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1

2 ( )

3 S V

4 P 13 P 1418 P 1926 P 2736 P 3738 P 3946 so that P 4749 too to P 5052 P 5359 P 6065 P 6674 P 7579 P 8084 P 8597 P P P P132136

5 1 have has havehas havehas have has has have

6 2 havehas S V I have studied English.

7 S V I have lived in Japan for three years. S V Tom has been here since yesterday. live in Japan 3

8 for three years for been be be be S V We have been busy for a week. since yesterday since since from for since

9 He lived in Nagano last year. He lives in Nagano. 5

10 5 He has lived in Nagano since last year. live in Japan live 6

11 Yuka became sick last week. She is still sick now. Yuka sick last week. John came to Japan two years ago. He lives in Japan now. John in Japan two years. 6 Yuka has stilled still 7

12 became(become) is(be) Yuka became sick last week. She is still sick now. been since last week 4 Yuka has been sick since last week. live two years for for since John has lived in Japan for two years. 8

13 havehas S V 0 You have studied English for a long time. V S Have you studied English for a long time? S V S V Yes, I have. No, I haven t. 9

14 V S How long have you lived in Japan? S V I haven t used this computer. 0 You have studied English for a long time. Have you studied English for a long time? be have Do you have? has Ken has been busy since last week. Has Ken been busy since last week? 10

15 have have haven t have not Has Ken been busy since last week? Yes, he has. No, he hasn t. hasn t has not haven t (have not)has n t (has not) how long long Kumi has lived in Tokyo for five years. for five years How long How long has Kumi lived in Tokyo? do(es)n t havehas not 11

16 12 have(has) have(has) 9 have(has) S I have lived in Japan have(has) have (has)

17 You have a book. [ ] Do you have a book? [ ] You don t have a book. havehas [ ] Have you a book? [ ] You haven t a book. have(has) have(has) (><) 13

18 have S V We have already cleaned the room. S V I have just finished my homework. S V Mother has already made dinner. 14

19 V S Have you read the book yet? S V Ken has not written the letter yet. have just already just already 15

20 16 finish ing yet already written write

21 1416 (already / at / we / arrived / have) Tokyo Station. (breakfast / yet / have / had / you)? alreadyyet alreadyjust have yet alreadyyet We have (arrived) already have 17

22 at at Tokyo Station We have already arrived at Tokyo Station. have had have had have Have you yet Have you had breakfast yet? 18

23 S V I have eaten caviare once. S V They have visited Nara three times. V S Have you ever read this book? 19

24 S V She has never seen Tom. S V I have been to Canada. three times once twice times ( three times four times) 20

25 21 ever never have been to go go gone been be 19

26 I saw the bird. I the bird. He read this book. He this book. You used the computer. you the computer? Mr Green went to Kyoto. Mr Green to Kyoto. see seen have once I have seen the bird once. he has read read never 22

27 He has never read this book. Haveuse used ever evernever Have you ever used the computer? has been 21 went go Mr Green has been to Kyoto. 23

28 24 for since How long? just already yet times ever never

29 25 24 I have studied French. French I have studied French.

30 26