Table 1. Main specifications of VAD plant. Fig. 2. Typical operating pattern of low alloy steel.

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1 UDC : On the Operations of LD-VAD Process and Product Qualities Takaharu MORIYA and Masanori TAWARA Synopsis: VAD (Vacuum Arc Degassing) plant is characterized by 3-phase AC are heating under reduced pressure while Ar gas is injucted by a porous plug set at the bottom of ladle. Thus alloying, desulphurizing, oxygen reduction and dehydrogenation can be made easily and sufficiently. For instance, the sulphur concentration can be easily achieved to less than 0.005%, the oxygen level of the slab of low alloy steels ranges between 10 and 35 ppm, and, the hydrogen in the molten steel after degassing is 1.5 ppm on an average. At Kure Works, high grade carbon steels and low alloy steels, such as structural steels, tool steels and bearing steels, and extra low carbon steels (carbon concentration is less than 0.005%) are produced economically by this plant from the molten steel of LD converters. This paper describes the techniques procedure for manufacturing these steels by this LD-VAD process. Fig. 1. Outline of VAD plant.

2 Table 1. Main specifications of VAD plant. Fig. 2. Typical operating pattern of low alloy steel.

3 Fig. 3. Operating pattern of extra low carbon steel. Fig. 4. Change of O during VAD treatment. Fig. 5. Relation between C and O during VAD treatment.

4 Fig. 6. Change of N during VAD treatment. Fig. 8. Change of (%CaO)/(%SiO2), (%FeO) and (%S)/%S during VAD treatment. Fig. 7. Effect of final degassing time on H in mold.

5 Fig. 10. Relation between C and time for vacuum decarburizing. Fig. 11. Relation between C and O for vacuum decarburizing. Fig. 12. Relation between (%T. Fe) and time for vacuum decarburizing.

6 Table 2. Cost ratio of VAD treatment. Fig. 13. Theoretical and observed C-(dC/dt)Ar, -(dc/dt)f as function of time for vacuum decarburizing5). Table 3. Comparison of residual component, microcleanliness and number of inclusions of SCM4 slabs produced by VAD and electric furnace.

7 Table 4. Comparison of residual component, microcleanliness and mechanical properties of extra low carbon steel sheets produced by VAD and decarburization annealing.

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