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1 A Study on Traffic Characteristics in Multi-hop Wireless Networks Yoichi Yamasaki ( )

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4 21 Local Area Network (LAN) LAN LAN LAN (AP, Access Point) LAN AP LAN AP AP AP (MWN, Multi-hop Wireless Network) MWN AP MWN MWN MWN MWN (CP, Congestion Propagation) MWN TCP i

5 Master Thesis - Year 2009 A Study on Traffic Characteristics in Multi-hop Wireless Networks Yoichi Yamasaki Abstract Multi-hop Wireless Networks (MWNs) are expected to expand the area of communication networks easier than wired networks because MWNs consist of wireless-enabled nodes. MWNs are actively researched and developed in recent years for building up various networks covering urban and rural areas. However, MWNs still have issues for providing good quality of service. A significant issue is that traffic characteristics on MWNs are not clarified. In this research, therefore, I investigate the traffic characteristics of MWNs based on congestion propagation phenomenon (CP), which has been reported in wired networks, between wireless nodes. Through computer simulations, I show the impact of the CP on network performance in various network parameters. Furthermore, I analyze the developmental process of the CP in MWNs and discuss the method to improve the network performance in MWNs. Keywords: Multi-hop Wireless Network, Congestion Propagation, Transmission Control Protocol ii

6 Tahoe Reno Sack CP ACK Queue Management with Transmission Record iii

7 WAN WMN ACK ACK WAN ACK WMN QMTR iv

8 1 Local Area Network (LAN) LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN 1.1 LAN LAN 1.1 (Multihop Wireless Netrowk MWN) MWN MWN 1

9 1.1: MWN MWN MWN MWN (CP, Congestion Propagation) [1, 2]

10 1.2: CP CP MWN CP 3

11 2 4

12 2.1 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) 2.1 S1 D S2 D D S2 CSMA/CA S1 D S2 CSMA/CA S1 S1 S2 S2 D S1 S2 2 CSMA/CA 2 A B A B CSMA/CA B 5

13 2.1:

14 2.2: MWN [4] 2.3 MWN MWN CP MWN CP 7

15 MWN 2.4 MWN 8

16 3 [5] TCP CPU 9

17 TCP 3.1 TCP Transmission Control Protocol TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP Tahoe Tahoe Reno Selective Acknowledgement(Sack) TCP 10

18 3.1.1 Tahoe TCP (ACK, Acknowledgement) ACK ACK Advertised Window awnd Congestion Window cwnd ACK awnd cwnd Tahoe 2 cwnd ssthreshold ACK 1 cwnd 2 ACK 2 cwnd 4 ACK 4 cwnd 8 ACK cwnd cwnd ssthreshold cwnd ACK 1 cwnd cwnd = segment size segment size cwnd (3.1) segment size cwnd cwnd 11

19 cwnd Tahoe cwnd 1 cwnd ACK TCP Round Trip Time RTT TCP TCP cwnd ACK cwnd 1 ACK 3 4 cwnd 1 Tahoe TCP Reno Sack Reno Reno Tahoe Reno Reno ACK 3 cwnd 12

20 ACK ssthreshold cwnd cwnd = ssthreshold + 3 segment size (3.2) ACK cwnd ACK cwnd 1 ACK cwnd ssthreshold Reno ACK cwnd ssthreshold ACK cwnd 1 ACK ACK Sack Sack Sack[6] TCP Reno Sack Sack Reno Reno Sack Sack 1 13

21 Simplex wired Link 0 N 1 i i 2 i 1 TCP Connection 3.1: ACK 4 Tahoe Reno Sack 3 TCP 3.2 CP[3] [3] CP 3.1 i i 1 TCP 14

22 3.1: 10 TCP 10 [Mb/s] 31 [ms] 300 [packet] 552 [Byte] DropTail TCP Tahoe i i 1 i 1 i CP CP [3] CP 10 [Mb/s] 1 [Mb/s] CP 3 15

23 31 [ms] 55 [ms] 600 [packet] CP CP TCP [s] CP TCP CP TCP CP DropTail Random Early Detection (RED) CP TCP TCP TCP TCP Tahoe TCP Vegas TCP TCP [3] CP CP CP 16

24 4 6 CP CP CP CP TCP ACK TCP CP TCP ACK ACK ACK ACK ACK ACK 17

25 4.2 Queue Management with Transmission Record First In First Out (FIFO) FIFO (QMTR, Queue Management with Transmission Record)

26 5 CP CP CP NS2[7, 8] NS3[9] CP (WAN, Wireless Ad hoc Network) (WMN, Wireless Mesh Network) WAN NS2 (version 2.1b9a with TENS) WMN NS3 (version 3.7) 2 NS-3 (NIC) NS-3 TCP NIC TCP NS2 WAN 19

27 5.1 WAN WMN : IEEE b RTC/CTS TCP 20 [m] DropTail 200 [packet] TCP Sack 1460 [Byte] 5.1 TCP 7 WAN WAN WMN MWN CP 5.2 WMN WMN 20

