2 95Mbps 0.3s t H.3 95Mbps 0.3s t H.4 95Mbps 0.3s t H.5 95Mbps 0.6s t H.6 95Mbps 0.6s t H.7 95Mbps 0.6s t H.8 95Mbps 0.6s t H.9 95Mbps 1s t H.10 95Mbps 1s t H.11 95Mbps 1s t H.12 95Mbps 1s t xii

14 H.13 95Mbps 3s t H.14 95Mbps 3s t H.15 95Mbps 3s t H.16 95Mbps 5s t H.17 95Mbps 5s t H.18 95Mbps 5s t H.19 95Mbps 5s t I I xiii

15 2.1 Windows XP DVTS RTP Mbps 60Mbps ( ) R xiv

16 CPU RTP 1

17 DVTS RTP 2

18 DVTS 1.4??

19 RTP UDP UDP TCP RTP(Real-time Transport Protocol) UDP RTP 4

20 RTCP RTCP(RTP Control Protocol) RTP RTP RTCP RTP RTP 1.6 RTP RTP 5

21 2 RTP RTP 2.1 Windows DVTS(Digital Video Transport System) DVTS byte RTP 0.08ms msec msec 2.1 Windows XP DVTS version Mbps RTP 1014Byte RTCP (Default)

22 2.2 LAN RTP 2.2 LAN RTP Mbps Ethernet Tx Cx Rx 5 Smartbits?? RTP 2.2 PC FreeBSD VineLinux Zebra(ver.0.94) OSPF Tx,Cx Rx R1,R4,R5 R2 R3 OS Windows XP Windows XP FreeBSD-5.4 VineLinux 3.1 VineLinux 3.1 CPU Pentium GHz Sempron 984MHz Celeron 2.66GHz Pentium 347.7MHz Pentium4 3.00GHz 512MB 512MB 512MB 128MB 512MB HDD 60GB 40GB 40GB 4GB 120GB 7

23 Ethereal 64byte UDP Mbps 10Mbps 20Mbps 30Mbps tcpdump Ethereal Ethereal 30Mbps UDP Mbps 95Mbps 5Mbps 8

24 Mbps 90Mbps DVTS 30Mbps 60Mbps 95Mbps 100Mbps 100Mbps 5Mbps Mbps 65Mbps 70Mbps 75Mbps 80Mbps 85Mbps 90Mbps 95Mbps byte UDP UDP TCP DVTS 1014byte DVTS 1024byte 9

25 Smartbits 1 (60Mbps 95Mbps) 2.4 Smartbits 1 (60Mbps 95Mbps) Smartbits InterPacketGap SmartBits Mbps 65Mbps 70Mbps 75Mbps 80Mbps 85Mbps 90Mbps 95Mbps (Byte) 1024 ( sec)

26 DVTS RTP RTP DVTS Ethereal 2.5 RTP DVTS 9 11

27 3 RTP RTP 3.1 Ethereal RTP Ethereal Ethereal RTP RTPAnalyze UDP DVTS RTP Windows DVTS RTP FreeBSD DVTS Packet Ethereal Sequence RTP 1 Delay(ms) Jitter(ms) RTCP RR(RTCP ) ) IP BW(kbps) 12

28 3.1 Ethereal RTP Status Date Length DVTS RTP Sequence Delay RTP Packet Sequence Delay(msec) Packet Sequence Delay(msec) Packet3 Packet4 Delay Packet4 Sequence Sequence5207 Packet5 Delay Sequence

29 3.2 Sequence Delay 2 Frame Interval(msec) Packet Loss Amount Frame Interval Packet Loss Amount Frame Interval Frame Interval Frame Interval 14

30 Packet Loss Amount Packet Loss Amount 125 Sequence 3.3 RTP Ethereal RTP Ethereal RTP CSV Excel Frame Interval Packet Loss Amount 15

31 4 2 60Mbps Mbps 3s t Mbps 65Mbps Mbps Mbps 0.6 Frame Interval 3ms Frame Interval Frame Interval 23ms 5 Frame Interval Frame Interval 23ms 2 Frame Interval 95Mbps

32 4.1 Frame Interval Frame Interval Frame Interval 23msec Frame Interval 65Mbps Mbps 0.6s t1 65Mbps 5s t Mbps 0.6s t1 95Mbps 5s t1 17

33 Mbps 0.6 Frame Interval 5 Frame Interval Frame Interval Frame Interval Frame Interval Mbps Frame Interval 2ms 50 60Mbps 4.4 Frame Interval 95Mbps 4.1 Frame Interval 18

