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29 A Cluster Analysis of the Fishery Households' Strategies of Subsistence in Prewar Japan: Nii Village on the Tango Peninsula IMAZATO Satoshi This paper discusses the historical changes in multiple livelihoods as well as types of subsistence strategies of households in a fixed-net fishing village on the Tango Peninsula, western Japan, focusing mainly on the period prior to World War II. The author analyzed historical documents kept in the Nii fishery village and complemented them by interviews with aged residents. The paper focuses on the village's income derived from such livelihoods as agriculture, fishing and side jobs during the following four periods: the Taisho era ( ), the early Showa era ( ), the postwar period ( ), and the period following high economic growth (from 1973 on). Through these perio(ls, the amount of fishing income accounted for about sixty to seventy percent of the total income in the village, except for in the early Showa era. During this era, which was heavily influenced by the Showa Agricultural Collapse and a poor fishery catch for the peninsula, both sericulture and fishing income fell by half. To overcome these difficulties, villagers tried many side jobs, for which the share of income increased to over twenty percent. This situation in the early Showa era shows most clearly the households' strategies for survival in modern fishery villages. The cluster analysis of a tax register classifies the households' subsistence strategies in this era into eight types. The higher income class can be divided into the following four types: A) a local. official with farming; B) farming and fishing with seasonal labor migrants; C) boat crew work and seasonal labor migrants;' and D) farming with diversified jobs. The middle income households can be classified into two types as follows: E) employed fisherman with diversified jobs and F) full-time farming. The lower income class is also divided into two types: G) seasonal labor migrant with boat crew work arid H) petty diversified subsistence. Results of the study show that residents of every household in Nii have attempted to adopt maximum benefit strategies under both economic and natural handicapped conditions in the village as well as over the entire Tango Peninsula. KEYWORDS: multiple livelihoods subsistence strategy fixed-net fishing village Tango Peninsula cluster analysis

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