28 Wireless Link TCP Connection 5.1: WAN WMN WMN 5.1 WAN WMN

29 5.2: WMN TCP 100 [Mb/s] 5 [ms] DropTail 400 [packet] TCP Sack 1460 [Byte] 8 Simplex Wireless Link Duplex Wired Link TCP Connection 5.2: 22

30 6 WAN WMN 6.1 WAN WMN [3] CP WAN WAN CP WAN CP WAN CP 5.1 WAN [3] (a) 6.1(b) TCP

31 6.1(a) 6.1(b) 6.1(a) 6.1(b) Kb/s 6.1(a) CP [3] 6.1(a) 6.1(a) 6.1(b) cwnd (b) 10 WAN 24

32 6.1: WAN [Kb/s]

33 Node number Time [s] (a) Node number Time [s] (b) 6.1: WAN 26

34 B A TCP A B A B ACK B ACK B A TCP C ACK B A C A B ACK ACK 2 A B ACK 0.26 ms B C TCP 1.35 ms ACK Byte ACK 40 Byte B ACK B ACK cwnd ACK ACK cwnd 27

35 6.2: CP CP CP WAN 4 WAN 6.3 TCP 4 TCP 28

36 TCP TCP TCP cwnd 2 cwnd 2 1 TCP cwnd 2 1 TCP cwnd 1 0 TCP cwnd

37 6.3: 0 6.4: 1 30

38 6.5: 2 6.6: 3 31

39 6.1.2 WMN WAN WMN (a) 6.8(b) 6.8(a) CP (b) WAN WMN 6.7 WMN Mb/s 11 Mb/s ACK A S ACK 20 % A B B S ACK S B ACK A S S C ACK B S WAN WMN CP 6.2 WAN 32

40 6.2: WMN [Kb/s] Kb/s WAN 2.3 % 6.7: 33

41 Node number Time [s] (a) Node number Time [s] (b) 6.8: WMN 34

42 6.2 ACK ACK WAN WMN ACK WAN ACK WAN WAN ACK 6.10(a) CP WAN 6.1(a) ACK CP 6.10(b) ACK ACK 100 X 100 X 50 ACK 50 ACK 50 ACK ACK ACK 14.1 % 6.3 ACK ACK ACK WAN CP 35

43 CP 6.3: WAN ACK [Kb/s]

44 Node number Time [s] (a) Node number Time [s] (b) 6.9: ACK WAN 37

45 6.2.2 ACK WMN ACK WMN WMN (a) 6.10(b) 6.10(a) CP WMN 6.8(a) ACK ACK 6.4 ACK 2.1 % 14.3 % ACK CP WAN WMN ACK 38

46 6.4: WMN ACK [Kb/s]

47 Node number Time [s] (a) Node number Time [s] (b) 6.10: ACK WMN 40

48 6.3 QMTR QMTR WMN CP QMTR WMN QMTR 3 5 QMTR QMTR 6.11(a) QMTR (b) (c) QMTR 6.11(b) QMTR 3 87 % 5 QMTR 5 27 % 3 i 6.5: QMTR QMTR

49 6.3.1 i i TCP i s i 3 QMTR i i s QMTR i s 6 1 i s 5 i s i i 5 i s 3 i s 6.11(c) 3 QMTR QMTR (a) 3 CP CP (a) CP CP 5 CP CP 42

50 (a) QMTR (b) 3 QMTR (c) 5 QMTR 6.11: QMTR 43

51 Node number Time [s] (a) Node number Time [s] (b) 6.12: 3 QMTR 44

52 Node number Time [s] (a) Node number Time [s] (b) 6.13: 5 QMTR 45

53 7 MWN, Multi-hop Wireless Network MWN 2 WAN, Wireless Ad hoc Network WMN, Wireless Mesh Network 2 CP, Congestion Propagation MWN CP CP CP ACK QMTR Queue Management with Transmission Record ACK WAN WMN WAN WMN ACK WMN ACK 2.1 % 46

54 QMTR WMN 3 87 % 5 CP CP 87 % QMTR QMTR 47

55 48

56 [1] K. Fukuda, H. Takayasu, and M. Takayasu, Spatial and temporal behavior of congestion in Internet traffic, Fractals, vol. 7, no. 1, pp , Mar [2] J. Steger, P. Vaderna, and G. Vattay, On the propagation of congestion waves in the Internet, Physica A, vol. 359, pp , Jan [3] K. Sugiyama, H. Ohsaki, and M. Imase, Congestion propagation among routers in the Internet, SPECTS 2007, pp , Jul [4] A. Raniwala and T. Chiueh, Architecture and algorithms for an IEEE based multi-channel wireless mesh network, Proc. IEEE INFOCOM2005, pp , Mar [5] A. Tanenbaum( ), ( ), 4, BP,, [6] M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, and A. Romanow, TCP selective acknowledgement options, IETF RFC2018, Oct [7] Network Simulator2, [8] The Enhanced Network Simulator (TENS), [9] Network Simulator3, 49

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