34 Mbps 5 (4 ) Mbps 60Mbps ( ) 60Mbps Mbps Mbps DVTS RTP Smartbits RTP 19

35 Mbps 5 (4 ) Frame Interval 85Mbps 85Mbps RTP 20

36 Smartbits Frame Interval 4.5 Frame Interval 2 Frame Interval (65Mbps 0.6s t4) OSPF OSPF 21

37 4.4 OSPF Smartbits 4.4 Frame Interval 60Mbps Frame Interval Frame Interval Frame Interval Frame Interval 1. Frame Interval 2. Frame Interval 1 3. Frame Interval Frame Interval Frame Interval 4. 1 Frame Interval 5. Frame Interval 6. Frame Interval 33.3ms 22

38 4.4 Frame Interval Frame Interval 1 Frame Interval Frame Interval 23

39 5 Frame Interval Packet Loss Amount Frame Interval Frame Interval Mbps 90Mbps 5.1 F(i) : Frame Interval Frame Interval F DVTS Frame Interval Fj Fj-F F(i) Fj G : Frame Interval G 24

40 5.1 Q : 1 T p A/p 1 P : Frame Interval R : Frame Interval Frame Interval F(i) G Q P R

41 R R -1 R R R R R R R F(i) G F(i) G G = 53 F (i) (5.1) Frame Interval 26

42 5.4 F(i) Q F(i) Q F(i) Q Q = 3 F (i) (5.2) 1 Frame Interval 27

43 5.5 F(i) p F(i) p F(i) P (5.3) 5 (5.4) 1 P = 5 F (i) (5.3) P F(i) (5 ) 28

44 5.6 F(i) R P = 3 F (i) (5.4) 5.5 (1 ) P F(i) 5.6 F(i) R F(i) R 5.6 R 0.5 F(i) R R = 2 Ln(F (i)) (5.5) 5.7 F(i) G 1 Q Frame Interval R p 29

45 Frame Interval 30

46 6 RTP 6.1 RTCP 31

47 Mbps 90Mbps 5Mbps

48

49 [1] TCP/IP [2] Colin PerKins TCP/IP RTP 2004 [3] QoS 27 pp [4] AV IP 16 pp [5] AV IP [6] DVTS [7] SmartBits [8] Zebra [9] Ethereal [10] Kotaro TAMURA, Kazunori SHIMAMURA,, A study on IP path quality forecasting from the IP pass delay measurements, International Conference Next era Information Networking NEINE 05, pp , [11] Manpage of tcpdump [12] Cygwin

50 A 60Mbps A.1 60Mbps 0.3s t1 A.2 60Mbps 0.3s t2 A.3 60Mbps 0.3s t3 A.4 60Mbps 0.3s t4 35

51 A.5 60Mbps 0.6s t1 A.6 60Mbps 0.6s t2 A.7 60Mbps 0.6s t3 A.8 60Mbps 0.6s t4 A.9 60Mbps 1s t1 A.10 60Mbps 1s t2 A.11 60Mbps 1s t3 A.12 60Mbps 1s t4 36

52 A.13 60Mbps 3s t1 A.14 60Mbps 3s t2 A.15 60Mbps 3s t3 A.16 60Mbps 3s t4 A.17 60Mbps 5s t1 A.18 60Mbps 5s t2 A.19 60Mbps 5s t3 A.20 60Mbps 5s t4 37

53 B 65Mbps B.1 65Mbps 0.3s t1 B.2 65Mbps 0.3s t2 B.3 65Mbps 0.3s t3 B.4 65Mbps 0.3s t4 38

54 B.5 65Mbps 0.6s t1 B.6 65Mbps 0.6s t2 B.7 65Mbps 0.6s t3 B.8 65Mbps 0.6s t4 B.9 65Mbps 1s t1 B.10 65Mbps 1s t2 B.11 65Mbps 1s t3 B.12 65Mbps 1s t4 39

55 図 B.13 65Mbps 3s t1 図 B.14 65Mbps 3s t2 図 B.15 65Mbps 3s t3 図 B.16 65Mbps 3s t4 図 B.17 65Mbps 5s t1 図 B.18 65Mbps 5s t2 図 B.19 65Mbps 5s t3 図 B.20 65Mbps 5s t4 40

56 B.21 65Mbps 5s t3 B.22 65Mbps 5s t4 41

57 C 70Mbps C.1 70Mbps 0.3s t1 C.2 70Mbps 0.3s t2 C.3 70Mbps 0.3s t3 C.4 70Mbps 0.3s t4 42

58 C.5 70Mbps 0.6s t1 C.6 70Mbps 0.6s t2 C.7 70Mbps 0.6s t3 C.8 65Mbps 5s t3 C.9 65Mbps 5s t4 C.10 70Mbps 1s t1 C.11 70Mbps 1s t2 43

59 図 C.12 70Mbps 1s t3 図 C.13 70Mbps 1s t4 図 C.14 70Mbps 3s t1 図 C.15 70Mbps 3s t2 図 C.16 70Mbps 3s t3 図 C.17 70Mbps 3s t4 図 C.18 70Mbps 5s t1 図 C.19 70Mbps 5s t2 44

60 C.20 70Mbps 5s t3 45

61 D 75Mbps D.1 75Mbps 0.3s t1 D.2 75Mbps 0.3s t2 D.3 75Mbps 0.3s t3 D.4 75Mbps 0.3s t4 46

62 D.5 75Mbps 0.6s t1 D.6 75Mbps 0.6s t2 D.7 75Mbps 0.6s t3 D.8 75Mbps 0.6s t4 D.9 75Mbps 1s t1 D.10 75Mbps 1s t2 D.11 75Mbps 1s t3 D.12 75Mbps 1s t4 47

63 D.13 75Mbps 3s t1 D.14 75Mbps 3s t2 D.15 75Mbps 3s t3 D.16 75Mbps 3s t4 D.17 75Mbps 5s t1 D.18 75Mbps 5s t2 48

64 D.19 75Mbps 5s t3 D.20 75Mbps 5s t4 49

65 E 80Mbps E.1 80Mbps 0.3s t1 E.2 80Mbps 0.3s t2 E.3 80Mbps 0.3s t3 E.4 80Mbps 0.3s t4 50

66 E.5 80Mbps 0.6s t1 E.6 80Mbps 0.6s t2 E.7 80Mbps 0.6s t3 E.8 80Mbps 0.6s t4 E.9 80Mbps 1s t1 E.10 80Mbps 1s t2 E.11 80Mbps 1s t3 E.12 80Mbps 1s t4 51

67 E.13 80Mbps 3s t1 E.14 80Mbps 3s t2 E.15 80Mbps 3s t3 E.16 80Mbps 3s t4 E.17 80Mbps 5s t1 E.18 80Mbps 5s t2 52

68 E.19 80Mbps 5s t3 E.20 80Mbps 5s t4 53

69 F 85Mbps F.1 85Mbps 0.3s t1 F.2 85Mbps 0.3s t2 F.3 85Mbps 0.3s t3 F.4 85Mbps 0.3s t4 54

70 F.5 85Mbps 0.6s t1 F.6 85Mbps 0.6s t2 F.7 85Mbps 0.6s t3 F.8 85Mbps 0.6s t4 F.9 85Mbps 1s t1 F.10 85Mbps 1s t2 F.11 85Mbps 1s t3 55

71 図 F.12 85Mbps 3s t1 図 F.13 85Mbps 3s t2 図 F.14 85Mbps 3s t3 図 F.15 85Mbps 3s t4 図 F.16 85Mbps 5s t1 図 F.17 85Mbps 5s t2 図 F.18 85Mbps 5s t3 図 F.19 85Mbps 5s t4 56

72 G 90Mbps G.1 90Mbps 0.3s t1 G.2 90Mbps 0.3s t2 G.3 90Mbps 0.3s t3 G.4 90Mbps 0.3s t4 57

73 G.5 90Mbps 0.6s t1 G.6 90Mbps 0.6s t2 G.7 90Mbps 0.6s t3 G.8 90Mbps 0.6s t4 G.9 90Mbps 1s t1 G.10 90Mbps 1s t2 G.11 90Mbps 1s t3 G.12 90Mbps 1s t4 58

74 図 G.13 90Mbps 3s t1 図 G.14 90Mbps 3s t2 図 G.15 90Mbps 3s t3 図 G.16 90Mbps 3s t4 図 G.17 90Mbps 5s t1 図 G.18 90Mbps 5s t2 図 G.19 90Mbps 5s t3 図 G.20 90Mbps 5s t4 59

75 H 95Mbps H.1 95Mbps 0.3s t1 H.2 95Mbps 0.3s t2 H.3 95Mbps 0.3s t3 H.4 95Mbps 0.3s t4 60

76 H.5 95Mbps 0.6s t1 H.6 95Mbps 0.6s t2 H.7 95Mbps 0.6s t3 H.8 95Mbps 0.6s t4 H.9 95Mbps 1s t1 H.10 95Mbps 1s t2 H.11 95Mbps 1s t3 H.12 95Mbps 1s t4 61

77 図 H.13 95Mbps 3s t1 図 H.14 95Mbps 3s t2 図 H.15 95Mbps 3s t3 図 H.16 95Mbps 5s t1 図 H.17 95Mbps 5s t2 図 H.18 95Mbps 5s t3 図 H.19 95Mbps 5s t4 62

78 I I.1 Shaping( ) CPU I.1 I.1 63

79 I.2 I.2 FIFO(First In First Out) I.2 I.2 64

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